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MOTION AND LIQUIDS



                     PREPARED BY
                       V.REVATHIAMBIKA
7/28/2012              LECTURER IN PHYSICS
                                         1
7/28/2012   2
MOTION
• A change in the position of a body or
  system with respect to time, as
  measured by a particular frame of
  reference. Only relative motion can
  be measured; absolute motion is
  meaningless.

7/28/2012                                 3
INFERENCE
1. A body is said to be in the state of rest when it
   remains in the same position with respect to
   time.
2. A body is said to be in the state of motion, when
   it continuously changes its position with respect
   to time.
3. The distance between the two places is not the
   same; it depends upon the path chosen.
4. The shortest distance, or distance travelled
   along a straight line, is known as displacement.
7/28/2012                                          4
MOTION CLASSIFICATION




7/28/2012                           5
Motion Classification
                              • If an object
                                covers equal
                    Uniform     distances in equal
                                interval of time




                              • If an object
                     Non-       covers unequal
                    Uniform     distances in equal
                                interval of time

7/28/2012                                            6
Measuring the rate of motion


      Speed                                Displacement
                The distance                              The distance
                travelled in one                          covered when
                second or rate of                         travelled along a
                distance travelled.                       straight line.



                Total distance travelled                  Total covered distance
                      Time taken                              Time taken



7/28/2012                                                                          7
Rate of
                       motion



            Velocity         Acceleration

7/28/2012                                   8
VELOCITY                         ACCELERATION

It is the displacement made in one   It is the change in velocity of an
second or rate of change of          object per second or rate of change
displacement.                        of velocity.

         DISPLACEMENT                    CHANGE IN VELOCITY
             TIME                            TIME TAKEN

UNIT : meter/ second                 UNIT : meter / second2

Uniform velocity :                   Uniform Acceleration :

Equal distance covered by a body     If an object travels in a straight line
in equal intervals of time           and its velocity increases or
                                     decreases by equal amount in
                                     equal intervals of time, then the
   7/28/2012
                                     acceleration of the object is 9
                                     uniform.
GRAPHICAL EQUATION OF MOTION


1. Equation for Velocity at a time
            v = u + at

2. Equation for displacement
          s = ut + ½ at2

3. Equation for velocity at a position
           v2 = u2 + 2as
7/28/2012                                  10
Acceleration due to gravity

♣ When a the body is allowed
     to fall down, the velocity
     gradually increases. Now the
     body is accelerated.
♣ The deceleration or
     acceleration due to the
     gravitational force of earth is
     known as acceleration due to
     gravity.
It is denoted by “ g”
The value of “ g” is 9.8 m/s 2
   7/28/2012                                 11
Uniform circular motion

 Circular motion :
     An athlete runs along the circumference of a
  circular path or The movement of an object in a
  circular path
 Uniform circular motion :
     When an object moves in a circular path with a
  constant velocity.
     The magnitude of the velocity is constant at all
  points and the direction of the velocity changes
  continuously.
 7/28/2012                                          12
• Angular displacement :
  The angle covered by the line joining the body and
  the centre of the circle.
  It’s measured in radian
• Angular velocity :
   The angular displacement in one second or Rate of
     change of angular displacement.
                 Angular displacement
                       time taken
                     ω = θ/ t
           UNIT : radian / second
  7/28/2012                                      13
7/28/2012   14
7/28/2012   15
CENTRIPETAL FORCE
• The constant force that acts on the body along
  the radius towards the centre and perpendicular
  to the velocity of the body.

•F =        mv
            /r2

• F = mrω   2

• Since v = rω
7/28/2012                                     16
MOTION IN LIQUIDS
                 • When a body floats or
                   immerses in a liquid, the
                   pressure on the bottom
                   surface is more than that the
                   pressure on the top of the
                   surface.
                 • Due to the difference in
                   pressure, an upward force
                   acts on the body.
                 • This upward force is called
7/28/2012          upthrust or buoyant force.17
Centre of buoyancy
• The upward force is called upthrust or
  buoyant force.

• The buoyant force (upthrust) acts through the
  centre of gravity of the displaced liquid which
  is known as centre of buoyancy.

• The buoyant force is equal to the weight of
  the liquid displaced.
7/28/2012                                       18
Archimedes principle

                   • When a body is
                     immersed in fluid (liquid
                     or gas) it experiences an
                     apparent loss of weight
                     which is equal to the
                     weight of the fluid
                     displaced.
7/28/2012                                  19
7/28/2012   20
Relative density
• Density :
  Density of a body is defined as the mass per unit
  volume of the body.
                   Mass
                   Volume
  UNIT : Kg / m
Relative density :
   It is defined as the ratio of density of the body to
  the density of water.
7/28/2012                                          21
Laws of flotation
• The weight of the floating body is
  equal to the weight of the liquid
  displaced by it.

• The centre of gravity of the floating
  body and the centre of gravity of the
  liquid displaced (centre of buoyancy)
  are in the same vertical line.

7/28/2012                                 22
HYDROMETERS
There are two types of hydrometers
1. The constant immersion hydrometer, in which the
   weight of the hydrometer is adjusted to make it
   sink to the same fixed mark in all liquids.
2. The variable immersion hydrometer, in which the
   weight of the hydrometer remains the same, but
   the depth to which it sinks in different liquids
   vary.
3. A common hydrometer used to test the purity of
   milk by noting its specific gravity is called a
   LACTOMETER.
 7/28/2012                                      23
7/28/2012   24

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Motion and liquids

  • 1. MOTION AND LIQUIDS PREPARED BY V.REVATHIAMBIKA 7/28/2012 LECTURER IN PHYSICS 1
  • 3. MOTION • A change in the position of a body or system with respect to time, as measured by a particular frame of reference. Only relative motion can be measured; absolute motion is meaningless. 7/28/2012 3
  • 4. INFERENCE 1. A body is said to be in the state of rest when it remains in the same position with respect to time. 2. A body is said to be in the state of motion, when it continuously changes its position with respect to time. 3. The distance between the two places is not the same; it depends upon the path chosen. 4. The shortest distance, or distance travelled along a straight line, is known as displacement. 7/28/2012 4
  • 6. Motion Classification • If an object covers equal Uniform distances in equal interval of time • If an object Non- covers unequal Uniform distances in equal interval of time 7/28/2012 6
  • 7. Measuring the rate of motion Speed Displacement The distance The distance travelled in one covered when second or rate of travelled along a distance travelled. straight line. Total distance travelled Total covered distance Time taken Time taken 7/28/2012 7
  • 8. Rate of motion Velocity Acceleration 7/28/2012 8
  • 9. VELOCITY ACCELERATION It is the displacement made in one It is the change in velocity of an second or rate of change of object per second or rate of change displacement. of velocity. DISPLACEMENT CHANGE IN VELOCITY TIME TIME TAKEN UNIT : meter/ second UNIT : meter / second2 Uniform velocity : Uniform Acceleration : Equal distance covered by a body If an object travels in a straight line in equal intervals of time and its velocity increases or decreases by equal amount in equal intervals of time, then the 7/28/2012 acceleration of the object is 9 uniform.
  • 10. GRAPHICAL EQUATION OF MOTION 1. Equation for Velocity at a time v = u + at 2. Equation for displacement s = ut + ½ at2 3. Equation for velocity at a position v2 = u2 + 2as 7/28/2012 10
  • 11. Acceleration due to gravity ♣ When a the body is allowed to fall down, the velocity gradually increases. Now the body is accelerated. ♣ The deceleration or acceleration due to the gravitational force of earth is known as acceleration due to gravity. It is denoted by “ g” The value of “ g” is 9.8 m/s 2 7/28/2012 11
  • 12. Uniform circular motion  Circular motion : An athlete runs along the circumference of a circular path or The movement of an object in a circular path  Uniform circular motion : When an object moves in a circular path with a constant velocity. The magnitude of the velocity is constant at all points and the direction of the velocity changes continuously. 7/28/2012 12
  • 13. • Angular displacement : The angle covered by the line joining the body and the centre of the circle. It’s measured in radian • Angular velocity : The angular displacement in one second or Rate of change of angular displacement. Angular displacement time taken ω = θ/ t UNIT : radian / second 7/28/2012 13
  • 14. 7/28/2012 14
  • 15. 7/28/2012 15
  • 16. CENTRIPETAL FORCE • The constant force that acts on the body along the radius towards the centre and perpendicular to the velocity of the body. •F = mv /r2 • F = mrω 2 • Since v = rω 7/28/2012 16
  • 17. MOTION IN LIQUIDS • When a body floats or immerses in a liquid, the pressure on the bottom surface is more than that the pressure on the top of the surface. • Due to the difference in pressure, an upward force acts on the body. • This upward force is called 7/28/2012 upthrust or buoyant force.17
  • 18. Centre of buoyancy • The upward force is called upthrust or buoyant force. • The buoyant force (upthrust) acts through the centre of gravity of the displaced liquid which is known as centre of buoyancy. • The buoyant force is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced. 7/28/2012 18
  • 19. Archimedes principle • When a body is immersed in fluid (liquid or gas) it experiences an apparent loss of weight which is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced. 7/28/2012 19
  • 20. 7/28/2012 20
  • 21. Relative density • Density : Density of a body is defined as the mass per unit volume of the body. Mass Volume UNIT : Kg / m Relative density : It is defined as the ratio of density of the body to the density of water. 7/28/2012 21
  • 22. Laws of flotation • The weight of the floating body is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by it. • The centre of gravity of the floating body and the centre of gravity of the liquid displaced (centre of buoyancy) are in the same vertical line. 7/28/2012 22
  • 23. HYDROMETERS There are two types of hydrometers 1. The constant immersion hydrometer, in which the weight of the hydrometer is adjusted to make it sink to the same fixed mark in all liquids. 2. The variable immersion hydrometer, in which the weight of the hydrometer remains the same, but the depth to which it sinks in different liquids vary. 3. A common hydrometer used to test the purity of milk by noting its specific gravity is called a LACTOMETER. 7/28/2012 23
  • 24. 7/28/2012 24