SlideShare a Scribd company logo
©2017, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved
12 Factor Serverless
Applications
Chris Munns – Senior Developer Advocate - Serverless
About me:
Chris Munns - munns@amazon.com, @chrismunns
• Senior Developer Advocate - Serverless
• New Yorker
• Previously:
• AWS Business Development Manager – DevOps, July ’15 - Feb ‘17
• AWS Solutions Architect Nov, 2011- Dec 2014
• Formerly on operations teams @Etsy and @Meetup
• Little time at a hedge fund, Xerox and a few other startups
• Rochester Institute of Technology: Applied Networking and
Systems Administration ’05
• Internet infrastructure geek
https://secure.flickr.com/photos/mgifford/4525333972
Why are we
here today?
The “12 Factor” model & serverless applications
• 12 Factor applications were popularized by developers building
large scale applications on platforms such as Heroku
• In recent years the 12 Factor guidelines have been considered best
practices for both developers and operations engineers regardless
of the application’s use-case and at nearly any scale
• Many of the 12 Factor guidelines align directly with best practices
for serverless applications and are improved upon given the nature
of AWS Lambda, Amazon API Gateway, and other AWS services
• However, some of the 12 Factor guidelines don’t directly align with
serverless applications or are interpreted very differently
From: 12factor.net
From: 12factor.net
From: 12factor.net
From: 12factor.net
From: 12factor.net
From: 12factor.net
From: 12factor.net
No servers to provision
or manage
Scales with usage
Never pay for idle Availability and fault
tolerance built in
Serverless means…
Serverless application
SERVICES (ANYTHING)
Changes in
data state
Requests to
endpoints
Changes in
resource state
EVENT SOURCE FUNCTION
Node.js
Python
Java
C#
Common Lambda use cases
Web
Applications
• Static
websites
• Complex web
apps
• Packages for
Flask and
Express
Data
Processing
• Real time
• MapReduce
• Batch
Chatbots
• Powering
chatbot logic
Backends
• Apps &
services
• Mobile
• IoT
</></>
Amazon
Alexa
• Powering
voice-enabled
apps
• Alexa Skills
Kit
IT
Automation
• Policy engines
• Extending
AWS services
• Infrastructure
management
The 12 Factors:
1. Codebase
2. Dependencies
3. Config
4. Backing
services
5. Build, release,
run
6. Process
7. Port Binding
8. Concurrency
9. Disposability
10.Dev/prod
parity
11.Logs
12.Admin
processes
Let’s explore how the 12 Factors apply to a serverless
application:
1. Codebase
12Factor.net: “One codebase tracked in revision control, many
deploys”
Serverless Apps: All code should be stored in revision control (a
development best practice). The same repository should be used for all
environments deployed to. The bounds of an “application” differ in
serverless terms:
• If events are shared (ie. a common Amazon API Gateway) then
Lambda function code for those events should be put in the same
repository
• Otherwise break “services” along event source into their own
repositories
12Factor.net: “Explicitly declare and isolate dependencies”
Serverless Apps: Code that needs to be used by multiple functions
should be packaged into its own library. Include those packages inside
of your deployment package. Every language Lambda supports has a
model for this:
2. Dependencies
Node.js & Python
• .zip file consisting of
your code and any
dependencies
• Can use npm/pip.
• All dependencies must
be at root level
Java
• Either .zip file with all
code/dependencies, or
standalone .jar with
compiled class &
resource files at root
level, required jars in /lib
directory
• Can use Maven
C# (.NET Core)
• Either .zip file with all
code/dependencies,
or a standalone .dll
• Can use Nuget
• All assemblies (.dll)
at root level
3. Config
12Factor.net: “Store config in the environment”
Serverless Apps: Many ways to do this in serverless applications:
• Lambda Environment Variables:
• Key-value pairs available via standard environment variable APIs such as
process.env for Node.js or os.environ for Python
• Support KMS encryption
• API Gateway Stages:
• Key-value pairs available for configuring API Gateway functionality or to pass
on to HTTP endpoints as URI parameters or configuration parameters to a
Lambda invocation
• AWS Systems Manager Parameter Store:
AWS Systems Manager – Parameter Store
Centralized store to manage your
configuration data
• supports hierarchies
• plain-text or encrypted with KMS
• Can send notifications of changes
to Amazon SNS/ AWS Lambda
• Can be secured with IAM
• Calls recorded in CloudTrail
• Can be tagged
• Available via API/SDK
Useful for: centralized environment
variables, secrets control, feature
flags
from __future__ import print_function
import json
import boto3
ssm = boto3.client('ssm', 'us-east-1')
def get_parameters():
response = ssm.get_parameters(
Names=['LambdaSecureString'],WithDe
cryption=True
)
for parameter in
response['Parameters']:
return parameter['Value']
def lambda_handler(event, context):
value = get_parameters()
print("value1 = " + value)
return value # Echo back the first key
value
4. Backing services
12Factor.net: “Treat backing services as attached resources”
Serverless Apps: No differences. Resources that Lambda functions
connect to, such as databases, should have their endpoints and
access credentials made available via config resources or IAM policies
👍
5. Build, release, run
12Factor.net: “Strictly separate build and run stages”
Serverless Apps: No differences. Development best practices such
as Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery should be followed.
• Use AWS CodeBuild and AWS CodePipeline to support this:
AWS CodeBuild AWS CodePipeline
version: 0.1
environment_variables:
plaintext:
"INPUT_FILE": "saml.yaml”
"S3_BUCKET": ""
phases:
install:
commands:
- npm install
pre_build:
commands:
- eslint *.js
build:
commands:
- npm test
post_build:
commands:
- aws cloudformation package --template $INPUT_FILE --s3-
bucket $S3_BUCKET --output-template post-saml.yaml
artifacts:
type: zip
files:
- post-saml.yaml
- beta.json
Serverless App buildspec.yml Example
version: 0.1
environment_variables:
plaintext:
"INPUT_FILE": "saml.yaml”
"S3_BUCKET": ""
phases:
install:
commands:
- npm install
pre_build:
commands:
- eslint *.js
build:
commands:
- npm test
post_build:
commands:
- aws cloudformation package --template $INPUT_FILE --s3-
bucket $S3_BUCKET --output-template post-saml.yaml
artifacts:
type: zip
files:
- post-saml.yaml
- beta.json
• Variables to be used by phases of
build
• Examples for what you can do in
the phases of a build:
• You can install packages or run
commands to prepare your
environment in ”install”.
• Run syntax checking,
commands in “pre_build”.
• Execute your build/test tools or
commands in “build”
• Execute the CloudFormation
“package” command to package
your serverless application with
SAM in “post_build”
• Create and store an artifact in S3
Serverless App buildspec.yml Example
Delivery via CodePipeline
Pipeline flow:
1. Commit your code to a source code repository
2. Package/Test in CodeBuild
3. Use CloudFormation actions in CodePipeline to
create or update stacks via SAM templates
Optional: Make use of ChangeSets
4. Make use of specific stage/environment
parameter files to pass in Lambda variables
5. Test our application between stages/environments
Optional: Make use of Manual Approvals
An example minimal Developer’s pipeline:
MyBranch-Source
Source
AWS CodeCommit
MyApplication
Build
test-build-source
AWS CodeBuild
MyDev-Deploy
create-changeset
AWS CloudFormation
execute-changeset
AWS CloudFormation
Run-stubs
AWS Lambda
This pipeline:
• Three Stages
• Builds code artifact
• One Development environment
• Uses SAM/CloudFormation to
deploy artifact and other AWS
resources
• Has Lambda custom actions for
running my own testing functions
Source
Source
AWS CodeCommit
MyApplication
An example minimal production pipeline:
Build
test-build-source
AWS CodeBuild
Deploy Testing
create-changeset
AWS
CloudFormation
execute-changeset
AWS
CloudFormation
Run-stubs
AWS Lambda
Deploy Staging
create-changeset
AWS
CloudFormation
execute-changeset
AWS
CloudFormation
Run-API-test
Runscope
QA-Sign-off
Manual Approval
Review
Deploy Prod
create-changeset
AWS
CloudFormation
execute-changeset
AWS
CloudFormation
Post-Deploy-Slack
AWS Lambda
This pipeline:
• Five Stages
• Builds code artifact
• Three deployed to “Environments”
• Uses SAM/CloudFormation to
deploy artifact and other AWS
resources
• Has Lambda custom actions for
running my own testing functions
• Integrates with a 3rd party
tool/service
• Has a manual approval before
deploying to production
6. Process
12Factor.net: “Execute the app as one or more stateless processes”
Serverless Apps: This is inherent in how Lambda is designed
already:
• Lambda Functions should be treated as stateless despite the
potential to store some state in-between container re-use.
• There is no promise of container re-use between function
invocations.
• Data that needs to be kept should be stored off Lambda in a stateful
service such as a database or cache.
7. Port Binding
12Factor.net: “Export services via port binding”
Serverless Apps: In Lambda/serverless applications this factor
doesn’t apply the same due to a difference in how Lambda Functions
are accessed:
• Instead of a “port” Lambda functions are invoked via one or more
triggering services or AWS’s APIs for Lambda
• When it comes to Lambda functions there are 3 models for how they
can be invoked; synchronously, asynchronously, and via stream
• Instead of having one function support multiple invocation sources,
create independent functions and make use of shared code via
dependencies (shared packages) to support shared capabilities
Lambda execution model
Synchronous (push) Asynchronous (event) Stream-based
Amazon
API Gateway
AWS Lambda
function
Amazon
DynamoDBAmazon
SNS
/order
AWS Lambda
function
Amazon
S3
reqs
Amazon
Kinesis
changes
AWS Lambda
service
function
Amazon S3 Amazon
DynamoDB
Amazon
Kinesis
AWS
CloudFormation
AWS CloudTrail Amazon
CloudWatch
Amazon
Cognito
Amazon SNSAmazon
SES
Cron events
DATA STORES ENDPOINTS
DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT TOOLS EVENT/MESSAGE SERVICES
Event sources that trigger AWS Lambda
and more!
AWS
CodeCommit
Amazon
API Gateway
Amazon
Alexa
AWS IoT AWS Step
Functions
8. Concurrency
12Factor.net: “Scale out via the process model”
Serverless Apps: Doesn’t apply as Lambda functions will scale
automatically based on load. You can fork threads inside of your
function execution but there are practical limits due to the memory and
CPU/network constraints of your functions based on how you configure
them.
👍
9. Disposability
12Factor.net: “Maximize robustness with fast startup and graceful
shutdown”
Serverless Apps: Shutdown doesn’t apply as Lambda functions and
their invocation are tied directly to incoming events. Speed at startup
does matter though and is a factor of deployment package size +
language used + VPC (or not) + pre-handler code calls.
👍
10. Dev/prod parity
12Factor.net: “Keep development, staging, and production as similar
as possible”
Serverless Apps: This can be made incredibly easy with serverless
applications by:
• Making use of environment/stage variables or Parameter Store for
configuration information, backend resources, etc
• Using Serverless Application Models (SAM) to deploy your
application
• Can pass environment/stage variables via Parameters, Mappings, Imports
• Having a CI/CD process and tooling that supports multiple
environments or accounts
Meet
SAM!
AWS Serverless Application Model (SAM)
CloudFormation extension optimized for
serverless
New serverless resource types: functions, APIs,
and tables
Supports anything CloudFormation supports
Open specification (Apache 2.0)
https://github.com/awslabs/serverless-application-model
SAM template
AWSTemplateFormatVersion: '2010-09-09’
Transform: AWS::Serverless-2016-10-31
Resources:
GetHtmlFunction:
Type: AWS::Serverless::Function
Properties:
CodeUri: s3://sam-demo-bucket/todo_list.zip
Handler: index.gethtml
Runtime: nodejs4.3
Policies: AmazonDynamoDBReadOnlyAccess
Events:
GetHtml:
Type: Api
Properties:
Path: /{proxy+}
Method: ANY
ListTable:
Type: AWS::Serverless::SimpleTable
SAM template
AWSTemplateFormatVersion: '2010-09-09’
Transform: AWS::Serverless-2016-10-31
Resources:
GetHtmlFunction:
Type: AWS::Serverless::Function
Properties:
CodeUri: s3://sam-demo-bucket/todo_list.zip
Handler: index.gethtml
Runtime: nodejs4.3
Policies: AmazonDynamoDBReadOnlyAccess
Events:
GetHtml:
Type: Api
Properties:
Path: /{proxy+}
Method: ANY
ListTable:
Type: AWS::Serverless::SimpleTable
Tells CloudFormation this is a SAM
template it needs to “transform”
Creates a Lambda function with the
referenced managed IAM policy,
runtime, code at the referenced zip
location, and handler as defined.
Also creates an API Gateway and
takes care of all
mapping/permissions necessary
Creates a DynamoDB table with 5
Read & Write units
Lambda and API Gateway Variables + SAM
Parameters:
MyEnvironment:
Type: String
Default: testing
AllowedValues:
- testing
- staging
- prod
Description: Environment of this stack of
resources
SpecialFeature1:
Type: String
Default: false
AllowedValues:
- true
- false
Description: Enable new SpecialFeature1
…
#Lambda
MyFunction:
Type: 'AWS::Serverless::Function'
Properties:
…
Environment:
Variables:
ENVIRONMENT: !Ref: MyEnvironment
Spec_Feature1: !Ref: SpecialFeature1
…
#API Gateway
MyApiGatewayApi:
Type: AWS::Serverless::Api
Properties:
…
Variables:
ENVIRONMENT: !Ref: MyEnvironment
SPEC_Feature1: !Ref: SpecialFeature1
…
SAM Local
CLI tool for local testing of serverless apps
Works with Lambda functions and “proxy-
style” APIs
Response object and function logs available
on your local machine
Uses open source docker-lambda images to
mimic Lambda’s execution environment:
• Emulates timeout, memory limits,
runtimes
https://github.com/awslabs/aws-sam-local
11. Logs
12Factor.net: “Treat logs as event streams”
Serverless Apps: Logging (as well as Metric collection) are
considered a “universal right” in Lambda:
• Console output automatically collected and sent to Amazon
CloudWatch Logs
• Logs can be turned into Metrics
• Logs can be sent to Amazon S3 or Amazon ElasticSearch Service easily for
further inspection and trending
• Metrics for Lambda and API Gateway for several key stats are
automatically collected and sent to CloudWatch
• You can easily send more using the CloudWatch SDK
12. Admin processes
12Factor.net: “Run admin/management tasks as one-off processes”
Serverless Apps: Doesn’t apply to Lambda since you already limit
your functions based on use case. True administrative tasks would
occur via their own Lambda Functions or via tools such as Amazon
EC2 Run Command.
👍
1. Codebase
2. Dependencies
3. Config
4. Backing
services
5. Build, release,
run
6. Process
7. Port Binding
8. Concurrency
9. Disposability
10.Dev/prod
parity
11.Logs
12.Admin
processes
The 12 Factors & Serverless Applications:
As we’ve seen, 12 Factor application design can still be applied to
serverless applications taking into account some small differences!
= Works similarly = Not relevant
FIN, ACK (in closing)
As we’ve reviewed the 12 Factor methodology for
applications we’ve seen which factors do and do not apply
the same for serverless applications:
• Thinking about code reusability and how to scope your functions to
the smallest size necessary provides many benefits
• Factors related to underlying process management, network ports,
concurrency, and admin processes are largely not an issue in
serverless applications due to Lambda’s product design and
features
• Best practices for serverless align pretty closely with 12 Factor
guidance already, so you might be really close to meeting the “12
Factor bar” already!
aws.amazon.com/serverless
aws.amazon.com/serverless/developer-tools
Chris Munns
munns@amazon.com
@chrismunnshttps://www.flickr.com/photos/theredproject/3302110152/
?
https://secure.flickr.com/photos/dullhunk/202872717/

More Related Content

What's hot

Getting Started with AWS Lambda Serverless Computing
Getting Started with AWS Lambda Serverless ComputingGetting Started with AWS Lambda Serverless Computing
Getting Started with AWS Lambda Serverless Computing
Amazon Web Services
 
Building AWS Lambda Applications with the AWS Serverless Application Model (A...
Building AWS Lambda Applications with the AWS Serverless Application Model (A...Building AWS Lambda Applications with the AWS Serverless Application Model (A...
Building AWS Lambda Applications with the AWS Serverless Application Model (A...
Amazon Web Services
 
Deep Dive on Serverless Web Applications - AWS May 2016 Webinar Series
Deep Dive on Serverless Web Applications - AWS May 2016 Webinar SeriesDeep Dive on Serverless Web Applications - AWS May 2016 Webinar Series
Deep Dive on Serverless Web Applications - AWS May 2016 Webinar Series
Amazon Web Services
 
Serverless Architectures.pdf
Serverless Architectures.pdfServerless Architectures.pdf
Serverless Architectures.pdf
Amazon Web Services
 
Deep Dive into AWS SAM
Deep Dive into AWS SAMDeep Dive into AWS SAM
Deep Dive into AWS SAM
Amazon Web Services
 
Building APIs with Amazon API Gateway: re:Invent 2018 Recap at the AWS Loft -...
Building APIs with Amazon API Gateway: re:Invent 2018 Recap at the AWS Loft -...Building APIs with Amazon API Gateway: re:Invent 2018 Recap at the AWS Loft -...
Building APIs with Amazon API Gateway: re:Invent 2018 Recap at the AWS Loft -...
Amazon Web Services
 
Deep Dive on Amazon Elastic Container Service (ECS) I AWS Dev Day 2018
Deep Dive on Amazon Elastic Container Service (ECS) I AWS Dev Day 2018Deep Dive on Amazon Elastic Container Service (ECS) I AWS Dev Day 2018
Deep Dive on Amazon Elastic Container Service (ECS) I AWS Dev Day 2018
AWS Germany
 
DevOps on AWS: Deep Dive on Continuous Delivery and the AWS Developer Tools
DevOps on AWS: Deep Dive on Continuous Delivery and the AWS Developer ToolsDevOps on AWS: Deep Dive on Continuous Delivery and the AWS Developer Tools
DevOps on AWS: Deep Dive on Continuous Delivery and the AWS Developer Tools
Amazon Web Services
 
Productionize Serverless Application Building and Deployments with AWS SAM - ...
Productionize Serverless Application Building and Deployments with AWS SAM - ...Productionize Serverless Application Building and Deployments with AWS SAM - ...
Productionize Serverless Application Building and Deployments with AWS SAM - ...
Amazon Web Services
 
Serverless computing - Build and run applications without thinking about servers
Serverless computing - Build and run applications without thinking about serversServerless computing - Build and run applications without thinking about servers
Serverless computing - Build and run applications without thinking about servers
Amazon Web Services
 
Introduction to the Serverless Cloud
Introduction to the Serverless CloudIntroduction to the Serverless Cloud
Introduction to the Serverless Cloud
Amazon Web Services
 
Build and Deploy Serverless Applications with AWS SAM - SRV316 - Chicago AWS ...
Build and Deploy Serverless Applications with AWS SAM - SRV316 - Chicago AWS ...Build and Deploy Serverless Applications with AWS SAM - SRV316 - Chicago AWS ...
Build and Deploy Serverless Applications with AWS SAM - SRV316 - Chicago AWS ...
Amazon Web Services
 
Security & Governance on AWS – Better, Faster, and Cost Effective - Technical...
Security & Governance on AWS – Better, Faster, and Cost Effective - Technical...Security & Governance on AWS – Better, Faster, and Cost Effective - Technical...
Security & Governance on AWS – Better, Faster, and Cost Effective - Technical...
Amazon Web Services
 
Developing Serverless Application on AWS
Developing Serverless Application on AWSDeveloping Serverless Application on AWS
Developing Serverless Application on AWS
Amazon Web Services
 
Introduction to AWS Lambda and Serverless Applications
Introduction to AWS Lambda and Serverless ApplicationsIntroduction to AWS Lambda and Serverless Applications
Introduction to AWS Lambda and Serverless Applications
Amazon Web Services
 
Serverless Security Automation | AWS Public Sector Summit 2017
Serverless Security Automation | AWS Public Sector Summit 2017Serverless Security Automation | AWS Public Sector Summit 2017
Serverless Security Automation | AWS Public Sector Summit 2017
Amazon Web Services
 
Orchestrating AWS Lambda with AWS Step Functions
Orchestrating AWS Lambda with AWS Step Functions Orchestrating AWS Lambda with AWS Step Functions
Orchestrating AWS Lambda with AWS Step Functions
Amazon Web Services
 
Serverless Application Development with SAM
Serverless Application Development with SAMServerless Application Development with SAM
Serverless Application Development with SAM
Amazon Web Services
 
A Brief Look at Serverless Architecture
A Brief Look at Serverless ArchitectureA Brief Look at Serverless Architecture
A Brief Look at Serverless Architecture
Amazon Web Services
 
Deep Dive on Serverless Application Development
Deep Dive on Serverless Application DevelopmentDeep Dive on Serverless Application Development
Deep Dive on Serverless Application Development
Amazon Web Services
 

What's hot (20)

Getting Started with AWS Lambda Serverless Computing
Getting Started with AWS Lambda Serverless ComputingGetting Started with AWS Lambda Serverless Computing
Getting Started with AWS Lambda Serverless Computing
 
Building AWS Lambda Applications with the AWS Serverless Application Model (A...
Building AWS Lambda Applications with the AWS Serverless Application Model (A...Building AWS Lambda Applications with the AWS Serverless Application Model (A...
Building AWS Lambda Applications with the AWS Serverless Application Model (A...
 
Deep Dive on Serverless Web Applications - AWS May 2016 Webinar Series
Deep Dive on Serverless Web Applications - AWS May 2016 Webinar SeriesDeep Dive on Serverless Web Applications - AWS May 2016 Webinar Series
Deep Dive on Serverless Web Applications - AWS May 2016 Webinar Series
 
Serverless Architectures.pdf
Serverless Architectures.pdfServerless Architectures.pdf
Serverless Architectures.pdf
 
Deep Dive into AWS SAM
Deep Dive into AWS SAMDeep Dive into AWS SAM
Deep Dive into AWS SAM
 
Building APIs with Amazon API Gateway: re:Invent 2018 Recap at the AWS Loft -...
Building APIs with Amazon API Gateway: re:Invent 2018 Recap at the AWS Loft -...Building APIs with Amazon API Gateway: re:Invent 2018 Recap at the AWS Loft -...
Building APIs with Amazon API Gateway: re:Invent 2018 Recap at the AWS Loft -...
 
Deep Dive on Amazon Elastic Container Service (ECS) I AWS Dev Day 2018
Deep Dive on Amazon Elastic Container Service (ECS) I AWS Dev Day 2018Deep Dive on Amazon Elastic Container Service (ECS) I AWS Dev Day 2018
Deep Dive on Amazon Elastic Container Service (ECS) I AWS Dev Day 2018
 
DevOps on AWS: Deep Dive on Continuous Delivery and the AWS Developer Tools
DevOps on AWS: Deep Dive on Continuous Delivery and the AWS Developer ToolsDevOps on AWS: Deep Dive on Continuous Delivery and the AWS Developer Tools
DevOps on AWS: Deep Dive on Continuous Delivery and the AWS Developer Tools
 
Productionize Serverless Application Building and Deployments with AWS SAM - ...
Productionize Serverless Application Building and Deployments with AWS SAM - ...Productionize Serverless Application Building and Deployments with AWS SAM - ...
Productionize Serverless Application Building and Deployments with AWS SAM - ...
 
Serverless computing - Build and run applications without thinking about servers
Serverless computing - Build and run applications without thinking about serversServerless computing - Build and run applications without thinking about servers
Serverless computing - Build and run applications without thinking about servers
 
Introduction to the Serverless Cloud
Introduction to the Serverless CloudIntroduction to the Serverless Cloud
Introduction to the Serverless Cloud
 
Build and Deploy Serverless Applications with AWS SAM - SRV316 - Chicago AWS ...
Build and Deploy Serverless Applications with AWS SAM - SRV316 - Chicago AWS ...Build and Deploy Serverless Applications with AWS SAM - SRV316 - Chicago AWS ...
Build and Deploy Serverless Applications with AWS SAM - SRV316 - Chicago AWS ...
 
Security & Governance on AWS – Better, Faster, and Cost Effective - Technical...
Security & Governance on AWS – Better, Faster, and Cost Effective - Technical...Security & Governance on AWS – Better, Faster, and Cost Effective - Technical...
Security & Governance on AWS – Better, Faster, and Cost Effective - Technical...
 
Developing Serverless Application on AWS
Developing Serverless Application on AWSDeveloping Serverless Application on AWS
Developing Serverless Application on AWS
 
Introduction to AWS Lambda and Serverless Applications
Introduction to AWS Lambda and Serverless ApplicationsIntroduction to AWS Lambda and Serverless Applications
Introduction to AWS Lambda and Serverless Applications
 
Serverless Security Automation | AWS Public Sector Summit 2017
Serverless Security Automation | AWS Public Sector Summit 2017Serverless Security Automation | AWS Public Sector Summit 2017
Serverless Security Automation | AWS Public Sector Summit 2017
 
Orchestrating AWS Lambda with AWS Step Functions
Orchestrating AWS Lambda with AWS Step Functions Orchestrating AWS Lambda with AWS Step Functions
Orchestrating AWS Lambda with AWS Step Functions
 
Serverless Application Development with SAM
Serverless Application Development with SAMServerless Application Development with SAM
Serverless Application Development with SAM
 
A Brief Look at Serverless Architecture
A Brief Look at Serverless ArchitectureA Brief Look at Serverless Architecture
A Brief Look at Serverless Architecture
 
Deep Dive on Serverless Application Development
Deep Dive on Serverless Application DevelopmentDeep Dive on Serverless Application Development
Deep Dive on Serverless Application Development
 

Similar to muCon 2017 - 12 Factor Serverless Applications

Twelve Factor Serverless Applications
Twelve Factor Serverless ApplicationsTwelve Factor Serverless Applications
Twelve Factor Serverless Applications
Amazon Web Services
 
12 Factor Serverless Applications - Mike Morain, AWS - Cloud Native Day Tel A...
12 Factor Serverless Applications - Mike Morain, AWS - Cloud Native Day Tel A...12 Factor Serverless Applications - Mike Morain, AWS - Cloud Native Day Tel A...
12 Factor Serverless Applications - Mike Morain, AWS - Cloud Native Day Tel A...
Cloud Native Day Tel Aviv
 
Twelve-factor serverless applications - MAD302 - Santa Clara AWS Summit
Twelve-factor serverless applications - MAD302 - Santa Clara AWS SummitTwelve-factor serverless applications - MAD302 - Santa Clara AWS Summit
Twelve-factor serverless applications - MAD302 - Santa Clara AWS Summit
Amazon Web Services
 
SMC305 Building CI/CD Pipelines for Serverless Applications
SMC305 Building CI/CD Pipelines for Serverless ApplicationsSMC305 Building CI/CD Pipelines for Serverless Applications
SMC305 Building CI/CD Pipelines for Serverless Applications
Amazon Web Services
 
Building CICD Pipelines for Serverless Applications - DevDay Austin 2017
Building CICD Pipelines for Serverless Applications - DevDay Austin 2017Building CICD Pipelines for Serverless Applications - DevDay Austin 2017
Building CICD Pipelines for Serverless Applications - DevDay Austin 2017
Amazon Web Services
 
Deep Dive on Serverless Stack
Deep Dive on Serverless StackDeep Dive on Serverless Stack
Deep Dive on Serverless Stack
Amazon Web Services
 
Raleigh DevDay 2017: Building CICD pipelines for serverless applications
Raleigh DevDay 2017: Building CICD pipelines for serverless applicationsRaleigh DevDay 2017: Building CICD pipelines for serverless applications
Raleigh DevDay 2017: Building CICD pipelines for serverless applications
Amazon Web Services
 
Application Lifecycle Management in a Serverless World
Application Lifecycle Management in a Serverless WorldApplication Lifecycle Management in a Serverless World
Application Lifecycle Management in a Serverless World
Amazon Web Services
 
Application Lifecycle Management in a Serverless World | AWS Public Sector Su...
Application Lifecycle Management in a Serverless World | AWS Public Sector Su...Application Lifecycle Management in a Serverless World | AWS Public Sector Su...
Application Lifecycle Management in a Serverless World | AWS Public Sector Su...
Amazon Web Services
 
Building CI/CD Pipelines for Serverless Applications - SRV302 - re:Invent 2017
Building CI/CD Pipelines for Serverless Applications - SRV302 - re:Invent 2017Building CI/CD Pipelines for Serverless Applications - SRV302 - re:Invent 2017
Building CI/CD Pipelines for Serverless Applications - SRV302 - re:Invent 2017
Amazon Web Services
 
Building CICD Pipelines for Serverless Applications - DevDay Los Angeles 2017
Building CICD Pipelines for Serverless Applications - DevDay Los Angeles 2017Building CICD Pipelines for Serverless Applications - DevDay Los Angeles 2017
Building CICD Pipelines for Serverless Applications - DevDay Los Angeles 2017
Amazon Web Services
 
AWS Serverless concepts and solutions
AWS Serverless concepts and solutionsAWS Serverless concepts and solutions
AWS Serverless concepts and solutions
ElenaIvannikova3
 
Twelve-Factor serverless applications - MAD307 - New York AWS Summit
Twelve-Factor serverless applications - MAD307 - New York AWS SummitTwelve-Factor serverless applications - MAD307 - New York AWS Summit
Twelve-Factor serverless applications - MAD307 - New York AWS Summit
Amazon Web Services
 
Getting Started with AWS Lambda and the Serverless Cloud
Getting Started with AWS Lambda and the Serverless CloudGetting Started with AWS Lambda and the Serverless Cloud
Getting Started with AWS Lambda and the Serverless Cloud
Amazon Web Services
 
Local Testing and Deployment Best Practices for Serverless Applications - AWS...
Local Testing and Deployment Best Practices for Serverless Applications - AWS...Local Testing and Deployment Best Practices for Serverless Applications - AWS...
Local Testing and Deployment Best Practices for Serverless Applications - AWS...
Amazon Web Services
 
Local Testing and Deployment Best Practices for Serverless Applications - AWS...
Local Testing and Deployment Best Practices for Serverless Applications - AWS...Local Testing and Deployment Best Practices for Serverless Applications - AWS...
Local Testing and Deployment Best Practices for Serverless Applications - AWS...
Amazon Web Services
 
Application Lifecycle Management in a Serverless World
Application Lifecycle Management in a Serverless WorldApplication Lifecycle Management in a Serverless World
Application Lifecycle Management in a Serverless World
Amazon Web Services
 
SRV203 Getting Started with AWS Lambda and the Serverless Cloud
SRV203 Getting Started with AWS Lambda and the Serverless CloudSRV203 Getting Started with AWS Lambda and the Serverless Cloud
SRV203 Getting Started with AWS Lambda and the Serverless Cloud
Amazon Web Services
 
Getting Started with AWS Lambda and the Serverless Cloud - AWS Summit Cape T...
 Getting Started with AWS Lambda and the Serverless Cloud - AWS Summit Cape T... Getting Started with AWS Lambda and the Serverless Cloud - AWS Summit Cape T...
Getting Started with AWS Lambda and the Serverless Cloud - AWS Summit Cape T...
Amazon Web Services
 
Introduction to Serverless
Introduction to ServerlessIntroduction to Serverless
Introduction to Serverless
Amazon Web Services
 

Similar to muCon 2017 - 12 Factor Serverless Applications (20)

Twelve Factor Serverless Applications
Twelve Factor Serverless ApplicationsTwelve Factor Serverless Applications
Twelve Factor Serverless Applications
 
12 Factor Serverless Applications - Mike Morain, AWS - Cloud Native Day Tel A...
12 Factor Serverless Applications - Mike Morain, AWS - Cloud Native Day Tel A...12 Factor Serverless Applications - Mike Morain, AWS - Cloud Native Day Tel A...
12 Factor Serverless Applications - Mike Morain, AWS - Cloud Native Day Tel A...
 
Twelve-factor serverless applications - MAD302 - Santa Clara AWS Summit
Twelve-factor serverless applications - MAD302 - Santa Clara AWS SummitTwelve-factor serverless applications - MAD302 - Santa Clara AWS Summit
Twelve-factor serverless applications - MAD302 - Santa Clara AWS Summit
 
SMC305 Building CI/CD Pipelines for Serverless Applications
SMC305 Building CI/CD Pipelines for Serverless ApplicationsSMC305 Building CI/CD Pipelines for Serverless Applications
SMC305 Building CI/CD Pipelines for Serverless Applications
 
Building CICD Pipelines for Serverless Applications - DevDay Austin 2017
Building CICD Pipelines for Serverless Applications - DevDay Austin 2017Building CICD Pipelines for Serverless Applications - DevDay Austin 2017
Building CICD Pipelines for Serverless Applications - DevDay Austin 2017
 
Deep Dive on Serverless Stack
Deep Dive on Serverless StackDeep Dive on Serverless Stack
Deep Dive on Serverless Stack
 
Raleigh DevDay 2017: Building CICD pipelines for serverless applications
Raleigh DevDay 2017: Building CICD pipelines for serverless applicationsRaleigh DevDay 2017: Building CICD pipelines for serverless applications
Raleigh DevDay 2017: Building CICD pipelines for serverless applications
 
Application Lifecycle Management in a Serverless World
Application Lifecycle Management in a Serverless WorldApplication Lifecycle Management in a Serverless World
Application Lifecycle Management in a Serverless World
 
Application Lifecycle Management in a Serverless World | AWS Public Sector Su...
Application Lifecycle Management in a Serverless World | AWS Public Sector Su...Application Lifecycle Management in a Serverless World | AWS Public Sector Su...
Application Lifecycle Management in a Serverless World | AWS Public Sector Su...
 
Building CI/CD Pipelines for Serverless Applications - SRV302 - re:Invent 2017
Building CI/CD Pipelines for Serverless Applications - SRV302 - re:Invent 2017Building CI/CD Pipelines for Serverless Applications - SRV302 - re:Invent 2017
Building CI/CD Pipelines for Serverless Applications - SRV302 - re:Invent 2017
 
Building CICD Pipelines for Serverless Applications - DevDay Los Angeles 2017
Building CICD Pipelines for Serverless Applications - DevDay Los Angeles 2017Building CICD Pipelines for Serverless Applications - DevDay Los Angeles 2017
Building CICD Pipelines for Serverless Applications - DevDay Los Angeles 2017
 
AWS Serverless concepts and solutions
AWS Serverless concepts and solutionsAWS Serverless concepts and solutions
AWS Serverless concepts and solutions
 
Twelve-Factor serverless applications - MAD307 - New York AWS Summit
Twelve-Factor serverless applications - MAD307 - New York AWS SummitTwelve-Factor serverless applications - MAD307 - New York AWS Summit
Twelve-Factor serverless applications - MAD307 - New York AWS Summit
 
Getting Started with AWS Lambda and the Serverless Cloud
Getting Started with AWS Lambda and the Serverless CloudGetting Started with AWS Lambda and the Serverless Cloud
Getting Started with AWS Lambda and the Serverless Cloud
 
Local Testing and Deployment Best Practices for Serverless Applications - AWS...
Local Testing and Deployment Best Practices for Serverless Applications - AWS...Local Testing and Deployment Best Practices for Serverless Applications - AWS...
Local Testing and Deployment Best Practices for Serverless Applications - AWS...
 
Local Testing and Deployment Best Practices for Serverless Applications - AWS...
Local Testing and Deployment Best Practices for Serverless Applications - AWS...Local Testing and Deployment Best Practices for Serverless Applications - AWS...
Local Testing and Deployment Best Practices for Serverless Applications - AWS...
 
Application Lifecycle Management in a Serverless World
Application Lifecycle Management in a Serverless WorldApplication Lifecycle Management in a Serverless World
Application Lifecycle Management in a Serverless World
 
SRV203 Getting Started with AWS Lambda and the Serverless Cloud
SRV203 Getting Started with AWS Lambda and the Serverless CloudSRV203 Getting Started with AWS Lambda and the Serverless Cloud
SRV203 Getting Started with AWS Lambda and the Serverless Cloud
 
Getting Started with AWS Lambda and the Serverless Cloud - AWS Summit Cape T...
 Getting Started with AWS Lambda and the Serverless Cloud - AWS Summit Cape T... Getting Started with AWS Lambda and the Serverless Cloud - AWS Summit Cape T...
Getting Started with AWS Lambda and the Serverless Cloud - AWS Summit Cape T...
 
Introduction to Serverless
Introduction to ServerlessIntroduction to Serverless
Introduction to Serverless
 

More from Chris Munns

Networking Best Practices for Your Serverless Applications
Networking Best Practices for Your Serverless ApplicationsNetworking Best Practices for Your Serverless Applications
Networking Best Practices for Your Serverless Applications
Chris Munns
 
How AWS builds Serverless services using Serverless
How AWS builds Serverless services using ServerlessHow AWS builds Serverless services using Serverless
How AWS builds Serverless services using Serverless
Chris Munns
 
Serverless is dead.
Serverless is dead.Serverless is dead.
Serverless is dead.
Chris Munns
 
All the Ops you need to know to Dev Serverless
All the Ops you need to know to Dev ServerlessAll the Ops you need to know to Dev Serverless
All the Ops you need to know to Dev Serverless
Chris Munns
 
Practical Guidance for Increasing your Serverless Application's Security
Practical Guidance for Increasing your Serverless Application's SecurityPractical Guidance for Increasing your Serverless Application's Security
Practical Guidance for Increasing your Serverless Application's Security
Chris Munns
 
Building API Driven Microservices
Building API Driven MicroservicesBuilding API Driven Microservices
Building API Driven Microservices
Chris Munns
 
The Future of API Management Is Serverless
The Future of API Management Is ServerlessThe Future of API Management Is Serverless
The Future of API Management Is Serverless
Chris Munns
 
Serverless and DevOps
Serverless and DevOpsServerless and DevOps
Serverless and DevOps
Chris Munns
 
Serverless Streams, Topics, Queues, & APIs! Pick the Right Serverless Applica...
Serverless Streams, Topics, Queues, & APIs! Pick the Right Serverless Applica...Serverless Streams, Topics, Queues, & APIs! Pick the Right Serverless Applica...
Serverless Streams, Topics, Queues, & APIs! Pick the Right Serverless Applica...
Chris Munns
 
AWS Startup Day - Boston 2018 - The Best Practices and Hard Lessons Learned o...
AWS Startup Day - Boston 2018 - The Best Practices and Hard Lessons Learned o...AWS Startup Day - Boston 2018 - The Best Practices and Hard Lessons Learned o...
AWS Startup Day - Boston 2018 - The Best Practices and Hard Lessons Learned o...
Chris Munns
 
Serverless Applications with AWS SAM
Serverless Applications with AWS SAMServerless Applications with AWS SAM
Serverless Applications with AWS SAM
Chris Munns
 
AWS NYC Meetup - May 2017 - "AWS IoT and Greengrass"
AWS NYC Meetup - May 2017 - "AWS IoT and Greengrass"AWS NYC Meetup - May 2017 - "AWS IoT and Greengrass"
AWS NYC Meetup - May 2017 - "AWS IoT and Greengrass"
Chris Munns
 

More from Chris Munns (12)

Networking Best Practices for Your Serverless Applications
Networking Best Practices for Your Serverless ApplicationsNetworking Best Practices for Your Serverless Applications
Networking Best Practices for Your Serverless Applications
 
How AWS builds Serverless services using Serverless
How AWS builds Serverless services using ServerlessHow AWS builds Serverless services using Serverless
How AWS builds Serverless services using Serverless
 
Serverless is dead.
Serverless is dead.Serverless is dead.
Serverless is dead.
 
All the Ops you need to know to Dev Serverless
All the Ops you need to know to Dev ServerlessAll the Ops you need to know to Dev Serverless
All the Ops you need to know to Dev Serverless
 
Practical Guidance for Increasing your Serverless Application's Security
Practical Guidance for Increasing your Serverless Application's SecurityPractical Guidance for Increasing your Serverless Application's Security
Practical Guidance for Increasing your Serverless Application's Security
 
Building API Driven Microservices
Building API Driven MicroservicesBuilding API Driven Microservices
Building API Driven Microservices
 
The Future of API Management Is Serverless
The Future of API Management Is ServerlessThe Future of API Management Is Serverless
The Future of API Management Is Serverless
 
Serverless and DevOps
Serverless and DevOpsServerless and DevOps
Serverless and DevOps
 
Serverless Streams, Topics, Queues, & APIs! Pick the Right Serverless Applica...
Serverless Streams, Topics, Queues, & APIs! Pick the Right Serverless Applica...Serverless Streams, Topics, Queues, & APIs! Pick the Right Serverless Applica...
Serverless Streams, Topics, Queues, & APIs! Pick the Right Serverless Applica...
 
AWS Startup Day - Boston 2018 - The Best Practices and Hard Lessons Learned o...
AWS Startup Day - Boston 2018 - The Best Practices and Hard Lessons Learned o...AWS Startup Day - Boston 2018 - The Best Practices and Hard Lessons Learned o...
AWS Startup Day - Boston 2018 - The Best Practices and Hard Lessons Learned o...
 
Serverless Applications with AWS SAM
Serverless Applications with AWS SAMServerless Applications with AWS SAM
Serverless Applications with AWS SAM
 
AWS NYC Meetup - May 2017 - "AWS IoT and Greengrass"
AWS NYC Meetup - May 2017 - "AWS IoT and Greengrass"AWS NYC Meetup - May 2017 - "AWS IoT and Greengrass"
AWS NYC Meetup - May 2017 - "AWS IoT and Greengrass"
 

Recently uploaded

From Natural Language to Structured Solr Queries using LLMs
From Natural Language to Structured Solr Queries using LLMsFrom Natural Language to Structured Solr Queries using LLMs
From Natural Language to Structured Solr Queries using LLMs
Sease
 
"Choosing proper type of scaling", Olena Syrota
"Choosing proper type of scaling", Olena Syrota"Choosing proper type of scaling", Olena Syrota
"Choosing proper type of scaling", Olena Syrota
Fwdays
 
Lee Barnes - Path to Becoming an Effective Test Automation Engineer.pdf
Lee Barnes - Path to Becoming an Effective Test Automation Engineer.pdfLee Barnes - Path to Becoming an Effective Test Automation Engineer.pdf
Lee Barnes - Path to Becoming an Effective Test Automation Engineer.pdf
leebarnesutopia
 
Discover the Unseen: Tailored Recommendation of Unwatched Content
Discover the Unseen: Tailored Recommendation of Unwatched ContentDiscover the Unseen: Tailored Recommendation of Unwatched Content
Discover the Unseen: Tailored Recommendation of Unwatched Content
ScyllaDB
 
Biomedical Knowledge Graphs for Data Scientists and Bioinformaticians
Biomedical Knowledge Graphs for Data Scientists and BioinformaticiansBiomedical Knowledge Graphs for Data Scientists and Bioinformaticians
Biomedical Knowledge Graphs for Data Scientists and Bioinformaticians
Neo4j
 
Session 1 - Intro to Robotic Process Automation.pdf
Session 1 - Intro to Robotic Process Automation.pdfSession 1 - Intro to Robotic Process Automation.pdf
Session 1 - Intro to Robotic Process Automation.pdf
UiPathCommunity
 
Principle of conventional tomography-Bibash Shahi ppt..pptx
Principle of conventional tomography-Bibash Shahi ppt..pptxPrinciple of conventional tomography-Bibash Shahi ppt..pptx
Principle of conventional tomography-Bibash Shahi ppt..pptx
BibashShahi
 
GNSS spoofing via SDR (Criptored Talks 2024)
GNSS spoofing via SDR (Criptored Talks 2024)GNSS spoofing via SDR (Criptored Talks 2024)
GNSS spoofing via SDR (Criptored Talks 2024)
Javier Junquera
 
Mutation Testing for Task-Oriented Chatbots
Mutation Testing for Task-Oriented ChatbotsMutation Testing for Task-Oriented Chatbots
Mutation Testing for Task-Oriented Chatbots
Pablo Gómez Abajo
 
Day 2 - Intro to UiPath Studio Fundamentals
Day 2 - Intro to UiPath Studio FundamentalsDay 2 - Intro to UiPath Studio Fundamentals
Day 2 - Intro to UiPath Studio Fundamentals
UiPathCommunity
 
QR Secure: A Hybrid Approach Using Machine Learning and Security Validation F...
QR Secure: A Hybrid Approach Using Machine Learning and Security Validation F...QR Secure: A Hybrid Approach Using Machine Learning and Security Validation F...
QR Secure: A Hybrid Approach Using Machine Learning and Security Validation F...
AlexanderRichford
 
Christine's Supplier Sourcing Presentaion.pptx
Christine's Supplier Sourcing Presentaion.pptxChristine's Supplier Sourcing Presentaion.pptx
Christine's Supplier Sourcing Presentaion.pptx
christinelarrosa
 
What is an RPA CoE? Session 1 – CoE Vision
What is an RPA CoE?  Session 1 – CoE VisionWhat is an RPA CoE?  Session 1 – CoE Vision
What is an RPA CoE? Session 1 – CoE Vision
DianaGray10
 
Containers & AI - Beauty and the Beast!?!
Containers & AI - Beauty and the Beast!?!Containers & AI - Beauty and the Beast!?!
Containers & AI - Beauty and the Beast!?!
Tobias Schneck
 
inQuba Webinar Mastering Customer Journey Management with Dr Graham Hill
inQuba Webinar Mastering Customer Journey Management with Dr Graham HillinQuba Webinar Mastering Customer Journey Management with Dr Graham Hill
inQuba Webinar Mastering Customer Journey Management with Dr Graham Hill
LizaNolte
 
AI in the Workplace Reskilling, Upskilling, and Future Work.pptx
AI in the Workplace Reskilling, Upskilling, and Future Work.pptxAI in the Workplace Reskilling, Upskilling, and Future Work.pptx
AI in the Workplace Reskilling, Upskilling, and Future Work.pptx
Sunil Jagani
 
Connector Corner: Seamlessly power UiPath Apps, GenAI with prebuilt connectors
Connector Corner: Seamlessly power UiPath Apps, GenAI with prebuilt connectorsConnector Corner: Seamlessly power UiPath Apps, GenAI with prebuilt connectors
Connector Corner: Seamlessly power UiPath Apps, GenAI with prebuilt connectors
DianaGray10
 
Northern Engraving | Nameplate Manufacturing Process - 2024
Northern Engraving | Nameplate Manufacturing Process - 2024Northern Engraving | Nameplate Manufacturing Process - 2024
Northern Engraving | Nameplate Manufacturing Process - 2024
Northern Engraving
 
Christine's Product Research Presentation.pptx
Christine's Product Research Presentation.pptxChristine's Product Research Presentation.pptx
Christine's Product Research Presentation.pptx
christinelarrosa
 
Essentials of Automations: Exploring Attributes & Automation Parameters
Essentials of Automations: Exploring Attributes & Automation ParametersEssentials of Automations: Exploring Attributes & Automation Parameters
Essentials of Automations: Exploring Attributes & Automation Parameters
Safe Software
 

Recently uploaded (20)

From Natural Language to Structured Solr Queries using LLMs
From Natural Language to Structured Solr Queries using LLMsFrom Natural Language to Structured Solr Queries using LLMs
From Natural Language to Structured Solr Queries using LLMs
 
"Choosing proper type of scaling", Olena Syrota
"Choosing proper type of scaling", Olena Syrota"Choosing proper type of scaling", Olena Syrota
"Choosing proper type of scaling", Olena Syrota
 
Lee Barnes - Path to Becoming an Effective Test Automation Engineer.pdf
Lee Barnes - Path to Becoming an Effective Test Automation Engineer.pdfLee Barnes - Path to Becoming an Effective Test Automation Engineer.pdf
Lee Barnes - Path to Becoming an Effective Test Automation Engineer.pdf
 
Discover the Unseen: Tailored Recommendation of Unwatched Content
Discover the Unseen: Tailored Recommendation of Unwatched ContentDiscover the Unseen: Tailored Recommendation of Unwatched Content
Discover the Unseen: Tailored Recommendation of Unwatched Content
 
Biomedical Knowledge Graphs for Data Scientists and Bioinformaticians
Biomedical Knowledge Graphs for Data Scientists and BioinformaticiansBiomedical Knowledge Graphs for Data Scientists and Bioinformaticians
Biomedical Knowledge Graphs for Data Scientists and Bioinformaticians
 
Session 1 - Intro to Robotic Process Automation.pdf
Session 1 - Intro to Robotic Process Automation.pdfSession 1 - Intro to Robotic Process Automation.pdf
Session 1 - Intro to Robotic Process Automation.pdf
 
Principle of conventional tomography-Bibash Shahi ppt..pptx
Principle of conventional tomography-Bibash Shahi ppt..pptxPrinciple of conventional tomography-Bibash Shahi ppt..pptx
Principle of conventional tomography-Bibash Shahi ppt..pptx
 
GNSS spoofing via SDR (Criptored Talks 2024)
GNSS spoofing via SDR (Criptored Talks 2024)GNSS spoofing via SDR (Criptored Talks 2024)
GNSS spoofing via SDR (Criptored Talks 2024)
 
Mutation Testing for Task-Oriented Chatbots
Mutation Testing for Task-Oriented ChatbotsMutation Testing for Task-Oriented Chatbots
Mutation Testing for Task-Oriented Chatbots
 
Day 2 - Intro to UiPath Studio Fundamentals
Day 2 - Intro to UiPath Studio FundamentalsDay 2 - Intro to UiPath Studio Fundamentals
Day 2 - Intro to UiPath Studio Fundamentals
 
QR Secure: A Hybrid Approach Using Machine Learning and Security Validation F...
QR Secure: A Hybrid Approach Using Machine Learning and Security Validation F...QR Secure: A Hybrid Approach Using Machine Learning and Security Validation F...
QR Secure: A Hybrid Approach Using Machine Learning and Security Validation F...
 
Christine's Supplier Sourcing Presentaion.pptx
Christine's Supplier Sourcing Presentaion.pptxChristine's Supplier Sourcing Presentaion.pptx
Christine's Supplier Sourcing Presentaion.pptx
 
What is an RPA CoE? Session 1 – CoE Vision
What is an RPA CoE?  Session 1 – CoE VisionWhat is an RPA CoE?  Session 1 – CoE Vision
What is an RPA CoE? Session 1 – CoE Vision
 
Containers & AI - Beauty and the Beast!?!
Containers & AI - Beauty and the Beast!?!Containers & AI - Beauty and the Beast!?!
Containers & AI - Beauty and the Beast!?!
 
inQuba Webinar Mastering Customer Journey Management with Dr Graham Hill
inQuba Webinar Mastering Customer Journey Management with Dr Graham HillinQuba Webinar Mastering Customer Journey Management with Dr Graham Hill
inQuba Webinar Mastering Customer Journey Management with Dr Graham Hill
 
AI in the Workplace Reskilling, Upskilling, and Future Work.pptx
AI in the Workplace Reskilling, Upskilling, and Future Work.pptxAI in the Workplace Reskilling, Upskilling, and Future Work.pptx
AI in the Workplace Reskilling, Upskilling, and Future Work.pptx
 
Connector Corner: Seamlessly power UiPath Apps, GenAI with prebuilt connectors
Connector Corner: Seamlessly power UiPath Apps, GenAI with prebuilt connectorsConnector Corner: Seamlessly power UiPath Apps, GenAI with prebuilt connectors
Connector Corner: Seamlessly power UiPath Apps, GenAI with prebuilt connectors
 
Northern Engraving | Nameplate Manufacturing Process - 2024
Northern Engraving | Nameplate Manufacturing Process - 2024Northern Engraving | Nameplate Manufacturing Process - 2024
Northern Engraving | Nameplate Manufacturing Process - 2024
 
Christine's Product Research Presentation.pptx
Christine's Product Research Presentation.pptxChristine's Product Research Presentation.pptx
Christine's Product Research Presentation.pptx
 
Essentials of Automations: Exploring Attributes & Automation Parameters
Essentials of Automations: Exploring Attributes & Automation ParametersEssentials of Automations: Exploring Attributes & Automation Parameters
Essentials of Automations: Exploring Attributes & Automation Parameters
 

muCon 2017 - 12 Factor Serverless Applications

  • 1. ©2017, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved 12 Factor Serverless Applications Chris Munns – Senior Developer Advocate - Serverless
  • 2. About me: Chris Munns - munns@amazon.com, @chrismunns • Senior Developer Advocate - Serverless • New Yorker • Previously: • AWS Business Development Manager – DevOps, July ’15 - Feb ‘17 • AWS Solutions Architect Nov, 2011- Dec 2014 • Formerly on operations teams @Etsy and @Meetup • Little time at a hedge fund, Xerox and a few other startups • Rochester Institute of Technology: Applied Networking and Systems Administration ’05 • Internet infrastructure geek
  • 4. The “12 Factor” model & serverless applications • 12 Factor applications were popularized by developers building large scale applications on platforms such as Heroku • In recent years the 12 Factor guidelines have been considered best practices for both developers and operations engineers regardless of the application’s use-case and at nearly any scale • Many of the 12 Factor guidelines align directly with best practices for serverless applications and are improved upon given the nature of AWS Lambda, Amazon API Gateway, and other AWS services • However, some of the 12 Factor guidelines don’t directly align with serverless applications or are interpreted very differently
  • 12. No servers to provision or manage Scales with usage Never pay for idle Availability and fault tolerance built in Serverless means…
  • 13. Serverless application SERVICES (ANYTHING) Changes in data state Requests to endpoints Changes in resource state EVENT SOURCE FUNCTION Node.js Python Java C#
  • 14. Common Lambda use cases Web Applications • Static websites • Complex web apps • Packages for Flask and Express Data Processing • Real time • MapReduce • Batch Chatbots • Powering chatbot logic Backends • Apps & services • Mobile • IoT </></> Amazon Alexa • Powering voice-enabled apps • Alexa Skills Kit IT Automation • Policy engines • Extending AWS services • Infrastructure management
  • 15. The 12 Factors: 1. Codebase 2. Dependencies 3. Config 4. Backing services 5. Build, release, run 6. Process 7. Port Binding 8. Concurrency 9. Disposability 10.Dev/prod parity 11.Logs 12.Admin processes Let’s explore how the 12 Factors apply to a serverless application:
  • 16. 1. Codebase 12Factor.net: “One codebase tracked in revision control, many deploys” Serverless Apps: All code should be stored in revision control (a development best practice). The same repository should be used for all environments deployed to. The bounds of an “application” differ in serverless terms: • If events are shared (ie. a common Amazon API Gateway) then Lambda function code for those events should be put in the same repository • Otherwise break “services” along event source into their own repositories
  • 17. 12Factor.net: “Explicitly declare and isolate dependencies” Serverless Apps: Code that needs to be used by multiple functions should be packaged into its own library. Include those packages inside of your deployment package. Every language Lambda supports has a model for this: 2. Dependencies Node.js & Python • .zip file consisting of your code and any dependencies • Can use npm/pip. • All dependencies must be at root level Java • Either .zip file with all code/dependencies, or standalone .jar with compiled class & resource files at root level, required jars in /lib directory • Can use Maven C# (.NET Core) • Either .zip file with all code/dependencies, or a standalone .dll • Can use Nuget • All assemblies (.dll) at root level
  • 18. 3. Config 12Factor.net: “Store config in the environment” Serverless Apps: Many ways to do this in serverless applications: • Lambda Environment Variables: • Key-value pairs available via standard environment variable APIs such as process.env for Node.js or os.environ for Python • Support KMS encryption • API Gateway Stages: • Key-value pairs available for configuring API Gateway functionality or to pass on to HTTP endpoints as URI parameters or configuration parameters to a Lambda invocation • AWS Systems Manager Parameter Store:
  • 19. AWS Systems Manager – Parameter Store Centralized store to manage your configuration data • supports hierarchies • plain-text or encrypted with KMS • Can send notifications of changes to Amazon SNS/ AWS Lambda • Can be secured with IAM • Calls recorded in CloudTrail • Can be tagged • Available via API/SDK Useful for: centralized environment variables, secrets control, feature flags from __future__ import print_function import json import boto3 ssm = boto3.client('ssm', 'us-east-1') def get_parameters(): response = ssm.get_parameters( Names=['LambdaSecureString'],WithDe cryption=True ) for parameter in response['Parameters']: return parameter['Value'] def lambda_handler(event, context): value = get_parameters() print("value1 = " + value) return value # Echo back the first key value
  • 20. 4. Backing services 12Factor.net: “Treat backing services as attached resources” Serverless Apps: No differences. Resources that Lambda functions connect to, such as databases, should have their endpoints and access credentials made available via config resources or IAM policies 👍
  • 21. 5. Build, release, run 12Factor.net: “Strictly separate build and run stages” Serverless Apps: No differences. Development best practices such as Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery should be followed. • Use AWS CodeBuild and AWS CodePipeline to support this: AWS CodeBuild AWS CodePipeline
  • 22. version: 0.1 environment_variables: plaintext: "INPUT_FILE": "saml.yaml” "S3_BUCKET": "" phases: install: commands: - npm install pre_build: commands: - eslint *.js build: commands: - npm test post_build: commands: - aws cloudformation package --template $INPUT_FILE --s3- bucket $S3_BUCKET --output-template post-saml.yaml artifacts: type: zip files: - post-saml.yaml - beta.json Serverless App buildspec.yml Example
  • 23. version: 0.1 environment_variables: plaintext: "INPUT_FILE": "saml.yaml” "S3_BUCKET": "" phases: install: commands: - npm install pre_build: commands: - eslint *.js build: commands: - npm test post_build: commands: - aws cloudformation package --template $INPUT_FILE --s3- bucket $S3_BUCKET --output-template post-saml.yaml artifacts: type: zip files: - post-saml.yaml - beta.json • Variables to be used by phases of build • Examples for what you can do in the phases of a build: • You can install packages or run commands to prepare your environment in ”install”. • Run syntax checking, commands in “pre_build”. • Execute your build/test tools or commands in “build” • Execute the CloudFormation “package” command to package your serverless application with SAM in “post_build” • Create and store an artifact in S3 Serverless App buildspec.yml Example
  • 24. Delivery via CodePipeline Pipeline flow: 1. Commit your code to a source code repository 2. Package/Test in CodeBuild 3. Use CloudFormation actions in CodePipeline to create or update stacks via SAM templates Optional: Make use of ChangeSets 4. Make use of specific stage/environment parameter files to pass in Lambda variables 5. Test our application between stages/environments Optional: Make use of Manual Approvals
  • 25. An example minimal Developer’s pipeline: MyBranch-Source Source AWS CodeCommit MyApplication Build test-build-source AWS CodeBuild MyDev-Deploy create-changeset AWS CloudFormation execute-changeset AWS CloudFormation Run-stubs AWS Lambda This pipeline: • Three Stages • Builds code artifact • One Development environment • Uses SAM/CloudFormation to deploy artifact and other AWS resources • Has Lambda custom actions for running my own testing functions
  • 26. Source Source AWS CodeCommit MyApplication An example minimal production pipeline: Build test-build-source AWS CodeBuild Deploy Testing create-changeset AWS CloudFormation execute-changeset AWS CloudFormation Run-stubs AWS Lambda Deploy Staging create-changeset AWS CloudFormation execute-changeset AWS CloudFormation Run-API-test Runscope QA-Sign-off Manual Approval Review Deploy Prod create-changeset AWS CloudFormation execute-changeset AWS CloudFormation Post-Deploy-Slack AWS Lambda This pipeline: • Five Stages • Builds code artifact • Three deployed to “Environments” • Uses SAM/CloudFormation to deploy artifact and other AWS resources • Has Lambda custom actions for running my own testing functions • Integrates with a 3rd party tool/service • Has a manual approval before deploying to production
  • 27. 6. Process 12Factor.net: “Execute the app as one or more stateless processes” Serverless Apps: This is inherent in how Lambda is designed already: • Lambda Functions should be treated as stateless despite the potential to store some state in-between container re-use. • There is no promise of container re-use between function invocations. • Data that needs to be kept should be stored off Lambda in a stateful service such as a database or cache.
  • 28. 7. Port Binding 12Factor.net: “Export services via port binding” Serverless Apps: In Lambda/serverless applications this factor doesn’t apply the same due to a difference in how Lambda Functions are accessed: • Instead of a “port” Lambda functions are invoked via one or more triggering services or AWS’s APIs for Lambda • When it comes to Lambda functions there are 3 models for how they can be invoked; synchronously, asynchronously, and via stream • Instead of having one function support multiple invocation sources, create independent functions and make use of shared code via dependencies (shared packages) to support shared capabilities
  • 29. Lambda execution model Synchronous (push) Asynchronous (event) Stream-based Amazon API Gateway AWS Lambda function Amazon DynamoDBAmazon SNS /order AWS Lambda function Amazon S3 reqs Amazon Kinesis changes AWS Lambda service function
  • 30. Amazon S3 Amazon DynamoDB Amazon Kinesis AWS CloudFormation AWS CloudTrail Amazon CloudWatch Amazon Cognito Amazon SNSAmazon SES Cron events DATA STORES ENDPOINTS DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT TOOLS EVENT/MESSAGE SERVICES Event sources that trigger AWS Lambda and more! AWS CodeCommit Amazon API Gateway Amazon Alexa AWS IoT AWS Step Functions
  • 31. 8. Concurrency 12Factor.net: “Scale out via the process model” Serverless Apps: Doesn’t apply as Lambda functions will scale automatically based on load. You can fork threads inside of your function execution but there are practical limits due to the memory and CPU/network constraints of your functions based on how you configure them. 👍
  • 32. 9. Disposability 12Factor.net: “Maximize robustness with fast startup and graceful shutdown” Serverless Apps: Shutdown doesn’t apply as Lambda functions and their invocation are tied directly to incoming events. Speed at startup does matter though and is a factor of deployment package size + language used + VPC (or not) + pre-handler code calls. 👍
  • 33. 10. Dev/prod parity 12Factor.net: “Keep development, staging, and production as similar as possible” Serverless Apps: This can be made incredibly easy with serverless applications by: • Making use of environment/stage variables or Parameter Store for configuration information, backend resources, etc • Using Serverless Application Models (SAM) to deploy your application • Can pass environment/stage variables via Parameters, Mappings, Imports • Having a CI/CD process and tooling that supports multiple environments or accounts
  • 35. AWS Serverless Application Model (SAM) CloudFormation extension optimized for serverless New serverless resource types: functions, APIs, and tables Supports anything CloudFormation supports Open specification (Apache 2.0) https://github.com/awslabs/serverless-application-model
  • 36. SAM template AWSTemplateFormatVersion: '2010-09-09’ Transform: AWS::Serverless-2016-10-31 Resources: GetHtmlFunction: Type: AWS::Serverless::Function Properties: CodeUri: s3://sam-demo-bucket/todo_list.zip Handler: index.gethtml Runtime: nodejs4.3 Policies: AmazonDynamoDBReadOnlyAccess Events: GetHtml: Type: Api Properties: Path: /{proxy+} Method: ANY ListTable: Type: AWS::Serverless::SimpleTable
  • 37. SAM template AWSTemplateFormatVersion: '2010-09-09’ Transform: AWS::Serverless-2016-10-31 Resources: GetHtmlFunction: Type: AWS::Serverless::Function Properties: CodeUri: s3://sam-demo-bucket/todo_list.zip Handler: index.gethtml Runtime: nodejs4.3 Policies: AmazonDynamoDBReadOnlyAccess Events: GetHtml: Type: Api Properties: Path: /{proxy+} Method: ANY ListTable: Type: AWS::Serverless::SimpleTable Tells CloudFormation this is a SAM template it needs to “transform” Creates a Lambda function with the referenced managed IAM policy, runtime, code at the referenced zip location, and handler as defined. Also creates an API Gateway and takes care of all mapping/permissions necessary Creates a DynamoDB table with 5 Read & Write units
  • 38. Lambda and API Gateway Variables + SAM Parameters: MyEnvironment: Type: String Default: testing AllowedValues: - testing - staging - prod Description: Environment of this stack of resources SpecialFeature1: Type: String Default: false AllowedValues: - true - false Description: Enable new SpecialFeature1 … #Lambda MyFunction: Type: 'AWS::Serverless::Function' Properties: … Environment: Variables: ENVIRONMENT: !Ref: MyEnvironment Spec_Feature1: !Ref: SpecialFeature1 … #API Gateway MyApiGatewayApi: Type: AWS::Serverless::Api Properties: … Variables: ENVIRONMENT: !Ref: MyEnvironment SPEC_Feature1: !Ref: SpecialFeature1 …
  • 39. SAM Local CLI tool for local testing of serverless apps Works with Lambda functions and “proxy- style” APIs Response object and function logs available on your local machine Uses open source docker-lambda images to mimic Lambda’s execution environment: • Emulates timeout, memory limits, runtimes https://github.com/awslabs/aws-sam-local
  • 40. 11. Logs 12Factor.net: “Treat logs as event streams” Serverless Apps: Logging (as well as Metric collection) are considered a “universal right” in Lambda: • Console output automatically collected and sent to Amazon CloudWatch Logs • Logs can be turned into Metrics • Logs can be sent to Amazon S3 or Amazon ElasticSearch Service easily for further inspection and trending • Metrics for Lambda and API Gateway for several key stats are automatically collected and sent to CloudWatch • You can easily send more using the CloudWatch SDK
  • 41. 12. Admin processes 12Factor.net: “Run admin/management tasks as one-off processes” Serverless Apps: Doesn’t apply to Lambda since you already limit your functions based on use case. True administrative tasks would occur via their own Lambda Functions or via tools such as Amazon EC2 Run Command. 👍
  • 42. 1. Codebase 2. Dependencies 3. Config 4. Backing services 5. Build, release, run 6. Process 7. Port Binding 8. Concurrency 9. Disposability 10.Dev/prod parity 11.Logs 12.Admin processes The 12 Factors & Serverless Applications: As we’ve seen, 12 Factor application design can still be applied to serverless applications taking into account some small differences! = Works similarly = Not relevant
  • 43. FIN, ACK (in closing) As we’ve reviewed the 12 Factor methodology for applications we’ve seen which factors do and do not apply the same for serverless applications: • Thinking about code reusability and how to scope your functions to the smallest size necessary provides many benefits • Factors related to underlying process management, network ports, concurrency, and admin processes are largely not an issue in serverless applications due to Lambda’s product design and features • Best practices for serverless align pretty closely with 12 Factor guidance already, so you might be really close to meeting the “12 Factor bar” already!

Editor's Notes

  1. https://secure.flickr.com/photos/mgifford/4525333972
  2. https://12factor.net/codebase There is always a one-to-one correlation between the codebase and the app: *If there are multiple codebases, it’s not an app – it’s a distributed system. Each component in a distributed system is an app, and each can individually comply with twelve-factor. *Multiple apps sharing the same code is a violation of twelve-factor. The solution here is to factor shared code into libraries which can be included through the dependency manager.
  3. https://12factor.net/dependencies A twelve-factor app never relies on implicit existence of system-wide packages. It declares all dependencies, completely and exactly, via a dependency declaration manifest. Furthermore, it uses a dependency isolation tool during execution to ensure that no implicit dependencies “leak in” from the surrounding system. The full and explicit dependency specification is applied uniformly to both production and development.
  4. https://12factor.net/config An app’s config is everything that is likely to vary between deploys (staging, production, developer environments, etc). This includes: Resource handles to the database, Memcached, and other backing services Credentials to external services such as Amazon S3 or Twitter Per-deploy values such as the canonical hostname for the deploy Apps sometimes store config as constants in the code. This is a violation of twelve-factor, which requires strict separation of config from code. Config varies substantially across deploys, code does not. A litmus test for whether an app has all config correctly factored out of the code is whether the codebase could be made open source at any moment, without compromising any credentials.
  5. https://12factor.net/backing-services A backing service is any service the app consumes over the network as part of its normal operation. Examples include datastores (such as MySQL or CouchDB), messaging/queueing systems (such as RabbitMQ or Beanstalkd), SMTP services for outbound email (such as Postfix), and caching systems (such as Memcached). Backing services like the database are traditionally managed by the same systems administrators as the app’s runtime deploy. In addition to these locally-managed services, the app may also have services provided and managed by third parties. Examples include SMTP services (such as Postmark), metrics-gathering services (such as New Relic or Loggly), binary asset services (such as Amazon S3), and even API-accessible consumer services (such as Twitter, Google Maps, or Last.fm). The code for a twelve-factor app makes no distinction between local and third party services. To the app, both are attached resources, accessed via a URL or other locator/credentials stored in the config. A deploy of the twelve-factor app should be able to swap out a local MySQL database with one managed by a third party (such as Amazon RDS) without any changes to the app’s code. Likewise, a local SMTP server could be swapped with a third-party SMTP service (such as Postmark) without code changes. In both cases, only the resource handle in the config needs to change.
  6. https://12factor.net/build-release-run A codebase is transformed into a (non-development) deploy through three stages: The build stage is a transform which converts a code repo into an executable bundle known as a build. Using a version of the code at a commit specified by the deployment process, the build stage fetches vendors dependencies and compiles binaries and assets. The release stage takes the build produced by the build stage and combines it with the deploy’s current config. The resulting release contains both the build and the config and is ready for immediate execution in the execution environment. The run stage (also known as “runtime”) runs the app in the execution environment, by launching some set of the app’s processes against a selected release. The twelve-factor app uses strict separation between the build, release, and run stages. For example, it is impossible to make changes to the code at runtime, since there is no way to propagate those changes back to the build stage.
  7. https://12factor.net/processes The app is executed in the execution environment as one or more processes. In the simplest case, the code is a stand-alone script, the execution environment is a developer’s local laptop with an installed language runtime, and the process is launched via the command line (for example, python my_script.py). On the other end of the spectrum, a production deploy of a sophisticated app may use many process types, instantiated into zero or more running processes. Twelve-factor processes are stateless and share-nothing. Any data that needs to persist must be stored in a stateful backing service, typically a database. The memory space or filesystem of the process can be used as a brief, single-transaction cache. For example, downloading a large file, operating on it, and storing the results of the operation in the database. The twelve-factor app never assumes that anything cached in memory or on disk will be available on a future request or job – with many processes of each type running, chances are high that a future request will be served by a different process. Even when running only one process, a restart (triggered by code deploy, config change, or the execution environment relocating the process to a different physical location) will usually wipe out all local (e.g., memory and filesystem) state.
  8. https://12factor.net/port-binding Web apps are sometimes executed inside a webserver container. For example, PHP apps might run as a module inside Apache HTTPD, or Java apps might run inside Tomcat. The twelve-factor app is completely self-contained and does not rely on runtime injection of a webserver into the execution environment to create a web-facing service. The web app exports HTTP as a service by binding to a port, and listening to requests coming in on that port.
  9. https://12factor.net/concurrency Any computer program, once run, is represented by one or more processes. Web apps have taken a variety of process-execution forms. For example, PHP processes run as child processes of Apache, started on demand as needed by request volume. Java processes take the opposite approach, with the JVM providing one massive uberprocess that reserves a large block of system resources (CPU and memory) on startup, with concurrency managed internally via threads. In both cases, the running process(es) are only minimally visible to the developers of the app. In the twelve-factor app, processes are a first class citizen. Processes in the twelve-factor app take strong cues from the unix process model for running service daemons. Using this model, the developer can architect their app to handle diverse workloads by assigning each type of work to a process type. For example, HTTP requests may be handled by a web process, and long-running background tasks handled by a worker process.
  10. https://12factor.net/disposability The twelve-factor app’s processes are disposable, meaning they can be started or stopped at a moment’s notice. This facilitates fast elastic scaling, rapid deployment of code or config changes, and robustness of production deploys. Processes should strive to minimize startup time. Ideally, a process takes a few seconds from the time the launch command is executed until the process is up and ready to receive requests or jobs. Short startup time provides more agility for the release process and scaling up; and it aids robustness, because the process manager can more easily move processes to new physical machines when warranted. Processes shut down gracefully when they receive a SIGTERM signal from the process manager. For a web process, graceful shutdown is achieved by ceasing to listen on the service port (thereby refusing any new requests), allowing any current requests to finish, and then exiting. Implicit in this model is that HTTP requests are short (no more than a few seconds), or in the case of long polling, the client should seamlessly attempt to reconnect when the connection is lost.
  11. https://12factor.net/dev-prod-parity Historically, there have been substantial gaps between development (a developer making live edits to a local deploy of the app) and production (a running deploy of the app accessed by end users). These gaps manifest in three areas: The time gap: A developer may work on code that takes days, weeks, or even months to go into production. The personnel gap: Developers write code, ops engineers deploy it. The tools gap: Developers may be using a stack like Nginx, SQLite, and OS X, while the production deploy uses Apache, MySQL, and Linux. The twelve-factor app is designed for continuous deployment by keeping the gap between development and production small. Looking at the three gaps described above: Make the time gap small: a developer may write code and have it deployed hours or even just minutes later. Make the personnel gap small: developers who wrote code are closely involved in deploying it and watching its behavior in production. Make the tools gap small: keep development and production as similar as possible.
  12. SAM Local is a CLI tool that allows customers to test their SAM-based Lambda functions locally, before deploying code to Lambda. SAM Local currently supports functions in Node.js, Java and Python. If your function is fronted by API Gateway, SAM Local will allow you to ping APIs to invoke your function. Alternatively, you can use SAM Local’s “event payload generator” to quickly create a mock event to invoke your function with. After your function executes, you can view the response or examine the logs, all on your local machine. SAM local automatically executes your functions in a sandboxed environment that mimics Lambda’s execution environment, by leveraging docker-lambda Docker images.
  13. https://12factor.net/logs Logs provide visibility into the behavior of a running app. In server-based environments they are commonly written to a file on disk (a “logfile”); but this is only an output format. Logs are the stream of aggregated, time-ordered events collected from the output streams of all running processes and backing services. Logs in their raw form are typically a text format with one event per line (though backtraces from exceptions may span multiple lines). Logs have no fixed beginning or end, but flow continuously as long as the app is operating. A twelve-factor app never concerns itself with routing or storage of its output stream. It should not attempt to write to or manage logfiles. Instead, each running process writes its event stream, unbuffered, to stdout. During local development, the developer will view this stream in the foreground of their terminal to observe the app’s behavior. In staging or production deploys, each process’ stream will be captured by the execution environment, collated together with all other streams from the app, and routed to one or more final destinations for viewing and long-term archival. These archival destinations are not visible to or configurable by the app, and instead are completely managed by the execution environment. Open-source log routers (such as Logplex and Fluent) are available for this purpose.
  14. https://12factor.net/admin-processes The process formation is the array of processes that are used to do the app’s regular business (such as handling web requests) as it runs. Separately, developers will often wish to do one-off administrative or maintenance tasks for the app, such as: Running database migrations (e.g. manage.py migrate in Django, rake db:migrate in Rails). Running a console (also known as a REPL shell) to run arbitrary code or inspect the app’s models against the live database. Most languages provide a REPL by running the interpreter without any arguments (e.g. python or perl) or in some cases have a separate command (e.g. irb for Ruby, rails console for Rails). Running one-time scripts committed into the app’s repo (e.g. php scripts/fix_bad_records.php). One-off admin processes should be run in an identical environment as the regular long-running processes of the app. They run against a release, using the same codebase and config as any process run against that release. Admin code must ship with application code to avoid synchronization issues.
  15. Note: Disposability scores somewhere in the middle. You don’t need to think about shutdown but you do need to think about startup performance in relation to your application
  16. place holder in case you do a demo
  17. https://secure.flickr.com/photos/dullhunk/202872717/