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1
Nano-gold for Cancer Therapy
SUBMITTED BY
NAME: SIVAVINAYAK P.K
CLASS & SEC: XII-B
REG.NO:
2
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I wish to express my heartfelt thanks to our principal Mrs.Pushpaveni Ayyappan, for her
kind support to do my project. I extend my hearty thanks to my chemistry teacher/s
_____________________________________ and who guided me to the successful
completion of this project.
I take this opportunity to express my deep sense of gratitude for their constant
encouragement, constructive comments and immense motivation which has sustained my
efforts at all stages of this project work. I also thank my lab assistant for kind
cooperation. Finally, I thank my parents and my friends for their kind support,
encouragement and help for the completion of this project.
(NAME OF THE STUDENT)
3
CERTIFICATE
This is certify that, the project work entitled ______________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________ is a bonafide work done by the candidate
_____________________________________________________of class XII Section _________ has been submitted for
Secondary School Practical Examination held in the subject CHEMISTRY at Pushpalata Vidya Mandir
Senior Secondary School, Tirunelveli – 11 during the academic year 202___ to 202____.
Signature of the Teacher Signature of the Principal
School Seal
Date :
Place :
Signature of the Internal Examiner Signature of the External Examiner
(With No. & Date) (With No. & Date)
4
INDEX
S.NO CONTENTS PAGE NO
1 INTRODUCTION
5
1.1 WHAT IS NANO GOLD?
6
1.2 TYPES OF NANO GOLD
7
2 HISTORY
8
3 THERAPY EXPERIMENTS
10
3.1 EXPERIMENT ON NANO GOLD ABSORBS
WAVELENGTHS 11
3.2 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF
RIGHT SIZE OF NANO GOLD 14
3.3 EXPERIMENT TO DETERMINE THE
SIZE OF NANO GOLD TO INJECT IN
OUR BODY
16
4 NANO GOLD IN REAL LIFE
18
5 BIBLIOGRAPHY
20
5
1.INTRODUCTION
A new method of cancer treatment using gold-
coated silica nanoparticles could someday help
patients say goodbye to the side effects of
chemotherapy and radiation. By engineering
the size of the Nano-gold, scientists tune the
particles to absorb light from infrared lasers
and destroy a tumor.
gold-coated silica nanoparticles
6
1.1 WHAT IS NANO GOLD?
Nano gold is another name for gold
nanoparticles. These nanoparticles are a
fraction of the size of human hair and are
less than 100 nm in diameter. Nano gold
particles are so small that they are generally
found as a colloidal solution, which means
that the gold nanoparticles are suspended in
a liquid buffer. Therefore, Nano gold or gold
nanoparticles are also called colloidal gold.
7
1.2 TYPES OF NANO GOLD:
There are many subtypes of gold
nanoparticles based on the size, shape, and
physical properties. The earliest studied
gold nanoparticles are gold Nano spheres
(although not exactly spherical).
Subsequently, Nano rods, Nano shells, and
Nano cages have all been reported.
8
2)HISTORY
Below is a brief history on Nano Gold
starting from 4th century to Modern Era.
1. As a method of staining glass, colloidal
gold was used in the 4th-century
Lycurgus Cup, which changes color
depending on the location of light source.
2. Medieval artisans were the first
Nanotechnologists. They made stained
glass by mixing gold chloride into molten
glass. They created tiny gold spheres,
which reflected and absorbed sunlight in
a way that produced a variety of colors.
3. Modern scientific evaluation of colloidal
gold did not begin until Michael
Faraday's work in the 1850s.1856, in a
basement laboratory of Royal Institution,
Faraday accidentally He prepared the
9
first pure sample of colloidal gold, which
he called 'activated gold`.
4. In1898, Theodor Svedberg, who invented
ultracentrifugation, and Gustav Mie, who
provided the theory for scattering and
absorption by spherical particles, were
also interested in the synthesis and
properties of colloidal gold.
10
3. THERAPY EXPERIMENTS
In order to understand how the radiation
absorbing properties of Nano-gold can help
in destroying tumors we will go through
following three experiments.
11
3.1 Experiment on Nano gold absorbs
wavelengths
3.1.1 Materials -
 Vial of red Nano-gold suspension
 (Spheres, 12 nm diameter)
 Vial of pink Nano-gold suspension
(spheres, 80 nm diameter)
 Vial of blue Nano-gold suspension (rods,
25 nm axis x 47 nm length)
 Vial of water with yellow food coloring
 Magnet board
3.1.2 Procedure
 Lay the magnet board flat and set up the
four different vials on top.
12
 The substances the solution is composed
of are not to be named to the participant
and they should be made to guess which
vial/vials contain Nano-gold particles.
3.1.3 Observation –
 The participant will likely have
guessed the vial with yellow colored
water to contain the Nano-gold.
3.1.4 Conclusion –
 The vial with yellow food coloring
does not contain gold; small
differences in size can cause the Nano
particles to absorb different
wavelengths of light and appear
different colors.
13
 These colors range from red to blue
depending on size (red is smallest,
blue is largest).
14
3.2 Experiment on Determination
of right size of Nano gold
3.2.1 Materials –
 Flask of red colored water
 Flask of pink colored water
 Flask of blue colored water Red, green,
and LED flashlights.
3.2.2 Procedure –
 The participant is to stick out their
thumb and hold each flashlight against
the tip of the thumb to see which
colored light will pass through.
15
3.2.3 Observations –
 The red light passes through.
 Green and blue lights are blocked.
3.2.4 Conclusion –
 This indicates that red is the right
wavelength of light to do cancer therapy
as it can pass through body tissue.
16
3.3 Experiment to determine the size of
Nano gold to inject in our body
3.3.1 Materials -
 Vial of red Nano-gold suspension
(spheres, 12 nm diameter)
 Vial of pink Nano-gold suspension
(spheres, 80 nm diameter)
 Vial of blue Nano-gold suspension
(rods, 25 nm axis x 47 nm length)
 Magnet board
 Red LED flashlight
3.3.2 Procedure -
 Once again, lay the magnet board flat and
set up the three different vials on top.
 The participant must shine the red light
through the side of each flask and note
whether the beam of light can pass
through the liquid and hit the magnet
board.
17
3.3.3 Observations –
 The red light passes through the red and
pink solutions.
 The red light is absorbed by the blue
solution.
3.3.4Conclusion –
 This indicates that blue Nano-gold is the
correct particle size to use for cancer
therapy.
18
4. NANO GOLD IN REAL LIFE
1. The properties of gold also include
changes in optical absorption that result
in a spectrum of colors based on particle
size.
2. The gold particles used for this cancer
therapy are called “Nano shells” because
they are actually spherical nanoparticles
of silica that are covered in a coating of
gold.
3. The thickness of the gold coating is tuned
to absorb the correct wavelength of light.
4. When Nano shells are injected into the
bloodstream, they infiltrate tumors but
not normal tissue. A reason for this is that
tumors are inherently “leakier” than
normal tissue because the junctions
between tumor cells are not as tight.
19
5. This can be further enhanced by attaching
antibodies to the Nano shells that match
proteins expressed by tumor cells but not
healthy cells.
6. Eventually, the Nano shells will be filtered
out by the kidneys and naturally removed
from the body.
20
5. BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Seminarsonly.com
2. mrsec.psu.edu
3. https://en.wikipedia.org/
4. https://www.frontiersin.org/
5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
6. https://www.genengnews.com/

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Nano-gold for Cancer Therapy chemistry investigatory project

  • 1. 1 Nano-gold for Cancer Therapy SUBMITTED BY NAME: SIVAVINAYAK P.K CLASS & SEC: XII-B REG.NO:
  • 2. 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to express my heartfelt thanks to our principal Mrs.Pushpaveni Ayyappan, for her kind support to do my project. I extend my hearty thanks to my chemistry teacher/s _____________________________________ and who guided me to the successful completion of this project. I take this opportunity to express my deep sense of gratitude for their constant encouragement, constructive comments and immense motivation which has sustained my efforts at all stages of this project work. I also thank my lab assistant for kind cooperation. Finally, I thank my parents and my friends for their kind support, encouragement and help for the completion of this project. (NAME OF THE STUDENT)
  • 3. 3 CERTIFICATE This is certify that, the project work entitled ______________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ is a bonafide work done by the candidate _____________________________________________________of class XII Section _________ has been submitted for Secondary School Practical Examination held in the subject CHEMISTRY at Pushpalata Vidya Mandir Senior Secondary School, Tirunelveli – 11 during the academic year 202___ to 202____. Signature of the Teacher Signature of the Principal School Seal Date : Place : Signature of the Internal Examiner Signature of the External Examiner (With No. & Date) (With No. & Date)
  • 4. 4 INDEX S.NO CONTENTS PAGE NO 1 INTRODUCTION 5 1.1 WHAT IS NANO GOLD? 6 1.2 TYPES OF NANO GOLD 7 2 HISTORY 8 3 THERAPY EXPERIMENTS 10 3.1 EXPERIMENT ON NANO GOLD ABSORBS WAVELENGTHS 11 3.2 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF RIGHT SIZE OF NANO GOLD 14 3.3 EXPERIMENT TO DETERMINE THE SIZE OF NANO GOLD TO INJECT IN OUR BODY 16 4 NANO GOLD IN REAL LIFE 18 5 BIBLIOGRAPHY 20
  • 5. 5 1.INTRODUCTION A new method of cancer treatment using gold- coated silica nanoparticles could someday help patients say goodbye to the side effects of chemotherapy and radiation. By engineering the size of the Nano-gold, scientists tune the particles to absorb light from infrared lasers and destroy a tumor. gold-coated silica nanoparticles
  • 6. 6 1.1 WHAT IS NANO GOLD? Nano gold is another name for gold nanoparticles. These nanoparticles are a fraction of the size of human hair and are less than 100 nm in diameter. Nano gold particles are so small that they are generally found as a colloidal solution, which means that the gold nanoparticles are suspended in a liquid buffer. Therefore, Nano gold or gold nanoparticles are also called colloidal gold.
  • 7. 7 1.2 TYPES OF NANO GOLD: There are many subtypes of gold nanoparticles based on the size, shape, and physical properties. The earliest studied gold nanoparticles are gold Nano spheres (although not exactly spherical). Subsequently, Nano rods, Nano shells, and Nano cages have all been reported.
  • 8. 8 2)HISTORY Below is a brief history on Nano Gold starting from 4th century to Modern Era. 1. As a method of staining glass, colloidal gold was used in the 4th-century Lycurgus Cup, which changes color depending on the location of light source. 2. Medieval artisans were the first Nanotechnologists. They made stained glass by mixing gold chloride into molten glass. They created tiny gold spheres, which reflected and absorbed sunlight in a way that produced a variety of colors. 3. Modern scientific evaluation of colloidal gold did not begin until Michael Faraday's work in the 1850s.1856, in a basement laboratory of Royal Institution, Faraday accidentally He prepared the
  • 9. 9 first pure sample of colloidal gold, which he called 'activated gold`. 4. In1898, Theodor Svedberg, who invented ultracentrifugation, and Gustav Mie, who provided the theory for scattering and absorption by spherical particles, were also interested in the synthesis and properties of colloidal gold.
  • 10. 10 3. THERAPY EXPERIMENTS In order to understand how the radiation absorbing properties of Nano-gold can help in destroying tumors we will go through following three experiments.
  • 11. 11 3.1 Experiment on Nano gold absorbs wavelengths 3.1.1 Materials -  Vial of red Nano-gold suspension  (Spheres, 12 nm diameter)  Vial of pink Nano-gold suspension (spheres, 80 nm diameter)  Vial of blue Nano-gold suspension (rods, 25 nm axis x 47 nm length)  Vial of water with yellow food coloring  Magnet board 3.1.2 Procedure  Lay the magnet board flat and set up the four different vials on top.
  • 12. 12  The substances the solution is composed of are not to be named to the participant and they should be made to guess which vial/vials contain Nano-gold particles. 3.1.3 Observation –  The participant will likely have guessed the vial with yellow colored water to contain the Nano-gold. 3.1.4 Conclusion –  The vial with yellow food coloring does not contain gold; small differences in size can cause the Nano particles to absorb different wavelengths of light and appear different colors.
  • 13. 13  These colors range from red to blue depending on size (red is smallest, blue is largest).
  • 14. 14 3.2 Experiment on Determination of right size of Nano gold 3.2.1 Materials –  Flask of red colored water  Flask of pink colored water  Flask of blue colored water Red, green, and LED flashlights. 3.2.2 Procedure –  The participant is to stick out their thumb and hold each flashlight against the tip of the thumb to see which colored light will pass through.
  • 15. 15 3.2.3 Observations –  The red light passes through.  Green and blue lights are blocked. 3.2.4 Conclusion –  This indicates that red is the right wavelength of light to do cancer therapy as it can pass through body tissue.
  • 16. 16 3.3 Experiment to determine the size of Nano gold to inject in our body 3.3.1 Materials -  Vial of red Nano-gold suspension (spheres, 12 nm diameter)  Vial of pink Nano-gold suspension (spheres, 80 nm diameter)  Vial of blue Nano-gold suspension (rods, 25 nm axis x 47 nm length)  Magnet board  Red LED flashlight 3.3.2 Procedure -  Once again, lay the magnet board flat and set up the three different vials on top.  The participant must shine the red light through the side of each flask and note whether the beam of light can pass through the liquid and hit the magnet board.
  • 17. 17 3.3.3 Observations –  The red light passes through the red and pink solutions.  The red light is absorbed by the blue solution. 3.3.4Conclusion –  This indicates that blue Nano-gold is the correct particle size to use for cancer therapy.
  • 18. 18 4. NANO GOLD IN REAL LIFE 1. The properties of gold also include changes in optical absorption that result in a spectrum of colors based on particle size. 2. The gold particles used for this cancer therapy are called “Nano shells” because they are actually spherical nanoparticles of silica that are covered in a coating of gold. 3. The thickness of the gold coating is tuned to absorb the correct wavelength of light. 4. When Nano shells are injected into the bloodstream, they infiltrate tumors but not normal tissue. A reason for this is that tumors are inherently “leakier” than normal tissue because the junctions between tumor cells are not as tight.
  • 19. 19 5. This can be further enhanced by attaching antibodies to the Nano shells that match proteins expressed by tumor cells but not healthy cells. 6. Eventually, the Nano shells will be filtered out by the kidneys and naturally removed from the body.
  • 20. 20 5. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Seminarsonly.com 2. mrsec.psu.edu 3. https://en.wikipedia.org/ 4. https://www.frontiersin.org/ 5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ 6. https://www.genengnews.com/