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RIBONUCLEIC ACID
(RNA)
By
N.Santhosh Kumar
Asst.Professor
Department of Biochemistry
SIMS & RH
 Polymer of ribonucleotides held together by 3’,5’ –phosphodiester
bridges
Components;
Base ; Purines – A & G
Pyrimidines – U & C
Sugar ; Ribose sugar
 Uracil in place of thymine
 It is usually a single stranded polynucleotide.
 Doesn't obeyed by Chargaff's rule (GC)
Types of RNA
1) m –RNA (messenger RNA)
2) r – RNA (Ribosomal RNA)
3) t - RNA (transfer RNA)
MESSENGER RNA (m-RNA)
 It is synthesized in nucleus as heterogeneous nuclear RNA
 hn RNA liberates the functional mRNA . Which enter the
cytoplasm to participate in protein synthesis
 high mol wt & short half life
 It represents 2 – 5% of total eukaryotic cellular RNA.
Cap:
 Eukaryotic mRNA having capped at the 5’ terminal end by 7-methyl
guanosine tri phosphate.
 It is linked to an adjacent 2’-0-methyl ribose methylated nucleotide.
 This cap helps to prevent the hydrolysis of mRNA by 5’-exo nucleases.
 Also involved in the recognition of templet DNA.
Poly (A) tail:
 Other end of mRNA molecules is 3’-hydroxyl terminal has an attached
polymer of adenylate residues (20-250 nucleotides in length)
 It maintains the intra cellular stability to mRNA.
 Preventing from attack of 3’-exonucleases
8
Functions of mRNA
 Transfer of genetic information from the cell nucleus to ribosomes
in the cytoplasm.
 Where it serves as a template (sequence of Amino acid ) for
protein synthesis.
Transfer RNA (t-RNA)
 Known as soluble RNA
 tRNA contain 74 – 95 nucleotide length.
 Mol wt –2 to 3 ×104
 tRNA compose 20% of total cellular RNA.
 At least 20 species of t RNA molecules in every cell, at least one correspond to
each of the 20 a.a’s required for protein synthesis.
 It appears like a clover leaf structure.
It contain mainly 4 arms:
1) Acceptor arm
2) Anti codon arm.
3) D- arm
4) TC arm
Variable arm or extra arm
Acceptor arm:
It is capped with a sequence CCA(5’- 3’).
A.a’s are attached to the acceptor arm(7bp)
Anti codon arm:
It is responsible for the recognition of triplet codon of m RNA.
It contain 5 base pair.
D- arm:
Its presence of Dihydrouridine
It contain 4 base pairs
TC arm:
 It contains a sequence of Thymine
Pseudo uridine()
Cytosine
It contain 5 base pair.
Variable arm or extra arm:
Based on the variability
 Class I t-RNA: (45%) -Predominant form with 3-5 base pair
length.
 Class II t-RNA : (25%) Contain 13- 20 base pair length.
Functions of tRNA
 It’s delivers amino acids one by one to protein chains
growing at ribosomes.
 It serves as an adaptor molecule that carries amino acids
from cytoplasm to the ribosomes for protein synthesis.
RIBOSOMAL RNA (r -RNA)
 It is a cytoplasmic nucleo protein structure .
 r- RNA forms 70% of the total cellular RNA.
 Mol wt 4.2106
 Mammalian ribosome contains 2 major nucleoprotein subunits
Large subunit with a mol wt-2.8 106 (60s)
Smaller subunit with a mol wt - 1.4106 (40s).
Type Size Large subunit Small
subunit
Polypeptide chains
Prokaryotic
ribosomal RNA
70S 50S
(5S, 23S)
30S (16S) 50s - 32 PPC
30s – 21 PPC
Eukaryotic
ribosomal RNA
80S 60S
(5S, 5.8S, 28S)
40S (18S) 60s – 50 PPC
40s – 30 PPC
Functions of rRNA
 It provides necessary infrastructure for the mRNA, tRNA & amino
acids to interact with each other for the (translation process)
protein synthesis.
 It provides catalytic activities (Peptidyltranferase activity).
DNA RNA
1) It is double strandard helical structure.
2) It contains purines- A & G,
Pyrimidines- C & T
3) sugar: Deoxy ribose sugar
4) It obeys Chargaff’s rule.
5) DNA can form RNA by the process of
transcription.
6) It stores the genetic information
1) It is single strandard.
2) It contains purines- A & G,
Pyrimidines- C & U
3) sugar: ribose sugar
4) It doesn’t obeys Chargaff’s rule
5) RNA cannot give rise to DNA.
6) It involved in protein synthesis
Major Difference between the DNA & RNA
small nuclear RNA (snRNA):
• snRNA are involved in mRNA splicing and modulation of gene
expression by altering mRNA function.
• Involved in processing of hnRNA into m-RNA
Si –RNA (small interfering RNA):
Play an important role in gene regulation.
micro RNAs (miRNA):
• miRNA are typically 21- 25 nucleotides in length.
• It plays important roles in gene regulation.
• Inhibition of gene expression by decreasing specific protein
production via distinct mechanisms.
Non coding RNA (ncRNA) :
 300 -1000 nucleotides
 These RNAs are typically transcribed from the large regions of
eukaryotic genomes that do not code for protins.
Thank You
The End

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NA- 03: Ribonucleic acid (RNA)

  • 2.  Polymer of ribonucleotides held together by 3’,5’ –phosphodiester bridges Components; Base ; Purines – A & G Pyrimidines – U & C Sugar ; Ribose sugar  Uracil in place of thymine  It is usually a single stranded polynucleotide.  Doesn't obeyed by Chargaff's rule (GC)
  • 3. Types of RNA 1) m –RNA (messenger RNA) 2) r – RNA (Ribosomal RNA) 3) t - RNA (transfer RNA)
  • 4. MESSENGER RNA (m-RNA)  It is synthesized in nucleus as heterogeneous nuclear RNA  hn RNA liberates the functional mRNA . Which enter the cytoplasm to participate in protein synthesis  high mol wt & short half life  It represents 2 – 5% of total eukaryotic cellular RNA.
  • 5.
  • 6. Cap:  Eukaryotic mRNA having capped at the 5’ terminal end by 7-methyl guanosine tri phosphate.  It is linked to an adjacent 2’-0-methyl ribose methylated nucleotide.  This cap helps to prevent the hydrolysis of mRNA by 5’-exo nucleases.  Also involved in the recognition of templet DNA.
  • 7. Poly (A) tail:  Other end of mRNA molecules is 3’-hydroxyl terminal has an attached polymer of adenylate residues (20-250 nucleotides in length)  It maintains the intra cellular stability to mRNA.  Preventing from attack of 3’-exonucleases
  • 8. 8 Functions of mRNA  Transfer of genetic information from the cell nucleus to ribosomes in the cytoplasm.  Where it serves as a template (sequence of Amino acid ) for protein synthesis.
  • 9. Transfer RNA (t-RNA)  Known as soluble RNA  tRNA contain 74 – 95 nucleotide length.  Mol wt –2 to 3 ×104  tRNA compose 20% of total cellular RNA.  At least 20 species of t RNA molecules in every cell, at least one correspond to each of the 20 a.a’s required for protein synthesis.  It appears like a clover leaf structure.
  • 10. It contain mainly 4 arms: 1) Acceptor arm 2) Anti codon arm. 3) D- arm 4) TC arm Variable arm or extra arm
  • 11. Acceptor arm: It is capped with a sequence CCA(5’- 3’). A.a’s are attached to the acceptor arm(7bp) Anti codon arm: It is responsible for the recognition of triplet codon of m RNA. It contain 5 base pair.
  • 12. D- arm: Its presence of Dihydrouridine It contain 4 base pairs TC arm:  It contains a sequence of Thymine Pseudo uridine() Cytosine It contain 5 base pair.
  • 13. Variable arm or extra arm: Based on the variability  Class I t-RNA: (45%) -Predominant form with 3-5 base pair length.  Class II t-RNA : (25%) Contain 13- 20 base pair length.
  • 14. Functions of tRNA  It’s delivers amino acids one by one to protein chains growing at ribosomes.  It serves as an adaptor molecule that carries amino acids from cytoplasm to the ribosomes for protein synthesis.
  • 15. RIBOSOMAL RNA (r -RNA)  It is a cytoplasmic nucleo protein structure .  r- RNA forms 70% of the total cellular RNA.  Mol wt 4.2106  Mammalian ribosome contains 2 major nucleoprotein subunits Large subunit with a mol wt-2.8 106 (60s) Smaller subunit with a mol wt - 1.4106 (40s).
  • 16.
  • 17. Type Size Large subunit Small subunit Polypeptide chains Prokaryotic ribosomal RNA 70S 50S (5S, 23S) 30S (16S) 50s - 32 PPC 30s – 21 PPC Eukaryotic ribosomal RNA 80S 60S (5S, 5.8S, 28S) 40S (18S) 60s – 50 PPC 40s – 30 PPC
  • 18. Functions of rRNA  It provides necessary infrastructure for the mRNA, tRNA & amino acids to interact with each other for the (translation process) protein synthesis.  It provides catalytic activities (Peptidyltranferase activity).
  • 19. DNA RNA 1) It is double strandard helical structure. 2) It contains purines- A & G, Pyrimidines- C & T 3) sugar: Deoxy ribose sugar 4) It obeys Chargaff’s rule. 5) DNA can form RNA by the process of transcription. 6) It stores the genetic information 1) It is single strandard. 2) It contains purines- A & G, Pyrimidines- C & U 3) sugar: ribose sugar 4) It doesn’t obeys Chargaff’s rule 5) RNA cannot give rise to DNA. 6) It involved in protein synthesis Major Difference between the DNA & RNA
  • 20. small nuclear RNA (snRNA): • snRNA are involved in mRNA splicing and modulation of gene expression by altering mRNA function. • Involved in processing of hnRNA into m-RNA Si –RNA (small interfering RNA): Play an important role in gene regulation.
  • 21. micro RNAs (miRNA): • miRNA are typically 21- 25 nucleotides in length. • It plays important roles in gene regulation. • Inhibition of gene expression by decreasing specific protein production via distinct mechanisms. Non coding RNA (ncRNA) :  300 -1000 nucleotides  These RNAs are typically transcribed from the large regions of eukaryotic genomes that do not code for protins.