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MUSIC THERAPY’S IMPACT IN PALLIATIVE CARE
Dr. TARA RAJENDRAN, MBBS MFA
Founder, ‘Oncology and Strings’,
Ph.D. student,
Department of Music, Faculty of Fine Arts,
Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu
F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 ,
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DISCLOSURES: NO CONFLICTS OF INTEREST REPORTED
F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 ,
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P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A
‘Just listening to Music’≠‘Music Therapy’≠‘Music Medicine’
Music Therapy
“Clinical & evidence-based use of music interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic
relationship by a credentialed professional who has completed an approved music therapy program”
—American Music Therapy Association (AMTA)
Music Medicine
Patients listen to pre‐recorded music that is offered by a medical professional
Bradt J, Dileo C, Myers-Coffman K, Biondo J. Music interventions for improving psychological and physical outcomes in people with cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2021, Issue 10. Art. No.: CD006911. DOI:
10.1002/14651858.CD006911.pub4. Accessed 20 December 2023.
F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 ,
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P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A
Newborn baby participating in listening experiment. Credit: Eszter Rozgonyiné Lányi (https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/it-turns-out-we-were-born-to-groove/?utm_medium=social&utm_source=facebook&utm_campaign=socialflow&fbclid=IwAR1tqrYXx9didsKjoTktIllpD0fxpx-
rZQwGUJS-AS4bdG-CYI7c7zuKqrQ)
Winkler I, Háden GP, Ladinig O, Sziller I, Honing H. Newborn infants detect the beat in music. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Feb 17;106(7):2468-71. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0809035106. Epub 2009 Jan 26. PMID: 19171894; PMCID: PMC2631079.
BEAT PERCEPTION IS INNATE
F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 ,
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P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A
. Core brain regions associated with musical activity. Based on Tramo 2001 and updated in 2006 (from Levitin 2006).
F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 ,
S U N D A Y( 1 1 A M - 1 1 . 2 0 A M)
P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A
Possible Neurobiological Mechanism for the Rehabilitative Effect of Music
Sihvonen, A. J., Särkämö, T., Leo, V., Tervaniemi, M., Altenmüller, E., & Soinila, S. (2017). Music-based interventions in neurological rehabilitation. The Lancet. Neurology, 16(8), 648–660. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(17)30168-0
F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 ,
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P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)—neurotrophin involved in the synaptic plasticity and survival of neurons
Music exposure— ↑ BDNF levels —attenuates anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in rats
MUSIC’S IMPACT ON ANXIETY
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6662454/
F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 ,
S U N D A Y( 1 1 A M - 1 1 . 2 0 A M)
P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A
MUSIC PREVENTS STRESS-INDUCED DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY-LIKE BEHAVIOR IN MICE
Fu, Q., Qiu, R., Chen, L. et al. Music prevents stress-induced depression and anxiety-like behavior in mice. Transl Psychiatry 13, 317 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-023-02606-z
F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 ,
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P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A
Wenjie Zhou et al. ,Sound induces analgesia through corticothalamic circuits.Science377,198-204(2022).DOI:10.1126/science.abn4663
• Pain relief by sound is not purely attributable to stress reduction and distraction.
• This 2022 study reveals the corticothalamic circuits underlying sound-promoted analgesia by deciphering the role of the
auditory system in pain processing.
MUSIC’S IMPACT ON PAIN
F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 ,
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P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A
META-ANALYSIS OF RCTs ON
MUSIC-BASED INTERVENTIONS
2012-32 RCTs (3181 participants)—↓ anxiety and depression before, during, and after cancer procedures
2014--21 RCTs (17 studies—anxiety, 8—depression, 6—pain, and 5—fatigue outcomes) were significantly effective i
2016--97 RCTs music interventions—relief of acute, procedural, and cancer/chronic pain in the medical setting.
2017- 20 RCTs —Music ↓ anxiety, pain, and improving mood—patients with cancer in active treatment
2019- 11 RCTs (969 participants): effective intervention to alleviate the pain and psychological symptoms of termina
F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 ,
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P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A
2020- 19 RCTs (1,548 patients)— improve the overall quality of life of patients with cancer
2020-10 RCTs (632 patients)— effectively ↓ reduce the incidence of anticipatory Chemotherapy-induced nausea a
2021 - 8 RCTs (467 patients)- mitigated cancer-related-fatigue in patients who are undergoing active treatment or h
2021 81 RCTs (5576 participants) may have beneficial effects on anxiety, depression, pain, and fatigue in adults with ca
META-ANALYSIS OF RCTs ON
MUSIC-BASED INTERVENTIONS
F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 ,
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P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A
2022 6 RCTs (279 participants) The music therapy interventions applied to patients with hematological cancers were found to
2022 6RCTs Music intervention may be a beneficial tool for anxiety reduction and QoL among cancer patients receiving chemo
2022- 5RCTs- Music therapy could be an effective, simple, non-pharmacological option in relieving anxiety during breast bio
2023-7 RCTs (747 advanced cancer patients) spiritual well-being of palliative care patients ( P < .001) functional Assessme
META-ANALYSIS OF RCTs ON
MUSIC-BASED INTERVENTIONS
F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 ,
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P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A
Do we have Music therapy RCTs in Indian clinical settings? NO
AL MEDICAL COMMISSION (NMC)- ACCREDITED MUSIC THERAPY TRAINING PROG
‘MUSIC THERAPY’
• Profession-specific term (Eg, speech therapy/nursing/physiotherapy/dental therapy)
• The term MUST NOT be used to describe interventions delivered by healthcare professionals
who do not hold MT degree board certification/license
• Conveys a specific clinical and academic training level​.
MUSIC MEDICINE ✅
F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 ,
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P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A
Systematic Review-Meta-analysis on RCTs-Classical Indian Music-Pain and
Anxiety in Hospital Settings
Bias
Poor reporting
Paucity in RCTs
Methodological Heterorogeneity
Lack of masking/blinding
Subjective participant-reported outcome
measures
Absence of Critical Details
Poor quality of existing RCTs
Institutional human Ethics Committee
Approval
Randomization process
F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 ,
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P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A
CHALLENGES SOLUTIONS
1. LACK OF HIGH-QUALITY RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED
TRIALS ON INDIAN MUSIC AMONG INDIAN PATIENTS
INCORPORATE MULTICULTURAL LOCAL/INDIGENOUS
MUSIC IN COGNITIVE MUSIC SCIENCE RESEARCH AND
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS
2. ABSENCE OF NATIONAL MEDICAL REGULATORY BODY-
ACCREDITED ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMS FOR MUSIC
THERAPY IN INDIA
GREATER IMPLEMENTATION EFFORTS ARE REQUIRED IN
FORMING:
1) A PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR MUSIC THERAPY
TO SET GUIDELINES FOR AN APPROPRIATE TRAINING
CURRICULUM
2) GUIDELINES FOR REGULATIONS AND CREDENTIALING
PROCEDURES FOR PROVIDERS
3. POOR QUALITY OF EXISTING RANDOMIZED
CONTROLLED TRIALS
POOR REPORTING QUALITY
RESEARCH WORKSHOPS
CURRENT CHALLENGES IN INDIA
F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 ,
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P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A
POTENTIAL FUTURE DIRECTIONS
Basic and Mechanistic Research
• Interaction between music (Indian Music) & the brain
Translational and Clinical Research • Encourage RCTs on Indian music at academic institutions.
Methods and Outcomes
• Longitudinal/prospective/long-term studies to assess the outcomes of music interventions
• Rigorous reporting of interventions, methodologies, and results
• Establish standardized and/or personalized outcome measures.
Capacity Building and Infrastructure
• Funding
• Multidisciplinary research collaboration- neuroscientists+musicians+physicians
• NMC-accredited professional organization for music therapy
F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 ,
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P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A
Robb, S. L., Carpenter, J. S., Burns, D. S. (2010). Reporting guidelines for music-based interventions. Journal of Health Psychology, 16(2), 342-352 DOI: 10.1177/1359105310374781.
Reporting Guidelines for Music-based Interventions 2011
Sheri L. Robb, PhD, MT-BC, Debra S. Burns, PhD, MT-BC, and Janet S. Carpenter, PhD,
RN, FAAN
A. Intervention Theory Rationale for the music selected: how qualities & delivery of the music are expected to impact targeted
outcomes.
B: Intervention Content Precise details of the music intervention+descriptions of procedures for tailoring interventions to individual
participants.
B.1: Person Selecting the
Music
(1) pre-selected by the investigator
(2) Participants selected from a limited set
(3) Participants selected from their own collection
(4) tailored based on patient assessment
B.2: Music • Published music (reference for sheet music/sound recording)
• Improvised/original music—describe the music’s overall structure (i.e., form, elements, instruments, etc).
B.3. Music Delivery Method
(Live/Recorded)
Live music— specify who delivered the music
—the size of the performance group (e.g., interventionist only, interventionist, and participant).
Recorded music— specify placement of playback equipment and the use of headphones vs. speakers.
—Specify who determined/controlled volume (e.g., interventionist; participant.
—Specify the decibel level of music delivered and/or use of volume controls to limit decibels.
F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 ,
S U N D A Y( 1 1 A M - 1 1 . 2 0 A M)
P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A
Robb, S. L., Carpenter, J. S., Burns, D. S. (2010). Reporting guidelines for music-based interventions. Journal of Health Psychology, 16(2), 342-352 DOI: 10.1177/1359105310374781.
Reporting Guidelines for Music-based Interventions 2011
Sheri L. Robb, PhD, MT-BC, Debra S. Burns, PhD, MT-BC, and Janet S. Carpenter, PhD,
RN, FAAN
C: Intervention Delivery
Schedule
Report the number of sessions, session duration, and session frequency, including practice sessions.
D: Interventionist Specify interventionist qualifications & credentials.
Specify how many interventionists deliver study conditions.
B.4: Intervention
Materials
Specify music and/or non-music materials.
B.5: Intervention
Strategies
Eg: Music listening, songwriting, improvisation, lyric analysis, rhythmic auditory stimulation, etc).
F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 ,
S U N D A Y( 1 1 A M - 1 1 . 2 0 A M)
P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A
Robb, S. L., Carpenter, J. S., Burns, D. S. (2010). Reporting guidelines for music-based interventions. Journal of Health Psychology, 16(2), 342-352 DOI: 10.1177/1359105310374781.
Reporting Guidelines for Music-based Interventions 2011
Sheri L. Robb, PhD, MT-BC, Debra S. Burns, PhD, MT-BC, and Janet S. Carpenter, PhD,
RN, FAAN
E: Treatment Fidelity Describe strategies used to ensure that treatment and/or control conditions were delivered as intended (e.g.,
interventionist training, manualized protocols, and intervention monitoring).
F: Setting Describe where the intervention was delivered; include location, privacy level, and ambient sound.
G: Unit of Delivery Specify whether interventions were delivered to individuals or groups of individuals, including the size of the
group.
F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 ,
S U N D A Y( 1 1 A M - 1 1 . 2 0 A M)
P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A
• Chairpersons: Dr. H M Iqbal Bahar MD, Dr. Megha Shah MD, Dr. Jitesh
Sarvaiya MD
• Dr. Anuja Damani MD, Associate Professor, Department of Palliative
Medicine and Supportive Care, KMC, Manipal
• Organising Committee, IAPCON 2024
• Department of Palliative Medicine, Gujarat Cancer & Research Institute,
Ahmedabad.
For Lecture Handouts: tara.rajendran@icloud.com
ACKNOWLEDGMENT

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Music Therapy's Impact in Palliative Care| IAPCON2024| Dr. Tara Rajendran

  • 1. MUSIC THERAPY’S IMPACT IN PALLIATIVE CARE Dr. TARA RAJENDRAN, MBBS MFA Founder, ‘Oncology and Strings’, Ph.D. student, Department of Music, Faculty of Fine Arts, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 , S U N D A Y( 1 1 A M - 1 1 . 2 0 A M) DISCLOSURES: NO CONFLICTS OF INTEREST REPORTED
  • 2. F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 , S U N D A Y( 1 1 A M - 1 1 . 2 0 A M) P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A ‘Just listening to Music’≠‘Music Therapy’≠‘Music Medicine’ Music Therapy “Clinical & evidence-based use of music interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic relationship by a credentialed professional who has completed an approved music therapy program” —American Music Therapy Association (AMTA) Music Medicine Patients listen to pre‐recorded music that is offered by a medical professional Bradt J, Dileo C, Myers-Coffman K, Biondo J. Music interventions for improving psychological and physical outcomes in people with cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2021, Issue 10. Art. No.: CD006911. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006911.pub4. Accessed 20 December 2023.
  • 3. F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 , S U N D A Y( 1 1 A M - 1 1 . 2 0 A M) P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A Newborn baby participating in listening experiment. Credit: Eszter Rozgonyiné Lányi (https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/it-turns-out-we-were-born-to-groove/?utm_medium=social&utm_source=facebook&utm_campaign=socialflow&fbclid=IwAR1tqrYXx9didsKjoTktIllpD0fxpx- rZQwGUJS-AS4bdG-CYI7c7zuKqrQ) Winkler I, Háden GP, Ladinig O, Sziller I, Honing H. Newborn infants detect the beat in music. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Feb 17;106(7):2468-71. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0809035106. Epub 2009 Jan 26. PMID: 19171894; PMCID: PMC2631079. BEAT PERCEPTION IS INNATE
  • 4. F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 , S U N D A Y( 1 1 A M - 1 1 . 2 0 A M) P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A . Core brain regions associated with musical activity. Based on Tramo 2001 and updated in 2006 (from Levitin 2006).
  • 5. F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 , S U N D A Y( 1 1 A M - 1 1 . 2 0 A M) P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A Possible Neurobiological Mechanism for the Rehabilitative Effect of Music Sihvonen, A. J., Särkämö, T., Leo, V., Tervaniemi, M., Altenmüller, E., & Soinila, S. (2017). Music-based interventions in neurological rehabilitation. The Lancet. Neurology, 16(8), 648–660. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(17)30168-0
  • 6. F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 , S U N D A Y( 1 1 A M - 1 1 . 2 0 A M) P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)—neurotrophin involved in the synaptic plasticity and survival of neurons Music exposure— ↑ BDNF levels —attenuates anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in rats MUSIC’S IMPACT ON ANXIETY https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6662454/
  • 7. F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 , S U N D A Y( 1 1 A M - 1 1 . 2 0 A M) P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A MUSIC PREVENTS STRESS-INDUCED DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY-LIKE BEHAVIOR IN MICE Fu, Q., Qiu, R., Chen, L. et al. Music prevents stress-induced depression and anxiety-like behavior in mice. Transl Psychiatry 13, 317 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-023-02606-z
  • 8. F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 , S U N D A Y( 1 1 A M - 1 1 . 2 0 A M) P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A Wenjie Zhou et al. ,Sound induces analgesia through corticothalamic circuits.Science377,198-204(2022).DOI:10.1126/science.abn4663 • Pain relief by sound is not purely attributable to stress reduction and distraction. • This 2022 study reveals the corticothalamic circuits underlying sound-promoted analgesia by deciphering the role of the auditory system in pain processing. MUSIC’S IMPACT ON PAIN
  • 9. F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 , S U N D A Y( 1 1 A M - 1 1 . 2 0 A M) P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A META-ANALYSIS OF RCTs ON MUSIC-BASED INTERVENTIONS 2012-32 RCTs (3181 participants)—↓ anxiety and depression before, during, and after cancer procedures 2014--21 RCTs (17 studies—anxiety, 8—depression, 6—pain, and 5—fatigue outcomes) were significantly effective i 2016--97 RCTs music interventions—relief of acute, procedural, and cancer/chronic pain in the medical setting. 2017- 20 RCTs —Music ↓ anxiety, pain, and improving mood—patients with cancer in active treatment 2019- 11 RCTs (969 participants): effective intervention to alleviate the pain and psychological symptoms of termina
  • 10. F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 , S U N D A Y( 1 1 A M - 1 1 . 2 0 A M) P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A 2020- 19 RCTs (1,548 patients)— improve the overall quality of life of patients with cancer 2020-10 RCTs (632 patients)— effectively ↓ reduce the incidence of anticipatory Chemotherapy-induced nausea a 2021 - 8 RCTs (467 patients)- mitigated cancer-related-fatigue in patients who are undergoing active treatment or h 2021 81 RCTs (5576 participants) may have beneficial effects on anxiety, depression, pain, and fatigue in adults with ca META-ANALYSIS OF RCTs ON MUSIC-BASED INTERVENTIONS
  • 11. F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 , S U N D A Y( 1 1 A M - 1 1 . 2 0 A M) P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A 2022 6 RCTs (279 participants) The music therapy interventions applied to patients with hematological cancers were found to 2022 6RCTs Music intervention may be a beneficial tool for anxiety reduction and QoL among cancer patients receiving chemo 2022- 5RCTs- Music therapy could be an effective, simple, non-pharmacological option in relieving anxiety during breast bio 2023-7 RCTs (747 advanced cancer patients) spiritual well-being of palliative care patients ( P < .001) functional Assessme META-ANALYSIS OF RCTs ON MUSIC-BASED INTERVENTIONS
  • 12. F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 , S U N D A Y( 1 1 A M - 1 1 . 2 0 A M) P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A Do we have Music therapy RCTs in Indian clinical settings? NO AL MEDICAL COMMISSION (NMC)- ACCREDITED MUSIC THERAPY TRAINING PROG ‘MUSIC THERAPY’ • Profession-specific term (Eg, speech therapy/nursing/physiotherapy/dental therapy) • The term MUST NOT be used to describe interventions delivered by healthcare professionals who do not hold MT degree board certification/license • Conveys a specific clinical and academic training level​. MUSIC MEDICINE ✅
  • 13. F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 , S U N D A Y( 1 1 A M - 1 1 . 2 0 A M) P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A Systematic Review-Meta-analysis on RCTs-Classical Indian Music-Pain and Anxiety in Hospital Settings Bias Poor reporting Paucity in RCTs Methodological Heterorogeneity Lack of masking/blinding Subjective participant-reported outcome measures Absence of Critical Details Poor quality of existing RCTs Institutional human Ethics Committee Approval Randomization process
  • 14. F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 , S U N D A Y( 1 1 A M - 1 1 . 2 0 A M) P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A CHALLENGES SOLUTIONS 1. LACK OF HIGH-QUALITY RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS ON INDIAN MUSIC AMONG INDIAN PATIENTS INCORPORATE MULTICULTURAL LOCAL/INDIGENOUS MUSIC IN COGNITIVE MUSIC SCIENCE RESEARCH AND RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS 2. ABSENCE OF NATIONAL MEDICAL REGULATORY BODY- ACCREDITED ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMS FOR MUSIC THERAPY IN INDIA GREATER IMPLEMENTATION EFFORTS ARE REQUIRED IN FORMING: 1) A PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR MUSIC THERAPY TO SET GUIDELINES FOR AN APPROPRIATE TRAINING CURRICULUM 2) GUIDELINES FOR REGULATIONS AND CREDENTIALING PROCEDURES FOR PROVIDERS 3. POOR QUALITY OF EXISTING RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS POOR REPORTING QUALITY RESEARCH WORKSHOPS CURRENT CHALLENGES IN INDIA
  • 15. F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 , S U N D A Y( 1 1 A M - 1 1 . 2 0 A M) P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A POTENTIAL FUTURE DIRECTIONS Basic and Mechanistic Research • Interaction between music (Indian Music) & the brain Translational and Clinical Research • Encourage RCTs on Indian music at academic institutions. Methods and Outcomes • Longitudinal/prospective/long-term studies to assess the outcomes of music interventions • Rigorous reporting of interventions, methodologies, and results • Establish standardized and/or personalized outcome measures. Capacity Building and Infrastructure • Funding • Multidisciplinary research collaboration- neuroscientists+musicians+physicians • NMC-accredited professional organization for music therapy
  • 16. F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 , S U N D A Y( 1 1 A M - 1 1 . 2 0 A M) P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A Robb, S. L., Carpenter, J. S., Burns, D. S. (2010). Reporting guidelines for music-based interventions. Journal of Health Psychology, 16(2), 342-352 DOI: 10.1177/1359105310374781. Reporting Guidelines for Music-based Interventions 2011 Sheri L. Robb, PhD, MT-BC, Debra S. Burns, PhD, MT-BC, and Janet S. Carpenter, PhD, RN, FAAN A. Intervention Theory Rationale for the music selected: how qualities & delivery of the music are expected to impact targeted outcomes. B: Intervention Content Precise details of the music intervention+descriptions of procedures for tailoring interventions to individual participants. B.1: Person Selecting the Music (1) pre-selected by the investigator (2) Participants selected from a limited set (3) Participants selected from their own collection (4) tailored based on patient assessment B.2: Music • Published music (reference for sheet music/sound recording) • Improvised/original music—describe the music’s overall structure (i.e., form, elements, instruments, etc). B.3. Music Delivery Method (Live/Recorded) Live music— specify who delivered the music —the size of the performance group (e.g., interventionist only, interventionist, and participant). Recorded music— specify placement of playback equipment and the use of headphones vs. speakers. —Specify who determined/controlled volume (e.g., interventionist; participant. —Specify the decibel level of music delivered and/or use of volume controls to limit decibels.
  • 17. F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 , S U N D A Y( 1 1 A M - 1 1 . 2 0 A M) P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A Robb, S. L., Carpenter, J. S., Burns, D. S. (2010). Reporting guidelines for music-based interventions. Journal of Health Psychology, 16(2), 342-352 DOI: 10.1177/1359105310374781. Reporting Guidelines for Music-based Interventions 2011 Sheri L. Robb, PhD, MT-BC, Debra S. Burns, PhD, MT-BC, and Janet S. Carpenter, PhD, RN, FAAN C: Intervention Delivery Schedule Report the number of sessions, session duration, and session frequency, including practice sessions. D: Interventionist Specify interventionist qualifications & credentials. Specify how many interventionists deliver study conditions. B.4: Intervention Materials Specify music and/or non-music materials. B.5: Intervention Strategies Eg: Music listening, songwriting, improvisation, lyric analysis, rhythmic auditory stimulation, etc).
  • 18. F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 , S U N D A Y( 1 1 A M - 1 1 . 2 0 A M) P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A Robb, S. L., Carpenter, J. S., Burns, D. S. (2010). Reporting guidelines for music-based interventions. Journal of Health Psychology, 16(2), 342-352 DOI: 10.1177/1359105310374781. Reporting Guidelines for Music-based Interventions 2011 Sheri L. Robb, PhD, MT-BC, Debra S. Burns, PhD, MT-BC, and Janet S. Carpenter, PhD, RN, FAAN E: Treatment Fidelity Describe strategies used to ensure that treatment and/or control conditions were delivered as intended (e.g., interventionist training, manualized protocols, and intervention monitoring). F: Setting Describe where the intervention was delivered; include location, privacy level, and ambient sound. G: Unit of Delivery Specify whether interventions were delivered to individuals or groups of individuals, including the size of the group.
  • 19. F E B R U A R Y, 1 1 , 2 0 2 4 , S U N D A Y( 1 1 A M - 1 1 . 2 0 A M) P R E S E N TE D B Y D R . TA R A R A J E N D R A N , MB B S MF A • Chairpersons: Dr. H M Iqbal Bahar MD, Dr. Megha Shah MD, Dr. Jitesh Sarvaiya MD • Dr. Anuja Damani MD, Associate Professor, Department of Palliative Medicine and Supportive Care, KMC, Manipal • Organising Committee, IAPCON 2024 • Department of Palliative Medicine, Gujarat Cancer & Research Institute, Ahmedabad. For Lecture Handouts: tara.rajendran@icloud.com ACKNOWLEDGMENT