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1/22
My repository is being aggregated:
a blessing or a curse?
Petr Knoth
CORE (Connecting REpositories)
Knowledge Media institute
The Open University
@petrknoth
Open Repositories 2014
Helsinki, Finland
2/22
Some interesting quotes about aggregations
It seems as though when we like it we call it “curation,” and when
we don’t we call it “aggregation.” https://gigaom.com/2011/07/13/like-it-
or-not-aggregation-is-part-of-the-future-of-media/
"Aggregators and Google News are, to us, the worst offenders.
They make money by living off the sweat of our brow.”
https://www.techdirt.com/articles/20091014/1831246537.shtml
3/22
OR ?
4/22
repositories
aggregators
The ecosystem
5/22
repositories
aggregators
The use cases
Enrichment &
harmonisation
Data input
Data management
Analytics
Search & discovery
Programmable
(machine-to-machine)
access
Mutually beneficial ecosystem!
6/22
repositories
aggregators
The problem
?
The aggregators
have a negative
impact on our
usage statistics.
We are improving
the
discoverability of
the repository
content and
increasing its
reuse potential.
7/22
repositories
aggregators
A shortsighted solution to the problem
Access denied to aggregators
8/22
repositories
aggregators
A shortsighted solution to the problem
Access denied to aggregators
Typically achieved using
the Robots Exclusion
Protocol (robots.txt)
9/22
Can be done selectively:
OK
* Not allowed
repositories
aggregators
A shortsighted solution to the problem
Access denied to aggregators
Typically achieved using
the Robots Exclusion
Protocol (robots.txt)
For example:
- Arch1m3r in Franc3
- OTH3S in Austr1a
- 3uras1a journals in Turk3y
10/22
The open access paradox
“Open access content is more open for exploitation by
commercial services than by not for profit public services.”
11/22
Is protectionism legal?
Groom (2004) suggests it might be illegal as it, among
other things, triggers concerns of unfair competition.
12/22
The mission of repositories according to SPARC (Crow, 2002)
“… the primary goal of repositories is to open and
disseminate research outputs to a worldwide audience …”
13/22
SPARC’s position paper on IRs
“For the repository to provide access to the broader research
community, users outside the university must be able to find and
retrieve information from the repository. Therefore, institutional
repository systems must be able to support interoperability in order
to provide access via multiple search engines and other discovery
tools. An institution does not necessarily need to implement
searching and indexing functionality to satisfy this demand: it could
simply maintain and expose metadata, allowing other services to
harvest and search the content. This simplicity lowers the barrier to
repository operation for many institutions, as it only requires a file
system to hold the content and the ability to create and share
metadata with external systems.”
14/22
COAR: About harvesting and aggregations …
“Each individual repository is of limited value for research: the real
power of Open Access lies in the possibility of connecting and tying
together repositories, which is why we need interoperability. In
order to create a seamless layer of content through connected
repositories from around the world, Open Access relies on
interoperability, the ability for systems to communicate with each
other and pass information back and forth in a usable format.
Interoperability allows us to exploit today's computational power so
that we can aggregate, data mine, create new tools and services,
and generate new knowledge from repository content.’’
[COAR manifesto]
15/22
What is Open Access exactly?
By “open access” to [peer-reviewed research literature], we mean
its free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to
read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full
texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data
to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without
financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable
from gaining access to the internet itself.
[BOAI, 2002]
16/22
Open Access = Access + Reuse
17/22
Multiple copies of content
• It would not be right to stop copying of content, as multiple
copies mean:
• Better preservation
• Higher availability
• Lower network latency
• Increased visibility
• Higher re-use opportunities
• Keeping the market free from monopoly
• Researchers like copying of content
18/22
Solution
• Aggregators must support repositories and help them to fulfill
their mission
• Repositories must stop believing they are the only access point
for open access content (this includes both gold and green OA)
• Aggregators must implement reasonable measures to help
repositories get accurate benchmarks.
19/22
repositories
aggregators
The solution
?
usage monitoring service
20/22
IRUS-CORE implementation
21/22
Conclusions
• It is possible to create a mutually beneficial ecosystem for both
repositories and aggregators
• Open Access is not just about access, but also reuse -
encouraging multiple copies of content.
• The primary role of repositories is to disseminate not to become
a single access point
• Repositories and aggregators each serve largely a different
audience.
• Aggregators should implement mechanisms to give credit to
repositories.
22/22
Thank you!

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My repository is being aggregated: a blessing or a curse?

  • 1. 1/22 My repository is being aggregated: a blessing or a curse? Petr Knoth CORE (Connecting REpositories) Knowledge Media institute The Open University @petrknoth Open Repositories 2014 Helsinki, Finland
  • 2. 2/22 Some interesting quotes about aggregations It seems as though when we like it we call it “curation,” and when we don’t we call it “aggregation.” https://gigaom.com/2011/07/13/like-it- or-not-aggregation-is-part-of-the-future-of-media/ "Aggregators and Google News are, to us, the worst offenders. They make money by living off the sweat of our brow.” https://www.techdirt.com/articles/20091014/1831246537.shtml
  • 5. 5/22 repositories aggregators The use cases Enrichment & harmonisation Data input Data management Analytics Search & discovery Programmable (machine-to-machine) access Mutually beneficial ecosystem!
  • 6. 6/22 repositories aggregators The problem ? The aggregators have a negative impact on our usage statistics. We are improving the discoverability of the repository content and increasing its reuse potential.
  • 7. 7/22 repositories aggregators A shortsighted solution to the problem Access denied to aggregators
  • 8. 8/22 repositories aggregators A shortsighted solution to the problem Access denied to aggregators Typically achieved using the Robots Exclusion Protocol (robots.txt)
  • 9. 9/22 Can be done selectively: OK * Not allowed repositories aggregators A shortsighted solution to the problem Access denied to aggregators Typically achieved using the Robots Exclusion Protocol (robots.txt) For example: - Arch1m3r in Franc3 - OTH3S in Austr1a - 3uras1a journals in Turk3y
  • 10. 10/22 The open access paradox “Open access content is more open for exploitation by commercial services than by not for profit public services.”
  • 11. 11/22 Is protectionism legal? Groom (2004) suggests it might be illegal as it, among other things, triggers concerns of unfair competition.
  • 12. 12/22 The mission of repositories according to SPARC (Crow, 2002) “… the primary goal of repositories is to open and disseminate research outputs to a worldwide audience …”
  • 13. 13/22 SPARC’s position paper on IRs “For the repository to provide access to the broader research community, users outside the university must be able to find and retrieve information from the repository. Therefore, institutional repository systems must be able to support interoperability in order to provide access via multiple search engines and other discovery tools. An institution does not necessarily need to implement searching and indexing functionality to satisfy this demand: it could simply maintain and expose metadata, allowing other services to harvest and search the content. This simplicity lowers the barrier to repository operation for many institutions, as it only requires a file system to hold the content and the ability to create and share metadata with external systems.”
  • 14. 14/22 COAR: About harvesting and aggregations … “Each individual repository is of limited value for research: the real power of Open Access lies in the possibility of connecting and tying together repositories, which is why we need interoperability. In order to create a seamless layer of content through connected repositories from around the world, Open Access relies on interoperability, the ability for systems to communicate with each other and pass information back and forth in a usable format. Interoperability allows us to exploit today's computational power so that we can aggregate, data mine, create new tools and services, and generate new knowledge from repository content.’’ [COAR manifesto]
  • 15. 15/22 What is Open Access exactly? By “open access” to [peer-reviewed research literature], we mean its free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. [BOAI, 2002]
  • 16. 16/22 Open Access = Access + Reuse
  • 17. 17/22 Multiple copies of content • It would not be right to stop copying of content, as multiple copies mean: • Better preservation • Higher availability • Lower network latency • Increased visibility • Higher re-use opportunities • Keeping the market free from monopoly • Researchers like copying of content
  • 18. 18/22 Solution • Aggregators must support repositories and help them to fulfill their mission • Repositories must stop believing they are the only access point for open access content (this includes both gold and green OA) • Aggregators must implement reasonable measures to help repositories get accurate benchmarks.
  • 21. 21/22 Conclusions • It is possible to create a mutually beneficial ecosystem for both repositories and aggregators • Open Access is not just about access, but also reuse - encouraging multiple copies of content. • The primary role of repositories is to disseminate not to become a single access point • Repositories and aggregators each serve largely a different audience. • Aggregators should implement mechanisms to give credit to repositories.

Editor's Notes

  1. Aggregators bring together content distributed across many systems, enhance it and make it available from a single virtual space. They operate in different domains including travel, news also in research. While some believe they add value, other do not. You can see some of the quotes illustrating the situation. In this presentation, I will discuss how to create a mutually beneficial ecosystem for repositories and aggregators in the open access domain.
  2. In this presentation, I will discuss how to create a mutually beneficial ecosystem for repositories and aggregators in the open access domain and find out if aggregations are a blessing or a curse.
  3. We have repositories and aggregators. And by repositories, I do not mean only institutional repositories, but also CRISes, subject repositories and the systems of publishers.
  4. Repositories and aggregators each focus on different use cases in a single ecosystem. Aggregators mostly explout the harmonised access to large quantities of data.
  5. Both repositories and aggregators have their own set of users who are in manycases distinct: developers, bibliometricians. Repositories receiev funding from their institutiosn and need to show the impact to justify this amount. Aggregators have typically quote complex funding models, but they also need to show this impact. So as yu can probably see this is an issue of credit
  6. We have repositories and aggregators. And by repositories, I do not mean only institutional repositories, but also CRISes, subject repositories and the systems of publishers.
  7. We have repositories and aggregators. And by repositories, I do not mean only institutional repositories, but also CRISes, subject repositories and the systems of publishers.
  8. We have repositories and aggregators. And by repositories, I do not mean only institutional repositories, but also CRISes, subject repositories and the systems of publishers.
  9. unethical and disadvantageous for the scholarly community and the public, Text-mining and CC-BY – commercial services have been text-mining non-CC-BY content for years
  10. unethical and disadvantageous for the scholarly community and the public,
  11. COAR and CORE are two different things.
  12. Let me know revisit some of the goals of OA, and I am sure this is familiar. I would like to show on this the importance of building an infrastructure that supports the reuse of OA content.
  13. OA means Access+Reuse, but in order to be abel to reuse, we must aggregate, as aggregations enable such reuse
  14. It would not be right to prevent multiple copies of content to be available on the internet Add a map with articles spread across the world
  15. Let me know revisit some of the goals of OA, and I am sure this is familiar. I would like to show on this the importance of building an infrastructure that supports the reuse of OA content.
  16. Both repositories and aggregators have their own set of users who are in manycases distinct: developers, bibliometricians. Repositories receiev funding from their institutiosn and need to show the impact to justify this amount. Aggregators have typically quote complex funding models, but they also need to show this impact.