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K.S.RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY
(Autonomous)
Tiruchengode – 637 215
DEPARTMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
Project Work Phase – II
Date:
Formulation of Banana peel membrane to counteract
fungal contamination in air-conditioned airflow
K S RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY 1
Presented by
Nagarjun V (Reg.No.: 73772023125)
B.Tech. Final year
Department of Biotechnology
K. S. Rangasamy College of Technology
Tiruchengode.
Under the Guidance of
Mr.S.Kaleeswaran
Assistant professor
Department of Biotechnology
K. S. Rangasamy College of Technology
Tiruchengode.
05.02.24
Introduction
• Air conditioners (Acs) have become a ubiquitous feature in modern
buildings, providing a comfortable indoor environment throughout the year.
• However, the use of Acs also leads to an increase in indoor airborne
microorganisms (IABMs), as these organisms find the the conducive indoor
environment to be an ideal breeding ground.
• This in turn can lead to degraded indoor air quality, which is a health
concern.
• The effect of indoor air quality on human health is often referred to as sick
building syndrome (SBS), and the presence of IABMs is a significant
contributing factor to this issue.
K S RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF
TECHNOLOGY
2
• This can help in preventing the development of more severe conditions
such as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis/mycosis (ABPA/ABPM).
• Healthcare professionals should consider this risk, particularly for patients
with severe asthma and those using high-dose inhaled corticosteroids, and
take steps to minimize exposure to fungi.
• Additionally, early detection and intervention can help prevent the
progression of these conditions and reduce the need for long-term systemic
corticosteroid treatment.
K S RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF
TECHNOLOGY
3
Contd.
Objectives
• Collection of banana peel wastes.
• Formulation of a using banana peel and chitosan.
• Studing the anti-microbial activity of banana peel membrane
• Characterization of banana peel membrane using SEM.
• Mitigating fungal contamination by replacing AC membranes
with banana peel membreanes.
K S RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF
TECHNOLOGY
4
K S RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF
TECHNOLOGY
5
Proposed Work / Methodology
Collection of Banana Peel wastes
Processing of Banana Peels Powder
Synthesis of Membrane using Banana Peels Powder
Characterization of banana peel membrane using SEM
1
2
3
4
Materials and Methods
Collection of Banana Peel wastes :
Banana Peel wastes have been collected, washed with water to remove dirt,
and cut into small pieces and then dried in an oven at 120°C for 24 hours.
Processing of Banana Peels Powder :
• After drying, the banana peel is ground with micro milling.
• Then the skin is crushed and sifted so that the particle size remains stable.
• Store at banana peel powder at room temperature in a plastic container
until it is used.
K S RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF
TECHNOLOGY
6
• Prepared as much as 1 gram of chitosan powder, dissolved in 2% acetic
acid solution and stirred for 4 hours at room temperature.
• Prepared 1 ml of glycerol and added as a crosslinker and plasticizer.
• Chitosan solution was put into Teflon mold and mixed with banana
peel powder with different concentrations dried at 40°C for 24 hours to
evaporate the solvent and form a membrane.
• The prepared membrane is gently peeled, and further dried by keeping
the oven 40°C for 4 hours.
K S RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF
TECHNOLOGY
7
Synthesis of Membrane using Chitosan and Banana Peels Powder :
Contd.
Results and discussion
FIGURE 1 : Membrane at 0%
concentration of Banana peel
powder
8
FIGURE 2 : Membrane at 1%
concentration of Banana peel
powder
• To give a better sight, the membrane dressing sample were depicted in Figure 1 and
Figure 2.
• Figure 1 shows the Membrane formed at 0 % concentration of Banana peel powder.
• Figure 2 shows the Membrane formed at 1 % concentration of Banana peel powder.
• The obtained banana peel membrane were treated with different
solvents to check for their solubility nature.
• Well dried banana peel membrane were cut into pieces and
treated with different polar, non -polar solvents and with acid.
• Methanol and Ethanol were taken under polar solvents.
• Benzene was taken under non-polar solvent and H2SO4 were
took under strong acid.
• The obtained banana peel membrane were subjected to solubility
test and their results were shown in Table 1.
K S RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF
TECHNOLOGY
9
Solubility Test
Table 1 : Solubility test
K S RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF
TECHNOLOGY
10
Solvents Used Solubility Test
Insoluble Partially Soluble Soluble
Methanol + - -
Ethanol + - -
Benzene - + -
H2SO4 - - +
• Swelling test were carried out to analyse whether the obtained banana
peel membrane retain the original properties.
• Well dried banana peel membrane were weighed and immersed in
different solvents such as Chloroform, Methanol and Water at 37°C for 2
hours, for every 20 minutes the soaked banana peel membrane pieces
were dried and weighed.
• Swelling test results are shown in Figure 3.
K S RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF
TECHNOLOGY
11
Figure 3. Swelling test
Swelling Test
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Swelling
Ratio
(%)
Time (in mins)
Swelling Test
WATER CHLOROFORM METHANOL
• Soil burial test was carried to
understand the degradation rate of
banana peel membrane. Glass beakers
are filled with soil and a piece of pre
weighed banana peel membrane 3CM
X 3CM in size was placed into the
glass beakers.
• These beakers are undisturbed for 2
weeks and its weight loss was
measured periodically once in 5 days.
K S RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF
TECHNOLOGY
12
Degradability Test
Figure 4. Degradability test result
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0 5 10 15 20 25
Weight
(in
grams)
Days
• Figure 5 shows the agar medium with S. aureus after receiving membrane.
• The clear zone formed shows no growth of Staphylococcus aureusbacteria
around the well.
• Banana peel membrane diffuses on the well and is able to form a clear zone
which indicates a reaction to inhibit the growth of Stapyloccus aureus bacteria
or as an antibacterial.
• Chitosan-banana peel powder dressing membrane showed higher activity
against Staphylococcus aureus strains (gram positive bacteria).
K S RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF
TECHNOLOGY
13
Antibacterial Activity
Figure 5 : Effect of antibacterial activity of Membrane of chitosan and
Banana peel powder on Staphylococcus aureus.
K S RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF
TECHNOLOGY
14
• Aspergillus niger showed the highest prevalence in the current study, thus it was
used as an indicator to evaluate the antifungal activity of banana peel membrane.
• The antifungal activity results showed that banana peel had no antifungal effect
against Aspergillus niger.
K S RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF
TECHNOLOGY
15
Antifungal Activity
Figure 6 : Effect of antifungal activity of Membrane of chitosan and Banana
peel powder on Aspergillus niger.
K S RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF
TECHNOLOGY
16
SEM Images
Figure 7. SEM Image of Banana peel powder. Figure 8. SEM Image of Banana peel
membrane at 0% concentration.
Figure 7. shows the SEM morphological structure of banana skin powder
particles. The particle size is in the range of 20-80 μm in length and 20-30 μm
in width.
Conclusion
• The chitosan affects gram negative and positive but rather like
argumentative effects, some findings indicate more effectiveness against
gram negative compared to gram positive.
• The current study gave hopeful results to use banana peel membrane as
antifungal agents against indoor aerobiological pollution, and air
conditioner contamination.
• The antifungal activity of banana peel membrane was reported by several
studies, the effectiveness of the membrane has also been demonstrated
against many bacterial and fungal isolates from various sources.
K S RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF
TECHNOLOGY
17
Thank you
K S RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY 18

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Nagarjun final_review_ppt.pptx

  • 1. K.S.RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY (Autonomous) Tiruchengode – 637 215 DEPARTMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY Project Work Phase – II Date: Formulation of Banana peel membrane to counteract fungal contamination in air-conditioned airflow K S RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY 1 Presented by Nagarjun V (Reg.No.: 73772023125) B.Tech. Final year Department of Biotechnology K. S. Rangasamy College of Technology Tiruchengode. Under the Guidance of Mr.S.Kaleeswaran Assistant professor Department of Biotechnology K. S. Rangasamy College of Technology Tiruchengode. 05.02.24
  • 2. Introduction • Air conditioners (Acs) have become a ubiquitous feature in modern buildings, providing a comfortable indoor environment throughout the year. • However, the use of Acs also leads to an increase in indoor airborne microorganisms (IABMs), as these organisms find the the conducive indoor environment to be an ideal breeding ground. • This in turn can lead to degraded indoor air quality, which is a health concern. • The effect of indoor air quality on human health is often referred to as sick building syndrome (SBS), and the presence of IABMs is a significant contributing factor to this issue. K S RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY 2
  • 3. • This can help in preventing the development of more severe conditions such as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis/mycosis (ABPA/ABPM). • Healthcare professionals should consider this risk, particularly for patients with severe asthma and those using high-dose inhaled corticosteroids, and take steps to minimize exposure to fungi. • Additionally, early detection and intervention can help prevent the progression of these conditions and reduce the need for long-term systemic corticosteroid treatment. K S RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY 3 Contd.
  • 4. Objectives • Collection of banana peel wastes. • Formulation of a using banana peel and chitosan. • Studing the anti-microbial activity of banana peel membrane • Characterization of banana peel membrane using SEM. • Mitigating fungal contamination by replacing AC membranes with banana peel membreanes. K S RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY 4
  • 5. K S RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY 5 Proposed Work / Methodology Collection of Banana Peel wastes Processing of Banana Peels Powder Synthesis of Membrane using Banana Peels Powder Characterization of banana peel membrane using SEM 1 2 3 4
  • 6. Materials and Methods Collection of Banana Peel wastes : Banana Peel wastes have been collected, washed with water to remove dirt, and cut into small pieces and then dried in an oven at 120°C for 24 hours. Processing of Banana Peels Powder : • After drying, the banana peel is ground with micro milling. • Then the skin is crushed and sifted so that the particle size remains stable. • Store at banana peel powder at room temperature in a plastic container until it is used. K S RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY 6
  • 7. • Prepared as much as 1 gram of chitosan powder, dissolved in 2% acetic acid solution and stirred for 4 hours at room temperature. • Prepared 1 ml of glycerol and added as a crosslinker and plasticizer. • Chitosan solution was put into Teflon mold and mixed with banana peel powder with different concentrations dried at 40°C for 24 hours to evaporate the solvent and form a membrane. • The prepared membrane is gently peeled, and further dried by keeping the oven 40°C for 4 hours. K S RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY 7 Synthesis of Membrane using Chitosan and Banana Peels Powder : Contd.
  • 8. Results and discussion FIGURE 1 : Membrane at 0% concentration of Banana peel powder 8 FIGURE 2 : Membrane at 1% concentration of Banana peel powder • To give a better sight, the membrane dressing sample were depicted in Figure 1 and Figure 2. • Figure 1 shows the Membrane formed at 0 % concentration of Banana peel powder. • Figure 2 shows the Membrane formed at 1 % concentration of Banana peel powder.
  • 9. • The obtained banana peel membrane were treated with different solvents to check for their solubility nature. • Well dried banana peel membrane were cut into pieces and treated with different polar, non -polar solvents and with acid. • Methanol and Ethanol were taken under polar solvents. • Benzene was taken under non-polar solvent and H2SO4 were took under strong acid. • The obtained banana peel membrane were subjected to solubility test and their results were shown in Table 1. K S RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY 9 Solubility Test
  • 10. Table 1 : Solubility test K S RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY 10 Solvents Used Solubility Test Insoluble Partially Soluble Soluble Methanol + - - Ethanol + - - Benzene - + - H2SO4 - - +
  • 11. • Swelling test were carried out to analyse whether the obtained banana peel membrane retain the original properties. • Well dried banana peel membrane were weighed and immersed in different solvents such as Chloroform, Methanol and Water at 37°C for 2 hours, for every 20 minutes the soaked banana peel membrane pieces were dried and weighed. • Swelling test results are shown in Figure 3. K S RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY 11 Figure 3. Swelling test Swelling Test 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Swelling Ratio (%) Time (in mins) Swelling Test WATER CHLOROFORM METHANOL
  • 12. • Soil burial test was carried to understand the degradation rate of banana peel membrane. Glass beakers are filled with soil and a piece of pre weighed banana peel membrane 3CM X 3CM in size was placed into the glass beakers. • These beakers are undisturbed for 2 weeks and its weight loss was measured periodically once in 5 days. K S RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY 12 Degradability Test Figure 4. Degradability test result 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0 5 10 15 20 25 Weight (in grams) Days
  • 13. • Figure 5 shows the agar medium with S. aureus after receiving membrane. • The clear zone formed shows no growth of Staphylococcus aureusbacteria around the well. • Banana peel membrane diffuses on the well and is able to form a clear zone which indicates a reaction to inhibit the growth of Stapyloccus aureus bacteria or as an antibacterial. • Chitosan-banana peel powder dressing membrane showed higher activity against Staphylococcus aureus strains (gram positive bacteria). K S RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY 13 Antibacterial Activity
  • 14. Figure 5 : Effect of antibacterial activity of Membrane of chitosan and Banana peel powder on Staphylococcus aureus. K S RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY 14
  • 15. • Aspergillus niger showed the highest prevalence in the current study, thus it was used as an indicator to evaluate the antifungal activity of banana peel membrane. • The antifungal activity results showed that banana peel had no antifungal effect against Aspergillus niger. K S RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY 15 Antifungal Activity Figure 6 : Effect of antifungal activity of Membrane of chitosan and Banana peel powder on Aspergillus niger.
  • 16. K S RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY 16 SEM Images Figure 7. SEM Image of Banana peel powder. Figure 8. SEM Image of Banana peel membrane at 0% concentration. Figure 7. shows the SEM morphological structure of banana skin powder particles. The particle size is in the range of 20-80 μm in length and 20-30 μm in width.
  • 17. Conclusion • The chitosan affects gram negative and positive but rather like argumentative effects, some findings indicate more effectiveness against gram negative compared to gram positive. • The current study gave hopeful results to use banana peel membrane as antifungal agents against indoor aerobiological pollution, and air conditioner contamination. • The antifungal activity of banana peel membrane was reported by several studies, the effectiveness of the membrane has also been demonstrated against many bacterial and fungal isolates from various sources. K S RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY 17
  • 18. Thank you K S RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY 18