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INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY
Leader in continuing Dental Education
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CONTENTS
Introduction
Light and color
Munsell color order system
Hue
Chroma
value
CIELAB color system
Color measuring instruments
Perception of color
Shade selection
Different shade guides
Recent advances
Review of literature
Conclusion
References
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““Coloring is the sunshine of art that clothes povertyColoring is the sunshine of art that clothes poverty
in smiles, and renders the prospect of barrenessin smiles, and renders the prospect of barreness
itself agreeable, while it heightens the interest anditself agreeable, while it heightens the interest and
doubles the charm of beauty.”doubles the charm of beauty.”
COLOR DEFINITION:
“Color is light, modified by an object as
perceived by an eye”.
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IntroductionIntroduction
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The success of dental treatments as perceived by our
patients is often evaluated on appearance, rather than
long-term health, function and comfort. Everyone, it
seems, is primarily interested in color.
Patients who elect to have improvements in their
teeth image may demand their own version of the
“best” color. The clinician’s under-standing of this
problem contributes to a higher success level in
satisfying his/her patients’ needs.
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Understanding of the nature of light and how the eye
perceives and the brain interprets light as color is
important for successful esthetic restorations,
particularly when metal ceramic or all- ceramic
restorations are being made.
Errors in shade matching can be a problem in these
procedures and are a source of frustration for the
dentist and technician and a source of dissatisfaction
for the patient.
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A need to overcome subjectivity, as the major
disadvantage of the visual shade matching method,
induced the evolution of color science.
 Color science is multidisciplinary and it
encompasses elements of physics, chemistry,
physiology and psychology.
 In order to understand the science of color, one
should be aware of some physical aspects of light, as
well as of both physiological and psychological
processes that enable color perception.
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LIGHT AND COLOR:
Without light, color does not exist. An object that we
perceive as a certain color absorbs all light waves
corresponding with other colors and reflects only those
waves that we interpret as that objects color.
For example, an object that absorbs blue and green
light reflects red appears red.
The apparent color of an object is influenced by its
physical properties, nature of the incident light to which
the object is exposed, the relationship to other colored
objects, and the subjective assessment of the observer.
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DESCRIPTION OF LIGHT:
 Scientifically, light is described as visible electro
magnetic energy whose wave length is measured in
nanometers or billionth of a meter.
 The eye is sensitive only to the visible part of the
electromagnetic spectrum, a narrow band with wave
lengths of 380 – 750 nm.
At the shorter wave lengths lie ultra violet, X &
gamma rays, at the longer wave lengths are the infra
radiation, microwaves, television & radio transmission.
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 White light can be separated into
monochromatic components if it passes through
prism or diffraction bars. If the wavelength of the
electromagnetic radiation is less than 380 nm, it is
called ultraviolet radiation and if it exceeds 780
nm, it is called infrared radiation.
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QUALITY OF LIGHT
 The most common light sources in dental
offices are incandescent & fluorescent,
neither which are pure white light. An
ordinary incandescent light emits relatively
higher concentration of yellow light waves
than of blue & blue- green, where as
fluorescent ceiling fixtures give off relatively
high concentrations of blue waves.
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 During morning & evening hours the shorter light
waves( blues & greens) are scattered, and only the
longer ones ( Red end of the spectrum) penetrates
the atmosphere. Consequently incident day light at
dawn & dusk is rich in yellow & orange but
lacking in blue & green.
 Northern daylight around the noon hour on a
bright day is considered ideal because there is a
harmonious balance of visible spectrum.
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DESCRIPTION OF COLOR:
Munsell Color Order System :
The most popular method for describing color is the
Munsell system. Despite certain disadvantages, the
Munsell system has been widely used in the dental
literature.
The three attributes of color in this system are called
Hue, Value and Chroma.
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Hue
 Hue is described with the words we normally
think of as describing color: red, purple, blue,
etc. It is also a term which describes a dimension
of color we readily experience when we look at
color.
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 In munsell color system, hues are divided
into 10 gradations: yellow,yellow-
red,red,red-purple,purple,purple-
blue,blue,blue-green,green,green-yellow
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 Most natural teeth fall into a range between yellow and
yellow-red. In a study of 95 extracted anterior teeth,
O'Brien et al found that the average Hue was 1.2Y for
the gingival third, 1.3Y for middle third, 1.4Y for the
incisal third.
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Value
 Value (lightness) describes overall intensity to how
light or dark a color is. It is the only dimension of
color that may exist by itself .
 It is defined as the relative lightness or darkness of a
color or the brightness of an object.
 The brightness of any object is a direct consequence
of the amount of light energy the object reflects or
transmits
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 .
 In the Munsell method of
describing color,value is
divided into 10
gradations, with 0 being
black and 10 being white.
 Natural teeth range in
value from 5.5 t0 8.5.
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Chroma.
 Chroma (saturation) may be defined as the
strength or dominance of the hue. The terms
saturation & chroma are used interchangeably in
the dental literature mean the concentration of
pigment.
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 In Munsell color system,maximum chroma
depends on the particular Hue but can range from
10 to 14.
 Natural teeth are found with chroma ranges from
0.5 to 4.
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CIELABCIELAB Color systemColor system ::
Determined by the commission internationale deDetermined by the commission internationale de
1’ Eclairage in 1978, this method of evaluating1’ Eclairage in 1978, this method of evaluating
color continues to gain acceptance in dentalcolor continues to gain acceptance in dental
research.research.
In both the Munsell and the CIELAB ColorIn both the Munsell and the CIELAB Color
order systems, the location in the color space of aorder systems, the location in the color space of a
particular shade is defined by three coordinates:particular shade is defined by three coordinates:
Value, Hue, and Chroma for Munsell; L, a, and bValue, Hue, and Chroma for Munsell; L, a, and b
for CIELAB.for CIELAB.
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L* is a lightness variable proportional to
value in the munsell system. It describes
achromatic character of the color.
a* and b*, The a and b coordinates describe
the chromatic characteristics of the color.
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Color-Measuring Instruments :Color-Measuring Instruments :
 Color selection for dental restorative materials is
generally done visually by matching a shade sample.
In Industry, electronic color measuring equipment is
used.
 This equipment consists of spectrophotometers that
measure light reflectance at wavelength intervals
over the visible spectrum.
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 colorimeters that provide direct color
coordinate specifications without mathematical
manipulation this is accomplished by sampling
light reflected from an object through three
color filters that simulate the response of the
color receptors in the eye.
 These instruments have been used extensively
in dental research.
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 Recently, a color measuring system has been
introduced to guide the practicing dentist. This
instrument appears to have comparable accuracy
to subjective assessment.
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Perception of color
 Light from an object enters the eye and acts on
receptors in the retina (rods and cones). Impulses
from these are passed to the optical center of the
brain, where an interpretation is made, shade
selection is very subjective-different individuals
will have different interpretations of the same
stimulus.
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The Eye :
 Under low lighting conditions, only the rods are used
(scotopic vision). These receptors allow an
interpretation of the brightness (but not the color) of
objects to be made.
 They are most sensitive to blue-green objects. Color
vision is dependent on the cones, which are active
under higher lighting conditions (photopic vision). The
change from photonic to scotopic visions called dark
adaptation and takes about 40 minutes.
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 The area with the most cones is in the center of
the retina, which is free of rods. The rods begin
to predominate toward the periphery. This means
that the central field of vision is more color
perceptive.
 Although the exact mechanism of color vision is
not known, there are three types of cones-
sensitive to red, green, and blue light-which form
an image in much the same way as the additive
effect of the pixels in a television picture.
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Color Adaptation
 Color vision decreases rapidly as an object is
observed. The original color appears to become
less and less saturated until appears almost gray.
Simultaneously, the chroma (intensity) of
complementary colors appears greater.
 This phenomenon explains the suggestion that
shade selection can be enhanced if co operator
walls are painted pale blue (complementary to
yellow) or that a pale gray- blue surface should
be glanced at periodically while viewing color
choices.
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Deceptive color Perception
 The brain can be tricked in how it perceives color. The
classic example is the Benham disk. When this black
and white disk is illuminated and rotated at an
appropriate speed, it appears to be highly colored.
 Color is also influenced by surrounding colors,
particularly complementary ones. For example, when
blue and yellow are placed side by side, their chroma
may appear to be increased. The color of teeth can also
look different if the patient is wearing brightly colored
clothing or lipstick.
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Metamerism
 Two colors that appear to be a match under a given
lighting condition but have different spectral
reflectance are called metamers, and the phenomenon
is known as metamerism.
 For example, two objects that appear to be an
identical shade of yellow may absorb and reflect
light differently. Normally a yellow object reflects
yellow light, but some may actually absorb yellow
light and reflect orange and green.
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 To an observer, the orange and green combination
looks yellow, although when the lighting is changed,
the métiers no longer match. This means that a sample
that appears to match under the operatory light, for
example, may no longer be satisfactory in day-light.
 The problem of metamerism can be avoided by
selecting a shade and confirming it under different
lighting conditions (e.g natural daylight and
fluorescent light.)
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Fluorescence
 Fluorescent materials, such as tooth enamel, re-emit
radiant energy at a lower frequency that it is
absorbed. For example, ultraviolet radiation is re-
emitted as visible light.
 In theory, a mismatch can occur if the dental
restoration has different fluorescence than the
natural tooth. In practice fluorescence does not play
a significant role in color matching dental
restorations.
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Color Blindness
 Defects in color vision affect about 8% of the male
population and less of the female population.
 Different types exist, such as
- Achromatism (complete lack of hue sensitivity).
- Dichromatism (sensitivity to only two primary hues
with deficiency or abnormality of one of the three
primary pigments in the retinal cones).
 Dentists should therefore have their color perception
tested. If any deficiency is detected, the dentist should
seek assistance when selecting tooth shades.
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Shade selection
 Because shade matching is subjective,
consistency is difficult to achieve. Considerable
variation exists among dentists. Some dentists are
unable to duplicate even their own shade selection
from one patient to the next.
 Fortunately, a lifelike restoration does not have
to be an exact color duplicate of the adjacent or
contra lateral teeth. It should, however, blend
with the teeth as a result of the distribution of
ceramic materials in the restoration.
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 Shade selection can be improved by applying
the principles of light and color and dental
ceramic techniques.
 General Principles:
 The patient should be viewed at eye level so
that the most color-sensitive part of the retina
will used.
 Shade comparison should be made under
different lighting conditions. Normally the
patient is taken to a window, and the color is
confirmed in natural daylight after initial
selection under incandescent and fluorescent
lighting.
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 The teeth to be matched should be clean. If necessary,
stains should be removed by prophylaxis.
 Shade comparisons should be made at the beginning
of a patient’s visit. Teeth increase in value when they
are dry, particularly if rubber dam has been used.
 Brightly colored clothing should be draped and
lipstick removed. The operatory walls should not be
brightly painted.
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 Shade comparisons should be made quickly, with the
color samples placed under the lip directly next to tooth
being matched this will ensure that the background of
the tooth and the shade sample are the same, which is
essential for accurate matching.
 The dentist should be aware of eye fatigue, particularly
if very bright fiber-optic illumination has been used.
The eyes should be rested by focusing on a gray-blue
surface immediately before a comparison, because this
balances all the color sensors of the retina and
resensitizes the eye to the yellow color of the tooth.
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Commercial Shade Guides
 The most convenient method for selecting a shade
is a commercially available porcelain shade guide
each shade-tab has an opaque backing color,
neck color, body color, and incisal color shade
selection consists of picking the shade tab that
looks the most natural and reproducing this in a
laboratory with materials and techniques
recommended by the manufacturer.
 More recently, shade guides have covered the
color space occupied by natural teeth, such as the
vitapan 3D-Master shade guide.
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Hue Selection
 In the popular vita lumen vacuum shade guide.,
A1,A2,13,A35, And A4 are similar in hue, as are the B,C
and D shades Choosing the nearest hue first and then
selecting the appropriate match of chroma and value from
the tabs available is the recommended technique.
 If its chroma or intensity is low, accurately determining a
given hue may be difficult. Therefore the region with the
highest chroma.
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Chroma selection
 Once the hue is selected, the best chroma match is chose,
for example, if a B hue is determined to be the best match
for color variety, there are four available gradations of that
hue: B1, B2, B3 and B4.
 several comparisons are usually necessary when
determining which sample best represents the hue and its
corresponding chroma (saturation) level. Between
comparisons, glancing at a blue object will rest the
operator’s eye and help avoid retinal cone fatigue.
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Value Selection
 Finally, value is determined with a second commercial
guide whose samples are arranged in order of
increasing lightness. By holding the second shade guide
close to the patient, the operator should be able to
determine whether the value of the tooth is with in the
shade guide’s range.
 Attention is then focused on the range of shade that
best represents the value of the tooth and how that
range relates to the tab matching for hue and saturation.
 An individual will be able to assess the value most
effectively by observing from a distance, standing
slightly away from the chair, and squinting the eyes.
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 By squinting, the observer can reduce the amount of light
that reaches the retina. Stimulation of the cones is reduced,
and a greater sensitivity to achromatic conditions may
result. While squinting, the observer concentrates on
which disappears from sight first-the has the lower value.
 When the proper value selection has been made, it will be
the exception rather than the rule for this to coincide with
the determinations for hue and chroma the operator must
decide whether to change the previously selected shade
sample.
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 If the independent value determination is lower than the
value of the sample selected for hue and chroma, a change
is usually necessary, because increasing the value of an
object by adding surface stain (which always reduces
brightness) is not possible.
 If the value determination is higher than the hue
determination, the operator should decide whether this
difference can be bridged through internal or surface
staining of the restoration. The final decisions about hue,
chroma, and value are then communicated to the
laboratory.
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Vitapan 3D-Master Shade Guide
 The manufacturer of this recently introduced shade system
claims that it covers the entire tooth color space. The shade
samples are grouped in six lightness levels, + each of which
has chroma and hue variations in evenly spaced steps.
 The shade guide is spaced in steps of 4 CIELAB
units in the lightness dimension and 2 CIELAB units in the
hue and chroma dimension.
 The difference between lightness and color and color
steps seems a logical approach to reducing the number of
shade samples needed in the guide because of the way the
CIELAB Units are visually perceived.
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 It seems to match the color difference formula of the
color measurement committee (CMC) of the society of
dyers and colorists.
 Because the guide is evenly spaced, intermediate shades
can be predictably formulated by combining porcelain
powders. The manufacturer recommends selecting the
lightness level first with this system and then selecting
the chroma or saturation.
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Extended range shade guides
 Most commercial shade systems cover a more limited
range than the colors found in natural teeth, and the steps
in the guide are greater than can be perceived visually.
 Some porcelain systems are available with extended range
shade guides, and other manufacturers have extended their
range over the years. The use of two shade guides is a
practical way to extend the range of commercial guides.
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Dentin Shade Guides
 When using a translucent all-ceramic system for a crown
or veneer communicating the shade of the prepared dentin
to the dental laboratory is helpful. one system provides
specially colored die materials that match the dentin shade
guide and enable the technician to judge restoration
esthetics.
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Custom Shade Guide
 Unfortunately, certain teeth may be impossible to match to
commercial shade samples. In addition, difficulties may be
encountered in reproducing the shade guides in the final
restorations.
 The extensive use of surface staining has severe drawbacks,
because the stains increase surface reflection and prevent light from
being transmitted through the porcelain.
 One approach to this problem is to extend the concept of a
commercial shade guide by making a custom shade. An almost
infinite number of can be made by using different combinations of
porcelain powders in varying distributions.
 However, the procedure is time consuming and is generally
confined to specialty practice
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Shade distribution Chart
 Shade distribution charting is a practical approach to
accurate shade selection and is recommended even when a
fairly good match is available from the commercial shade
sample.
 The tooth is divided into three region; cervical, middle,
and incisal. Each region matched independently, either to
the corresponding area of a commercial shade sample or to
a single color porcelain chip. Because only a single color
is matched, intermediate shades can usually be estimated
rather easily and duplicated by mixing porcelain powders.
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 The junctions between these areas are normally distinct
and can be communicated to the laboratory in the form of a
diagram. The shade distribution and thickness of the
enamel .
 Porcelain are particularly important. Individual
characteristics are marked on such a sketch and will allow
the ceramist to mimic details like hairline fractures, hypo
calcification, and proximal discolorations.
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How To Take A Shade
 When taking a patient’s shade,
the dentist has three simple steps to follow:
First, determine the value (lightness) by selecting
the closest match from one of five value groups.
Second, determine the Chroma within the value
group from three choices.
Third, pick the hue by determining if the tooth
has a more yellow or red cast.
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STEP 1
Determine the lightness level (value)
Hold shade guide to patientís mouth
at arms length
Start with darkest group moving right to left
Select Value group 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5
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STEP 2
Select the chroma
From your selected Value group,
remove the middle tab (M) and spread the
samples out like a fan
Select one of the three shade samples to
determine Chroma
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STEP 3
Determine the hue
Check whether the natural tooth is more
yellowish or more reddish than the shade
sample selected.
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FINAL SHADE
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Recent advances in shade-
matching technology
 Many dentists will tell you that they feel that the most
difficult esthetic procedure is a single crown on one central
incisor. Many will recommend to patients that they crown
both centrals in order to get them to match.
 It's frustrating, because there are many beautiful ceramic
materials that can create a wonderfully natural-looking
tooth. But they all require shade-matching, and there is
where the procedure breaks down.
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 One effective technique for shade matching is to use
photography. Using a high-quality digital camera that
captures color-correct images, a shade tab with the shade
that is closest to the shade of the tooth is placed next to the
tooth in question and is photographed with the tooth.
 If needed, several photographs can be taken with different
shade tabs. The image can then be e-mailed to the lab,
where the technician can compare the shade of the tooth,
with its characterizations, to the shade of the tab. If
needed, the tab in the photograph can be custom stained.
 The custom tab is then wrapped carefully and sent with
the case to the lab. This is a very effective method of
pinning down an exact shade match for the crown.
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 There are some new devices, however, that don't require
photographs. They either use spectrophotometry or
colorimetry to measure the color.
 There are various reasons proposed for favoring one
method over the other. All but one of these systems use a
handheld device placed on or just in front of the tooth in
question.
 A shield is used to block out surrounding light and for
infection control. Some systems will make a color map of
the entire tooth and the screen will display an image of the
tooth, similar to what a digital camera does.
 The other units will analyze a spot or spots on the tooth
and then give numeric information that represents specific
porcelain shades.
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 One shade matching system that isn't used chair side and
doesn't use a handheld device is Clear Match. Clear Match
is nothing more than computer software that interprets
standard digital photographs of the teeth.
 This software will take the photograph and generate a
shade that corresponds to a standard shade guide such as
Vitapan 3D-Master. It will also generate hue, value, and
chroma for each area of the tooth.
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Shade Eye NCC by Shofu
 The Shade Eye NCC Dental Chroma Meter
generates a complete recipe to match the shade for a
porcelain crown.
 It will accommodate several shade guide systems,
including its proprietary Shofu Vintage Halo
porcelain system, classic Vita shades, Vitapan 3D-
Master, Chromascop, or Biodent.
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 The base unit can generate a printout, or can
download it to a personal computer. On the
computer you can use the Shade Eye Viewer
software to record all the patient's shade
information which can then be e-mailed to the
laboratory along with digital photographs of the
teeth.
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Digital Shade Matching
 Vita Easyshade Digital Shade Matching Device. A life like
restoration requires accurate color or shade matching.
 In addition to our trained eyes and color-balanced
environment, we use the Vident Easyshade intra-oral
dental spectrophotometer to help with color analysis.
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Shade Scan by Cynovad
Shade Scan™ measures shades over the entire tooth
surface, then analyzes them and generate a shade
match report. It likewise can generate a report to be
used with any standard shade guide system.
 Shade Scan™ creates an image of the tooth with a
translucency and characterization map, and then will
generate a printed report.
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• Besides using Shade Scan™ for crowns and bridges,
the manufacturers suggest using it also for direct
restorations and to monitor bleaching treatment.
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Shade Vision System by X-Rite
 The Shade Vision unit uses advanced colorimetry to
scientifically determine the hue, value and chroma of the
teeth.
 The Shade Vision unit will capture an image of the tooth
and upload it to a personal computer for processing. Shade
information can then be sent to the dental laboratory via e-
mail, disk, or by printout.
 If the shade match information is sent by electronic file,
the laboratory should have the proper software to interpret
the data.
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 Its manufacturers claim that
the Shade Vision system will
improve your productivity,
reduce chair time and
remakes, and improve patient
satisfaction.
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Spectro Shade™ Micro
 It reads the colour of the tooth and indicates the
closest available chromatic standard for
reconstruction.
 It calculates the numerical difference between the
natural tooth and the selected colour in terms of
brightness, chroma and hue, providing the
laboratory with comprehensive information to
facilitate its work.
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 SpectroShade™ Micro can analyze and identify
the colour of a tooth over its entire area.
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VITA Easy shade by Vident
 The VITA Easy shade unit
consists of a handpiece that
contains multiple
spectrophotometers and can be
covered with a transparent
infection-control sleeve.
 The Easy shade probe feeds
information to a touch-screen
readout which then provides a
prescription in both Vitapan 3D-
Master and classic VITA shades.
It will highlight the closest shade
match in both of these shade
guides.
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Shade-Eye-EX
 The New Standard in Color Matching
New Shade Eye-EX™ Chroma Meter is so accurate, it
makes other shade matching methods obsolete.
 Finally, there's a fast, easy way to accurately measure
your tooth's exact shade.
 Shade Eye-EX eliminates all of the variables - lighting,
surrounding colors, the skill level of the shade taker, the
individual's eye for color, even fatigue - and quickly and
effortlessly prints out a "recipe" based on the Vintage Halo
system for porcelain restorations.
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The CEREC Procedure
 First, the dentist removes any old fillings and existing
decay. The tooth is then scanned using an infra red
scanner, and the exact dimensions are fed directly into the
CEREC computer.
 A three dimensional picture of your tooth appears
immediately on the computer monitor and you can watch
the CEREC screen as your dentist manipulates the 3D
software. By using CEREC's CAD (Computer Aided
Design) technology, the missing part of the tooth is
designed to fit back into place, like the piece of a jigsaw
puzzle.
 The result is a digitally customized and exact replacement
for your tooth.
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www.indiandentalacademy.com
 Next, the CEREC 3 sends all the specific information to a
robotic milling machine for processing.
 A ceramic block that matches the exact shading of natural
tooth color is selected and placed in the milling unit, where
a precise diamond-cut ceramic restoration is instantly
created.
 The dentist then quickly bonds this new custom-made
restoration into place and any necessary adjustments are
made for your comfort.
 And within as little as a single visit, your CEREC
restoration is now complete
www.indiandentalacademy.com
Review of literature
 William B. Schwabacher, PhD, * Richard J.
Goodkind, Interdependence of the Hue, Value, and
Chroma in the Middle Site of Anterior Human Teeth.
Journul of Prosthodontics, 1994 :pg 188-192.
 Purpose: This study examines how the color
coordinates of human teeth are related to each other
and describes a mathematical relationship between
Hue, Value, and Chroma of the middle site of
anterior teeth .
www.indiandentalacademy.com
 100 extracted anterior teeth were examined for this study.
 Results: Correlations between Hue, Value, and Chroma
were not significant for incisal and cervical sites. For the
middle site, these Munsell color coordinates were highly
correlated and closely confined to a planar region of the
color space, described by a single equation.
 Conclusion: Human tooth color distribution seems to be
relatively simple, at least for the middle site. It seems
possible that a systematic method of shade selection can
be made available.
www.indiandentalacademy.com
 Kenneth A. King, DDS; and Waldemar G. deRijk, MS,
PhD, DDS. Variations of L.a.b. Values among Vitapan
Classical Shade Guides. J Prosthodont 2007;16:352-
356.
 Purpose: To measure the variations in L.a.b. values of a
group of 25 guides and to assess whether shade guides
are indeed interchangeable.
 The L.a.b. values of individual shade tabs were
measured with a Lab- Scan(tm) XE scanning
spectrocolorimeter (SSC) with a special attachment for
reproducibly positioning shade tabs. Each shade guide
(Vitapan Classical, Vident) contained 16 shade tabs.
www.indiandentalacademy.com
 The tabs of each of the 25 shade guides were read five
times in the SSC, without moving the specimen.
Measurements and calculations of E, L., a., and b. were
performed using Universal SoftwareV4.10 (Hunter
Associates Laboratory).
 Differences in color are expressed as E in color science.
The standard deviation of E (Esd) and the range of E (Er)
for each of the shades were used as a .E value to assess
color differences.
 Conclusion: The differences observed between shade
guides are larger than the variations induced by the
experimental method. The difference in E values for the
shades C1 and C2 is 2.19; the observed Er is of 3.05.
www.indiandentalacademy.com
 F. D. Jarad, M. D. Russell and B. W. Moss, The use
of digital imaging for colour matching and
communication in restorative dentistry. British
Dental Journal (2005); 199, 43-49.
 Objective To develop a shade matching method
based on digital imaging and to compare observers'
ability using this method with the conventional one
set against a spectrophotometric 'gold standard'
www.indiandentalacademy.com
 Method Two Vita Lumin shade guides were used in this
study, nine shades being selected from the first Vita Lumin
shade guide, A2, A3, A3.5, B2, B3, B4, C1, C2 and C3.
 A second shade guide was used to match the selected
shades. A Nikon Coolpix 990 digital camera with Nikon
SB21B ring flash was used to record the digital images of
the shade tabs of the two shade guides and the images were
processed using Adobe Photoshop software A total of 27
samples (three replicates of each shade of the nine tabs
selected).
 Conclusion The observers' shade matching performance
was significantly better with the computer method
compared with the conventional one. There was a large
variation in the matching ability. The digital camera can
be used as a means of colour measurements in the dental
clinic.
www.indiandentalacademy.com
 CLARK SAID, "Color, like form, has three
dimensions, but they are not in general use. Many
of us have been taught neither names, nor the
scales of their measurement. In other words, we as
dentists are not educationally equipped to
approach a color problem.”
www.indiandentalacademy.com
CONCLUSION:
 The increase in newer types of ceramic restorations
and the improving quality of esthetics means the
dentist of the 21st century must be trained to detect
differences in color and shades in individual teeth,
select a shade that reflects the color and exact shade,
transmit this information to a dental technician, and
then be able to make any necessary adjustments to
the restoration.
 An understanding of the science of color and color
perception is important for the success of an esthetic
restoration.
www.indiandentalacademy.com
REFERENCES
 1.Fundamentals of fixed prosthodontics-
H.T.Shillingberg.
 2.Contemparary fixed prosthodontics-
S.F.Roseintiel.
 3.Tylman’s theory of practice of fixed
prosthodontics.
 4. shape and color by Gerald ubbassy.
 5.Jane D brewer, Alwin wee , Robert seghi
.Advances in color Matching. Dent Clin N Am
2004 pg.341-358.www.indiandentalacademy.com
 6. F. D. Jarad, M. D. Russell and B. W. Moss, The use
of digital imaging for colour matching and
communication in restorative dentistry. British Dental
Journal (2005); 199, 43-49.
 7. William B. Schwabacher, PhD, * Richard J.
Goodkind, Interdependence of the Hue, Value, and
Chroma in the Middle Site of Anterior Human
Teeth.Journul ofProsthodontics, 1994 :pg 188-192.
 8. Kenneth A. King, DDS; and Waldemar G. deRijk,
MS, PhD, DDS. Variations of L.a.b. Values among
Vitapan Classical Shade Guides. J Prosthodont
2007;16:352-356.
 9. Alma -Dozi´c, DDS, PhD;Cornelis J. Kleverlaan,
PhD;Ahmed El-Zohairy, DDS;and Ghazal Khashayar.
Performance of Five Commercially Available Tooth
Color-Measuring Devices. J Prosthodont 2007;16:93-
100. www.indiandentalacademy.com

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My color science/prosthodontic courses

  • 1. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing Dental Education www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 2. CONTENTS Introduction Light and color Munsell color order system Hue Chroma value CIELAB color system Color measuring instruments Perception of color Shade selection Different shade guides Recent advances Review of literature Conclusion References www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 3. ““Coloring is the sunshine of art that clothes povertyColoring is the sunshine of art that clothes poverty in smiles, and renders the prospect of barrenessin smiles, and renders the prospect of barreness itself agreeable, while it heightens the interest anditself agreeable, while it heightens the interest and doubles the charm of beauty.”doubles the charm of beauty.” COLOR DEFINITION: “Color is light, modified by an object as perceived by an eye”. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 5. The success of dental treatments as perceived by our patients is often evaluated on appearance, rather than long-term health, function and comfort. Everyone, it seems, is primarily interested in color. Patients who elect to have improvements in their teeth image may demand their own version of the “best” color. The clinician’s under-standing of this problem contributes to a higher success level in satisfying his/her patients’ needs. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 6. Understanding of the nature of light and how the eye perceives and the brain interprets light as color is important for successful esthetic restorations, particularly when metal ceramic or all- ceramic restorations are being made. Errors in shade matching can be a problem in these procedures and are a source of frustration for the dentist and technician and a source of dissatisfaction for the patient. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 7. A need to overcome subjectivity, as the major disadvantage of the visual shade matching method, induced the evolution of color science.  Color science is multidisciplinary and it encompasses elements of physics, chemistry, physiology and psychology.  In order to understand the science of color, one should be aware of some physical aspects of light, as well as of both physiological and psychological processes that enable color perception. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 8. LIGHT AND COLOR: Without light, color does not exist. An object that we perceive as a certain color absorbs all light waves corresponding with other colors and reflects only those waves that we interpret as that objects color. For example, an object that absorbs blue and green light reflects red appears red. The apparent color of an object is influenced by its physical properties, nature of the incident light to which the object is exposed, the relationship to other colored objects, and the subjective assessment of the observer. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 9. DESCRIPTION OF LIGHT:  Scientifically, light is described as visible electro magnetic energy whose wave length is measured in nanometers or billionth of a meter.  The eye is sensitive only to the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, a narrow band with wave lengths of 380 – 750 nm. At the shorter wave lengths lie ultra violet, X & gamma rays, at the longer wave lengths are the infra radiation, microwaves, television & radio transmission. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 10.  White light can be separated into monochromatic components if it passes through prism or diffraction bars. If the wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation is less than 380 nm, it is called ultraviolet radiation and if it exceeds 780 nm, it is called infrared radiation. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 12. QUALITY OF LIGHT  The most common light sources in dental offices are incandescent & fluorescent, neither which are pure white light. An ordinary incandescent light emits relatively higher concentration of yellow light waves than of blue & blue- green, where as fluorescent ceiling fixtures give off relatively high concentrations of blue waves. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 13.  During morning & evening hours the shorter light waves( blues & greens) are scattered, and only the longer ones ( Red end of the spectrum) penetrates the atmosphere. Consequently incident day light at dawn & dusk is rich in yellow & orange but lacking in blue & green.  Northern daylight around the noon hour on a bright day is considered ideal because there is a harmonious balance of visible spectrum. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 14. DESCRIPTION OF COLOR: Munsell Color Order System : The most popular method for describing color is the Munsell system. Despite certain disadvantages, the Munsell system has been widely used in the dental literature. The three attributes of color in this system are called Hue, Value and Chroma. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 15. Hue  Hue is described with the words we normally think of as describing color: red, purple, blue, etc. It is also a term which describes a dimension of color we readily experience when we look at color. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 16.  In munsell color system, hues are divided into 10 gradations: yellow,yellow- red,red,red-purple,purple,purple- blue,blue,blue-green,green,green-yellow www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 17.  Most natural teeth fall into a range between yellow and yellow-red. In a study of 95 extracted anterior teeth, O'Brien et al found that the average Hue was 1.2Y for the gingival third, 1.3Y for middle third, 1.4Y for the incisal third. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 18. Value  Value (lightness) describes overall intensity to how light or dark a color is. It is the only dimension of color that may exist by itself .  It is defined as the relative lightness or darkness of a color or the brightness of an object.  The brightness of any object is a direct consequence of the amount of light energy the object reflects or transmits www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 19.  .  In the Munsell method of describing color,value is divided into 10 gradations, with 0 being black and 10 being white.  Natural teeth range in value from 5.5 t0 8.5. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 20. Chroma.  Chroma (saturation) may be defined as the strength or dominance of the hue. The terms saturation & chroma are used interchangeably in the dental literature mean the concentration of pigment. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 21.  In Munsell color system,maximum chroma depends on the particular Hue but can range from 10 to 14.  Natural teeth are found with chroma ranges from 0.5 to 4. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 23. CIELABCIELAB Color systemColor system :: Determined by the commission internationale deDetermined by the commission internationale de 1’ Eclairage in 1978, this method of evaluating1’ Eclairage in 1978, this method of evaluating color continues to gain acceptance in dentalcolor continues to gain acceptance in dental research.research. In both the Munsell and the CIELAB ColorIn both the Munsell and the CIELAB Color order systems, the location in the color space of aorder systems, the location in the color space of a particular shade is defined by three coordinates:particular shade is defined by three coordinates: Value, Hue, and Chroma for Munsell; L, a, and bValue, Hue, and Chroma for Munsell; L, a, and b for CIELAB.for CIELAB. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 24. L* is a lightness variable proportional to value in the munsell system. It describes achromatic character of the color. a* and b*, The a and b coordinates describe the chromatic characteristics of the color. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 26. Color-Measuring Instruments :Color-Measuring Instruments :  Color selection for dental restorative materials is generally done visually by matching a shade sample. In Industry, electronic color measuring equipment is used.  This equipment consists of spectrophotometers that measure light reflectance at wavelength intervals over the visible spectrum. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 27.  colorimeters that provide direct color coordinate specifications without mathematical manipulation this is accomplished by sampling light reflected from an object through three color filters that simulate the response of the color receptors in the eye.  These instruments have been used extensively in dental research. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 28.  Recently, a color measuring system has been introduced to guide the practicing dentist. This instrument appears to have comparable accuracy to subjective assessment. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 29. Perception of color  Light from an object enters the eye and acts on receptors in the retina (rods and cones). Impulses from these are passed to the optical center of the brain, where an interpretation is made, shade selection is very subjective-different individuals will have different interpretations of the same stimulus. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 30. The Eye :  Under low lighting conditions, only the rods are used (scotopic vision). These receptors allow an interpretation of the brightness (but not the color) of objects to be made.  They are most sensitive to blue-green objects. Color vision is dependent on the cones, which are active under higher lighting conditions (photopic vision). The change from photonic to scotopic visions called dark adaptation and takes about 40 minutes. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 31.  The area with the most cones is in the center of the retina, which is free of rods. The rods begin to predominate toward the periphery. This means that the central field of vision is more color perceptive.  Although the exact mechanism of color vision is not known, there are three types of cones- sensitive to red, green, and blue light-which form an image in much the same way as the additive effect of the pixels in a television picture. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 32. Color Adaptation  Color vision decreases rapidly as an object is observed. The original color appears to become less and less saturated until appears almost gray. Simultaneously, the chroma (intensity) of complementary colors appears greater.  This phenomenon explains the suggestion that shade selection can be enhanced if co operator walls are painted pale blue (complementary to yellow) or that a pale gray- blue surface should be glanced at periodically while viewing color choices. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 33. Deceptive color Perception  The brain can be tricked in how it perceives color. The classic example is the Benham disk. When this black and white disk is illuminated and rotated at an appropriate speed, it appears to be highly colored.  Color is also influenced by surrounding colors, particularly complementary ones. For example, when blue and yellow are placed side by side, their chroma may appear to be increased. The color of teeth can also look different if the patient is wearing brightly colored clothing or lipstick. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 34. Metamerism  Two colors that appear to be a match under a given lighting condition but have different spectral reflectance are called metamers, and the phenomenon is known as metamerism.  For example, two objects that appear to be an identical shade of yellow may absorb and reflect light differently. Normally a yellow object reflects yellow light, but some may actually absorb yellow light and reflect orange and green. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 35.  To an observer, the orange and green combination looks yellow, although when the lighting is changed, the métiers no longer match. This means that a sample that appears to match under the operatory light, for example, may no longer be satisfactory in day-light.  The problem of metamerism can be avoided by selecting a shade and confirming it under different lighting conditions (e.g natural daylight and fluorescent light.) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 36. Fluorescence  Fluorescent materials, such as tooth enamel, re-emit radiant energy at a lower frequency that it is absorbed. For example, ultraviolet radiation is re- emitted as visible light.  In theory, a mismatch can occur if the dental restoration has different fluorescence than the natural tooth. In practice fluorescence does not play a significant role in color matching dental restorations. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 37. Color Blindness  Defects in color vision affect about 8% of the male population and less of the female population.  Different types exist, such as - Achromatism (complete lack of hue sensitivity). - Dichromatism (sensitivity to only two primary hues with deficiency or abnormality of one of the three primary pigments in the retinal cones).  Dentists should therefore have their color perception tested. If any deficiency is detected, the dentist should seek assistance when selecting tooth shades. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 38. Shade selection  Because shade matching is subjective, consistency is difficult to achieve. Considerable variation exists among dentists. Some dentists are unable to duplicate even their own shade selection from one patient to the next.  Fortunately, a lifelike restoration does not have to be an exact color duplicate of the adjacent or contra lateral teeth. It should, however, blend with the teeth as a result of the distribution of ceramic materials in the restoration. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 39.  Shade selection can be improved by applying the principles of light and color and dental ceramic techniques.  General Principles:  The patient should be viewed at eye level so that the most color-sensitive part of the retina will used.  Shade comparison should be made under different lighting conditions. Normally the patient is taken to a window, and the color is confirmed in natural daylight after initial selection under incandescent and fluorescent lighting. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 40.  The teeth to be matched should be clean. If necessary, stains should be removed by prophylaxis.  Shade comparisons should be made at the beginning of a patient’s visit. Teeth increase in value when they are dry, particularly if rubber dam has been used.  Brightly colored clothing should be draped and lipstick removed. The operatory walls should not be brightly painted. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 41.  Shade comparisons should be made quickly, with the color samples placed under the lip directly next to tooth being matched this will ensure that the background of the tooth and the shade sample are the same, which is essential for accurate matching.  The dentist should be aware of eye fatigue, particularly if very bright fiber-optic illumination has been used. The eyes should be rested by focusing on a gray-blue surface immediately before a comparison, because this balances all the color sensors of the retina and resensitizes the eye to the yellow color of the tooth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 42. Commercial Shade Guides  The most convenient method for selecting a shade is a commercially available porcelain shade guide each shade-tab has an opaque backing color, neck color, body color, and incisal color shade selection consists of picking the shade tab that looks the most natural and reproducing this in a laboratory with materials and techniques recommended by the manufacturer.  More recently, shade guides have covered the color space occupied by natural teeth, such as the vitapan 3D-Master shade guide. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 44. Hue Selection  In the popular vita lumen vacuum shade guide., A1,A2,13,A35, And A4 are similar in hue, as are the B,C and D shades Choosing the nearest hue first and then selecting the appropriate match of chroma and value from the tabs available is the recommended technique.  If its chroma or intensity is low, accurately determining a given hue may be difficult. Therefore the region with the highest chroma. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 45. Chroma selection  Once the hue is selected, the best chroma match is chose, for example, if a B hue is determined to be the best match for color variety, there are four available gradations of that hue: B1, B2, B3 and B4.  several comparisons are usually necessary when determining which sample best represents the hue and its corresponding chroma (saturation) level. Between comparisons, glancing at a blue object will rest the operator’s eye and help avoid retinal cone fatigue. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 46. Value Selection  Finally, value is determined with a second commercial guide whose samples are arranged in order of increasing lightness. By holding the second shade guide close to the patient, the operator should be able to determine whether the value of the tooth is with in the shade guide’s range.  Attention is then focused on the range of shade that best represents the value of the tooth and how that range relates to the tab matching for hue and saturation.  An individual will be able to assess the value most effectively by observing from a distance, standing slightly away from the chair, and squinting the eyes. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 47.  By squinting, the observer can reduce the amount of light that reaches the retina. Stimulation of the cones is reduced, and a greater sensitivity to achromatic conditions may result. While squinting, the observer concentrates on which disappears from sight first-the has the lower value.  When the proper value selection has been made, it will be the exception rather than the rule for this to coincide with the determinations for hue and chroma the operator must decide whether to change the previously selected shade sample. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 48.  If the independent value determination is lower than the value of the sample selected for hue and chroma, a change is usually necessary, because increasing the value of an object by adding surface stain (which always reduces brightness) is not possible.  If the value determination is higher than the hue determination, the operator should decide whether this difference can be bridged through internal or surface staining of the restoration. The final decisions about hue, chroma, and value are then communicated to the laboratory. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 49. Vitapan 3D-Master Shade Guide  The manufacturer of this recently introduced shade system claims that it covers the entire tooth color space. The shade samples are grouped in six lightness levels, + each of which has chroma and hue variations in evenly spaced steps.  The shade guide is spaced in steps of 4 CIELAB units in the lightness dimension and 2 CIELAB units in the hue and chroma dimension.  The difference between lightness and color and color steps seems a logical approach to reducing the number of shade samples needed in the guide because of the way the CIELAB Units are visually perceived. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 50.  It seems to match the color difference formula of the color measurement committee (CMC) of the society of dyers and colorists.  Because the guide is evenly spaced, intermediate shades can be predictably formulated by combining porcelain powders. The manufacturer recommends selecting the lightness level first with this system and then selecting the chroma or saturation. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 51. Extended range shade guides  Most commercial shade systems cover a more limited range than the colors found in natural teeth, and the steps in the guide are greater than can be perceived visually.  Some porcelain systems are available with extended range shade guides, and other manufacturers have extended their range over the years. The use of two shade guides is a practical way to extend the range of commercial guides. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 52. Dentin Shade Guides  When using a translucent all-ceramic system for a crown or veneer communicating the shade of the prepared dentin to the dental laboratory is helpful. one system provides specially colored die materials that match the dentin shade guide and enable the technician to judge restoration esthetics. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 53. Custom Shade Guide  Unfortunately, certain teeth may be impossible to match to commercial shade samples. In addition, difficulties may be encountered in reproducing the shade guides in the final restorations.  The extensive use of surface staining has severe drawbacks, because the stains increase surface reflection and prevent light from being transmitted through the porcelain.  One approach to this problem is to extend the concept of a commercial shade guide by making a custom shade. An almost infinite number of can be made by using different combinations of porcelain powders in varying distributions.  However, the procedure is time consuming and is generally confined to specialty practice www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 54. Shade distribution Chart  Shade distribution charting is a practical approach to accurate shade selection and is recommended even when a fairly good match is available from the commercial shade sample.  The tooth is divided into three region; cervical, middle, and incisal. Each region matched independently, either to the corresponding area of a commercial shade sample or to a single color porcelain chip. Because only a single color is matched, intermediate shades can usually be estimated rather easily and duplicated by mixing porcelain powders. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 55.  The junctions between these areas are normally distinct and can be communicated to the laboratory in the form of a diagram. The shade distribution and thickness of the enamel .  Porcelain are particularly important. Individual characteristics are marked on such a sketch and will allow the ceramist to mimic details like hairline fractures, hypo calcification, and proximal discolorations. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 57. How To Take A Shade  When taking a patient’s shade, the dentist has three simple steps to follow: First, determine the value (lightness) by selecting the closest match from one of five value groups. Second, determine the Chroma within the value group from three choices. Third, pick the hue by determining if the tooth has a more yellow or red cast. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 58. STEP 1 Determine the lightness level (value) Hold shade guide to patientís mouth at arms length Start with darkest group moving right to left Select Value group 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 59. STEP 2 Select the chroma From your selected Value group, remove the middle tab (M) and spread the samples out like a fan Select one of the three shade samples to determine Chroma www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 60. STEP 3 Determine the hue Check whether the natural tooth is more yellowish or more reddish than the shade sample selected. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 62. Recent advances in shade- matching technology  Many dentists will tell you that they feel that the most difficult esthetic procedure is a single crown on one central incisor. Many will recommend to patients that they crown both centrals in order to get them to match.  It's frustrating, because there are many beautiful ceramic materials that can create a wonderfully natural-looking tooth. But they all require shade-matching, and there is where the procedure breaks down. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 63.  One effective technique for shade matching is to use photography. Using a high-quality digital camera that captures color-correct images, a shade tab with the shade that is closest to the shade of the tooth is placed next to the tooth in question and is photographed with the tooth.  If needed, several photographs can be taken with different shade tabs. The image can then be e-mailed to the lab, where the technician can compare the shade of the tooth, with its characterizations, to the shade of the tab. If needed, the tab in the photograph can be custom stained.  The custom tab is then wrapped carefully and sent with the case to the lab. This is a very effective method of pinning down an exact shade match for the crown. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 64.  There are some new devices, however, that don't require photographs. They either use spectrophotometry or colorimetry to measure the color.  There are various reasons proposed for favoring one method over the other. All but one of these systems use a handheld device placed on or just in front of the tooth in question.  A shield is used to block out surrounding light and for infection control. Some systems will make a color map of the entire tooth and the screen will display an image of the tooth, similar to what a digital camera does.  The other units will analyze a spot or spots on the tooth and then give numeric information that represents specific porcelain shades. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 65.  One shade matching system that isn't used chair side and doesn't use a handheld device is Clear Match. Clear Match is nothing more than computer software that interprets standard digital photographs of the teeth.  This software will take the photograph and generate a shade that corresponds to a standard shade guide such as Vitapan 3D-Master. It will also generate hue, value, and chroma for each area of the tooth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 66. Shade Eye NCC by Shofu  The Shade Eye NCC Dental Chroma Meter generates a complete recipe to match the shade for a porcelain crown.  It will accommodate several shade guide systems, including its proprietary Shofu Vintage Halo porcelain system, classic Vita shades, Vitapan 3D- Master, Chromascop, or Biodent. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 67.  The base unit can generate a printout, or can download it to a personal computer. On the computer you can use the Shade Eye Viewer software to record all the patient's shade information which can then be e-mailed to the laboratory along with digital photographs of the teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 68. Digital Shade Matching  Vita Easyshade Digital Shade Matching Device. A life like restoration requires accurate color or shade matching.  In addition to our trained eyes and color-balanced environment, we use the Vident Easyshade intra-oral dental spectrophotometer to help with color analysis. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 69. Shade Scan by Cynovad Shade Scan™ measures shades over the entire tooth surface, then analyzes them and generate a shade match report. It likewise can generate a report to be used with any standard shade guide system.  Shade Scan™ creates an image of the tooth with a translucency and characterization map, and then will generate a printed report. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 70. • Besides using Shade Scan™ for crowns and bridges, the manufacturers suggest using it also for direct restorations and to monitor bleaching treatment. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 71. Shade Vision System by X-Rite  The Shade Vision unit uses advanced colorimetry to scientifically determine the hue, value and chroma of the teeth.  The Shade Vision unit will capture an image of the tooth and upload it to a personal computer for processing. Shade information can then be sent to the dental laboratory via e- mail, disk, or by printout.  If the shade match information is sent by electronic file, the laboratory should have the proper software to interpret the data. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 72.  Its manufacturers claim that the Shade Vision system will improve your productivity, reduce chair time and remakes, and improve patient satisfaction. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 73. Spectro Shade™ Micro  It reads the colour of the tooth and indicates the closest available chromatic standard for reconstruction.  It calculates the numerical difference between the natural tooth and the selected colour in terms of brightness, chroma and hue, providing the laboratory with comprehensive information to facilitate its work. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 74.  SpectroShade™ Micro can analyze and identify the colour of a tooth over its entire area. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 76. VITA Easy shade by Vident  The VITA Easy shade unit consists of a handpiece that contains multiple spectrophotometers and can be covered with a transparent infection-control sleeve.  The Easy shade probe feeds information to a touch-screen readout which then provides a prescription in both Vitapan 3D- Master and classic VITA shades. It will highlight the closest shade match in both of these shade guides. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 77. Shade-Eye-EX  The New Standard in Color Matching New Shade Eye-EX™ Chroma Meter is so accurate, it makes other shade matching methods obsolete.  Finally, there's a fast, easy way to accurately measure your tooth's exact shade.  Shade Eye-EX eliminates all of the variables - lighting, surrounding colors, the skill level of the shade taker, the individual's eye for color, even fatigue - and quickly and effortlessly prints out a "recipe" based on the Vintage Halo system for porcelain restorations. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 78. The CEREC Procedure  First, the dentist removes any old fillings and existing decay. The tooth is then scanned using an infra red scanner, and the exact dimensions are fed directly into the CEREC computer.  A three dimensional picture of your tooth appears immediately on the computer monitor and you can watch the CEREC screen as your dentist manipulates the 3D software. By using CEREC's CAD (Computer Aided Design) technology, the missing part of the tooth is designed to fit back into place, like the piece of a jigsaw puzzle.  The result is a digitally customized and exact replacement for your tooth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 80.  Next, the CEREC 3 sends all the specific information to a robotic milling machine for processing.  A ceramic block that matches the exact shading of natural tooth color is selected and placed in the milling unit, where a precise diamond-cut ceramic restoration is instantly created.  The dentist then quickly bonds this new custom-made restoration into place and any necessary adjustments are made for your comfort.  And within as little as a single visit, your CEREC restoration is now complete www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 81. Review of literature  William B. Schwabacher, PhD, * Richard J. Goodkind, Interdependence of the Hue, Value, and Chroma in the Middle Site of Anterior Human Teeth. Journul of Prosthodontics, 1994 :pg 188-192.  Purpose: This study examines how the color coordinates of human teeth are related to each other and describes a mathematical relationship between Hue, Value, and Chroma of the middle site of anterior teeth . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 82.  100 extracted anterior teeth were examined for this study.  Results: Correlations between Hue, Value, and Chroma were not significant for incisal and cervical sites. For the middle site, these Munsell color coordinates were highly correlated and closely confined to a planar region of the color space, described by a single equation.  Conclusion: Human tooth color distribution seems to be relatively simple, at least for the middle site. It seems possible that a systematic method of shade selection can be made available. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 83.  Kenneth A. King, DDS; and Waldemar G. deRijk, MS, PhD, DDS. Variations of L.a.b. Values among Vitapan Classical Shade Guides. J Prosthodont 2007;16:352- 356.  Purpose: To measure the variations in L.a.b. values of a group of 25 guides and to assess whether shade guides are indeed interchangeable.  The L.a.b. values of individual shade tabs were measured with a Lab- Scan(tm) XE scanning spectrocolorimeter (SSC) with a special attachment for reproducibly positioning shade tabs. Each shade guide (Vitapan Classical, Vident) contained 16 shade tabs. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 84.  The tabs of each of the 25 shade guides were read five times in the SSC, without moving the specimen. Measurements and calculations of E, L., a., and b. were performed using Universal SoftwareV4.10 (Hunter Associates Laboratory).  Differences in color are expressed as E in color science. The standard deviation of E (Esd) and the range of E (Er) for each of the shades were used as a .E value to assess color differences.  Conclusion: The differences observed between shade guides are larger than the variations induced by the experimental method. The difference in E values for the shades C1 and C2 is 2.19; the observed Er is of 3.05. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 85.  F. D. Jarad, M. D. Russell and B. W. Moss, The use of digital imaging for colour matching and communication in restorative dentistry. British Dental Journal (2005); 199, 43-49.  Objective To develop a shade matching method based on digital imaging and to compare observers' ability using this method with the conventional one set against a spectrophotometric 'gold standard' www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 86.  Method Two Vita Lumin shade guides were used in this study, nine shades being selected from the first Vita Lumin shade guide, A2, A3, A3.5, B2, B3, B4, C1, C2 and C3.  A second shade guide was used to match the selected shades. A Nikon Coolpix 990 digital camera with Nikon SB21B ring flash was used to record the digital images of the shade tabs of the two shade guides and the images were processed using Adobe Photoshop software A total of 27 samples (three replicates of each shade of the nine tabs selected).  Conclusion The observers' shade matching performance was significantly better with the computer method compared with the conventional one. There was a large variation in the matching ability. The digital camera can be used as a means of colour measurements in the dental clinic. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 87.  CLARK SAID, "Color, like form, has three dimensions, but they are not in general use. Many of us have been taught neither names, nor the scales of their measurement. In other words, we as dentists are not educationally equipped to approach a color problem.” www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 88. CONCLUSION:  The increase in newer types of ceramic restorations and the improving quality of esthetics means the dentist of the 21st century must be trained to detect differences in color and shades in individual teeth, select a shade that reflects the color and exact shade, transmit this information to a dental technician, and then be able to make any necessary adjustments to the restoration.  An understanding of the science of color and color perception is important for the success of an esthetic restoration. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 89. REFERENCES  1.Fundamentals of fixed prosthodontics- H.T.Shillingberg.  2.Contemparary fixed prosthodontics- S.F.Roseintiel.  3.Tylman’s theory of practice of fixed prosthodontics.  4. shape and color by Gerald ubbassy.  5.Jane D brewer, Alwin wee , Robert seghi .Advances in color Matching. Dent Clin N Am 2004 pg.341-358.www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 90.  6. F. D. Jarad, M. D. Russell and B. W. Moss, The use of digital imaging for colour matching and communication in restorative dentistry. British Dental Journal (2005); 199, 43-49.  7. William B. Schwabacher, PhD, * Richard J. Goodkind, Interdependence of the Hue, Value, and Chroma in the Middle Site of Anterior Human Teeth.Journul ofProsthodontics, 1994 :pg 188-192.  8. Kenneth A. King, DDS; and Waldemar G. deRijk, MS, PhD, DDS. Variations of L.a.b. Values among Vitapan Classical Shade Guides. J Prosthodont 2007;16:352-356.  9. Alma -Dozi´c, DDS, PhD;Cornelis J. Kleverlaan, PhD;Ahmed El-Zohairy, DDS;and Ghazal Khashayar. Performance of Five Commercially Available Tooth Color-Measuring Devices. J Prosthodont 2007;16:93- 100. www.indiandentalacademy.com