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Morocco RDI & Entrepreneurial
                           Environment

               ESCWA Regional Workshop on “Innovation and
               Commercialization for Economic Development “




Prepared by : Ilyas AZZIOUI                        Amman: 12-13 November 2012
Challenges




 RDI Syst       Technology Transfer
Pool of ideas



                     System
Challenges




 RDI Syst       Technology Transfer
Pool of ideas



                     System
Challenges




 RDI Syst       Technology Transfer
Pool of ideas                         Viable Business



                     System
Challenges




 RDI Syst       Technology Transfer
Pool of ideas                         Viable Business


Researchers
 with ideas          System
RDI Syst       Technology Transfer
Pool of ideas                         Viable Business


Researchers                           Technopreneur
 with ideas          System
The Approach




 RDI Syst        Technology Transfer
Pool of ideas                          Viable Business


Researchers                             Entrepreneur
 with ideas           System
Problématique




 RDI Syst        Technology Transfer
Pool of ideas


Researchers
 with ideas           System
Analyse du
Système RDI




       Policy & governance 


         Funding


       People


      RDI output
Analyse du
  Système RDI



           Policy, governance  and organisation


 The Strategy and Vision 2025 developed in 2006 continues to serve as the
reference for the implementation of policies and measures related to R&D.
According to this vision the main societal challenges that should drive
Moroccan research in the future are:


    1. Education and training
    2. Access to basic services (infrastructure, potable water, electricity,
       health, etc.)
    3. Fight against poverty and social exclusion
    4. Other challenges: fight against the effects of drought,
       environmental degradation, slums and diseases.
Analyse du
  Système RDI



            Policy, governance  and organisation


 Research priorities are :
1.improving quality of life,
2. knowledge, preservation and enhancement of natural resources,
3. socioeconomic and cultural development,
4.information science and technology,
5.agriculture in difficult conditions,
6.business competitiveness and innovation,
7.risk management
8.biotechnologies.
Analyse du
  Système RDI



             Policy, governance  and organisation

 The National Pact for Industrial Emergence (2009-2015): Launched by
the Ministry of Industry, Trade and new technologies, it focuses on export
oriented economic sectors where Morocco could obtain a sustainable
advantage and a high potential for growth :
1.off-shoring (client relationship management, banking and insurance,
management of payments, help desks and infrastructure management),
2. textiles and clothing,
3.automobile and aeronautics,
4.electronics,
5.agro-food, exploitation of marine resources;
6.Industrial crafts.
7.More recently added sectors include nanotechnology, biotechnology and
microelectronics.
Analyse du
  Système RDI



            Policy, governance  and organisation

 The National Pact for Industrial Emergence (2009-2015):

         Sectors    Managers   Engineers   Technicians   Operators    Total
     Off shoring       000 1       3000         10500       55000     70000
    Automotive          1500       7000          9000       32500     70000
    Aeronautics          300       1900          3000        9800     15000
     Electronics         200       1400          2700        4700      9000

   textiles and
                         300       2000          7500       24000     32000
          leather

      Agro-food          500        500          8500       14500     24000
           Total        3800      15800         39400      141000    220000
Analyse du
  Système RDI



           Policy, governance  and organisation


 Two main policies were driving the RDI System lately
     The Emergency programme (2009-2012) : led By the Ministry of
    Higher Education and Research, the main focus was education but Project
    n°14 called “Promotion of Scientific Research” was expected to absorb 72
    million Euros (720 million DH) of a total budget of 4.7 billion Euros (47
    billion DH)
     Morocco innovation initiative (2009-2014): led by the Ministry of
    Industry, Trade and new technologies
Analyse du
     Système RDI
                           Morocco Innovation Initiative

• Governance and framework:
1. Setting up a National Innovation Committee;
2.The creation of a dedicated structure (Moroccan innovation Centre);
3. Fostering a flexible and effective legal framework for innovation
•Infrastructure:
1.Technological infrastructures;
2.Technology transfer infrastructures (implementation of Innovation cities in
some universities);
3.Clusters.
• Funding & Support:
Developing a portfolio of products/schemes to support innovation;
Stimulation of the venture capital system;
Development of the intellectual property market;
Mobilisation of international funds for innovation.
• Attracting Talents:
Creation of the Moroccan Innovation Club;
Promotion of the innovation culture;
Positioning Morocco R&D and innovation offer.
Analyse du
     Système RDI                 Achievements
                           Morocco Innovation Initiative

• Governance and framework:

legal framework: A draft law (bill) was elaborated but has yet to go through the
adoption process. The provisions of this bill focus on the following points:
     •Providing incentives to young innovative enterprise (JEI);
     •Providing a legal framework for spin-outs;
    •Incentive scheme to encourage the recruitment of researchers (or
    PhD students)

    Governance: the creation of the Moroccan Centre of Innovation (CMI) and
    the definition of its missions. The CMI plays a key role in managing new
    funding schemes such as Intilak (up to 100,000 Euros) to support
    innovative start-ups and Tatwir (up to 400,000 Euros) to support applied
    R&D project within the private sector.
Analyse du
     Système RDI                 Achievements
                           Morocco Innovation Initiative

• Infrastructure:
1.Innovation cities (Cités de l’Innovation): Four universities were selected at
this stage to host “innovations cities”. These structures will play a key role in
incubation and technology transfer activities.
2.Clusters: Four clusters were legally formed in the fields of IT ((Maroc
Numeric Cluster), microelectronics (Morocco Microelectronics Cluster),
Electronics and Mécatronics (Cluster Electrique, Mécanique et Mécatronique
du Maroc) and Sea products valorisation (Cluster Oceanopole Tan Tan). Funds
to support the launching and functioning of these clusters were also devised
and the managers of the clusters were recruited
• Funding & Support:
1.call for proposals of Intilak (up to € 100,000) to support start-ups and
Tatwir(up to € 400,000) to support applied R&D project within the private sector
were launched by the Ministry of Industry.
2.Maroc Numeric fund: Early stage VC for IT sector.
•
Analyse du
     Système RDI               Achievements
                         Morocco Innovation Initiative


  • Attracting Talents:
several concrete actions to promote innovation and entrepreneurship culture
     were identified and even implemented such as :
1. the “Innovation Trophy”, a prize to award innovative enterprises,
2. the launching of the Moroccan Club of Innovation Portal and
3. the implementation of a new entrepreneurship training module in
     partnership with four higher education institutes.
.
Analyse du
  Système RDI



             Funding


GERD/GDP (2010): 0,73 %
Share of private sector R&D (2010) : 30%
Share of public sector R&D (2010): 68%

HEIs are the main players in research, they counted more than 80% of R&D
personnel (headcounts) and absorbed more than 45% of GERD in 2010.

New funding schemes for Innovation (Intilak & Tatwir).
Analyse du
  Système RDI


           People

Researchers represented a share of 1.83/103 (FTE) of the economically active
population in the 25-64 age group in 2008.

The public and private research system in Morocco counted 37,246 R&D
personnel in 2010 including 12,166 of academics in colleges and universities
and 17,686 PhD students.

Because of the meagre career prospects for researchers in Morocco, the
majority of PhD students drop out from the research system when they find Public
administration jobs. In 2009, 15,097 PhD Students were registered but only 676
PhD diplomas were delivered.

Morocco has to train about 15000 (professors-researchers or full            time
researchers ) over this decade to face the research quality requirements (deemed
insufficient currently), the increasing number of students and retirement
departures.
Analyse du
Système RDI


      People
Analyse du
   Système RDI



           RDI output


Patents: The Moroccan Industrial and Commercial Property Office received 1022
applications in 2011 against 1007 applications in 2010. 167 were filed by nationals
and the rest by foreigners. In 2011, Moroccan universities applied for 37 patents
and research institutions for 8 patents,

Publications: Moroccan scientific production numbered 2377 publications in 2010
(Scopus)
Problématique




               Technology Transfer



Researchers
 with ideas         System
Context & background




  In this study we are interested in How Moroccan PhD Students perceive
  entrepreneurship by starting an innovative Start-up/Spin-off as a personal
  career alternative .
  190 PhD Students answered properly and returned the Questionnaire among
  1000 Targeted.
  Respondants: 56% Women 44% Man
The framework for the study



  External factors                      Perceptions                        Intent


Exogenous factors
Exogenous factors                        Perceived
                                         Perceived
-Gender, entrepreneurial or
 Gender, entrepreneurial or              desirability
                                         desirability
working experience,
working experience,                       Social Norms
entrepreneurial parents,
entrepreneurial parents,                                                  Entrepreneurial
training in
training in                                                                   intent
entrepreneurship,
entrepreneurship,
Nurturing environment etc.
Nurturing environment etc.              Perceived
                                        Perceived
                                        feasibility
                                        feasibility




                  Becoming an entrepreneur is intentional, planned behaviour.
                         (Shapero – Sokol 1982, Krueger et al 2000)
The framework for the study



  External factors                      Perceptions                        Intent
                                       Is it attractive ?

Exogenous factors
Exogenous factors                        Perceived
                                         Perceived
-Gender, entrepreneurial or
 Gender, entrepreneurial or              desirability
                                         desirability
working experience,
working experience,                       Social Norms
entrepreneurial parents,
entrepreneurial parents,                                                  Entrepreneurial
training in
training in                                                                   intent
entrepreneurship,
entrepreneurship,
Nurturing environment etc.
Nurturing environment etc.              Perceived
                                        Perceived
                                        feasibility
                                        feasibility
                                       Is it feasible ?




                  Becoming an entrepreneur is intentional, planned behaviour.
                         (Shapero – Sokol 1982, Krueger et al 2000)
Key findings
                            External factors


Independent Variables
Independent Variables

 41% pretend to have scientific skills or research results that either
have an economical potential or are patentable
60% have never participated in any kind of training in
entrepreneurship or management
 33% have at least one of their parents self-employed
 65% have at least one of their siblings/close friends self-employed
 33% have a kind of work experience in enterprise
 10% have an entrepreneurial experience
Key findings


Independent Variables
Independent Variables

  Only These Independents Variables have Statistically Significant   effect on
 entrepreneurial intention:


 1- Gender: Man are more entrepreneurial than Women ⇒ gives a clear
 indication to put a continuous effort on encouraging female entrepreneurship
 2- Starting Business Experience has positive effect on entrepreneurial
 intention
 3- Work Experience In an enterprise has positive effect on entrepreneurial
 intention
Key findings           The framework for the study



 External factors            Perceptions               Intent


                              Perceived
                              Perceived
                              desirability
                              desirability
Exogenous factors
Exogenous factors
                               Social Norms
-Person related
-Person related                                       Entrepreneurial
factors                                               intent
- Situational factors
                              Perceived
                              Perceived
                              feasibility
                              feasibility
Perceptions

Perceived desirability
Perceived desirability

 81% find attractive the idea of starting a university spin-off


                                              Cumulative
   Desirability                    Percent
                                               Percent

   Not attractive at all             2%          2%

   Not attractive                    3%          5%

   Rather not attractive             4%          9%

   No the opinion                   10%          19%

   Rather attractive               22%           40%

   attractive                      36%           76%

   Very attractive                 24%          100%
Key findings


  Incentives to start a business

1. To improve skills & widen career
   perspectives
2. To improve the image of research
   & its social impact
3. Money
4. Autonomy, challenges, New
   environment
Key findings


  Incentives to start a business

1. To improve skills & widen career
   perspectives
2. To improve the image of research
   & its social impact
3. Money
4. Autonomy, challenges, New
   environment

 Deterrents to start a business

 1. Bankruptcy (financial risk)
 2. To live a very risky and dubious
    situation
 3. Not to have spare time for leisure
    activities, family, friends
 4. Stress and anxiety about the
    success of the project
 5. To lose contact with academia
Key findings




PhD students who are more
interested in entrepreneurship
are:
-more motivated by positive
consequences of entrepreneurship
- less deterred by negative
consequences of entrepreneurship
The framework for the study



 External factors            Perceptions               Intent


                              Perceived
                              Perceived
                              desirability
                              desirability
Exogenous factors
Exogenous factors
                               Social Norms
-Person related
-Person related                                       Entrepreneurial
factors                                               intent
- Situational factors
                              Perceived
                              Perceived
                              feasibility
                              feasibility
Perceptions

Perceived feasibility
Perceived feasibility

 71% believe that they are able to start a university spin-off?



                                                       Cumulative
    Self efficacy                         Percent
                                                        Percent
    Completely unable                      3%             3%
    Unable                                 3%             5%
    Rather unable                          9%             14%
    Neither able nor unable                15%            29%
    Rather able                            33%            62%
    Able                                   29%            91%
    Completely able                        9%            100%
PhD students who are more
interested in entrepreneurship
trust more their skills and
competences to carry out various
tasks necessary to starting a
university spin-off.
The framework for the study



 External factors            Perceptions               Intent


                              Perceived
                              Perceived
                              desirability
                              desirability
Exogenous factors
Exogenous factors
                               Social Norms
-Person related
-Person related                                       Entrepreneurial
factors                                               intent
- Situational factors
                              Perceived
                              Perceived
                              feasibility
                              feasibility
Key findings


Entrepreneurial Intent
Entrepreneurial



1. 88% would seriously consider becoming an entrepreneur If
   they find commercial application for their research
   results/skills
2. 61% think it’s probable that they will start their own business
   in the next 5 years?
3. 63% would prefer entrepreneurship If they had to choose
   between setting up their own business or being an employee
   (on salary)
4. 75% have interested in either to create or take part in the
   creation of a university spin-off.
Key findings



Profile of intentionals
Profile of intentionals


 • 72% of the intentionals are ready to abandon a job in public
 administration to start their business
 • 50% want to participate in both capital and work, 39% only in work
 • 24% want to be the major founder, 51% one of the major founders,
 14% scientific counselor
 •5% want to occupy managerial position, 40% Scientific or technical
 position, 51% Occupy both managerial and technical position
Key findings



Major Perceived Obstacles

  The major perceived barriers that impede the translation of the entrepreneurial
        intentions into start-up actions are:
      1. Access to funding (89 citations) ,
      2. lack of skills and information (72) ,
      3. Administrative bureaucracy (45),
      4. The gap between research and the market (33),
      5. Lack of support (infrastructure, expertise, counselling …) ,
      6. Risks (bankruptcy, failure),
      7. Lack of ideas and opportunities, competition in the market
      8. Social environment.
Key findings



 Comparison of intentionals with
  Comparison of intentionals with
          incubatees
           incubatees



Except for the management of
Intellectual   property issues
Incubatees        trust   more
themselves in carrying out the
required tasks
To Sum Up



 A strong interest of Moroccan PhD students in the creation of innovative
  companies based on performance or skills of research. (81%: attractive); ( 71%:
  feel able); ( 75%: interested in starting a spin-off).
 The major perceived barriers that prevent the transformation of entrepreneurial into
  innovative business are in order of importance:
   1. access to finance,
   2. lack of skills and access to information and training,
   3. bureaucracy and red tape,
   4. the nature and level of research in Morocco,
   5. the risks (including financial risk and the risk of failure),
   6. inadequate system of support for entrepreneurship, environment and social
      norms
To Sum Up



 Overall, PhD students who are interested in entrepreneurship:
  • tend to link entrepreneurship with positive consequences,
  • they are less hampered by the negative consequences of starting a business,
  • perceive more encouragement from their social environment and are more
     sensitive to the views of some social groups that compose it,
  • they also feel more able to create a university spin-off and perform the required
     tasks.


 Comparison between the perceptions of PhD students who are interested in
  entrepreneurship and the more realistic views of incubatees has shown the existence
  of a number of significant differences on several levels. Indeed, Incubatees:

    •   feel more motivated by the perspectives of profit, autonomy,
    •   less hampered by the negative consequences of entrepreneurship,
    •   less responsive to the views of their social circle and
    •   consider themselves more capable to perform different tasks critical to business
        creation
Key findings


Importance from incubatees point of view
 Importance from incubatees point of view




   1.  Risks assessment
   2.  Identify relevant information about markets, potential clients et competitors
   3.  Negotiation and selling skills
   4.  Attract shareholders, private equity investors.
   5.  Find prospective industrial partners, client, suppliers etc.
   6.  Ensure the administrative and legal steps to start the business
   7.  Planning the creation process
   8.  manage and design the strategy of the start-up, team building and human
      resources management
   9. Handle IP issues
Technology Transfer



Researchers
 with ideas        System
Background




                                                                           s
                                                                   ersitie
                                                            n Univ
                                                    r   occa
                                             eof Mo                            2008 
                                       l r ol
                              no   mica                                                  Turning point:
                       o -eco                                                           RMIE: missions &
               a   soci                                           2005
                                                                                           structure?
          ds
    Towar                                                                
                                                                               Effective start of MISN
                                               2002
                          2000                     
1999                                                       Authorities + France (FSP) : National pgm of
                                                         technology transfer (IMIST, RDT, RGI et MISN)

       Charte COSEF                        LAW 01-00
  Rapprochment University-           Role of the university in
     entreprise :priority            the dvlpt of the country
MISN

                                            Funders et pilots :
                                    - Ministry of Higher Education
                                    - Ministère of Commerce et Industry
                                      - CNRST (Coordination of the
                                    network)
                                    - SCAC (France)

     Training & Expertise :
                                                                              PFinancing
- Association R&D Maroc
- FBPCE (Popular Bank Foundation)                MISN                     - Seed Capital Sindibad
                      - OMPIC
(IPR)




                                              6 Incubators
MISN




   International Vision to technology                       Financial support to the projects
   transfer & Incubation Policy                             hosted in incubators (members of
                                                          MISN)


Development of innovative start-ups                                Raise awareness about innovation
& spin-off creation in Morocco                                     & entrepreneurship
                                           MISN Missions    


 Training of human resources involved                      Professionalization of incubators
 in the emergence of spin-offs                               Promoting Best Practices
Some numbers
           2005-2008

       Global amount
       6 500 000 dh
       grants for projects                  10 Structures members
                                         
       72 months                                         6 Active Incubators
      allowances                                         
living expenses 
      Incubatees                                                      70 Submitted Projects
                                                                    
Training to Incubatees   

                                                                         30Supported Projects
           Trainings                                                   
          Incubators Assistants
                                              
                                                             
                                  12 projects finished           18 Projects
                                  incubation                     abandoned-failed
Marketing of incubators
   Moroccan Cases



 Casablanca Technopark       Al Akhawayn University           Marrakech University
       Incubator                   Incubator                   Incubator (IN MA)
- Company: 35% Public      Private University (Non profit   Public University
65% Private (for profit    organization)
organization)              Location : Ifrane mountainous    Location : Marrakech 1st
Location : Casablanca      city in the middle Atlas at 60   touristic city.
economical capital         Km from Fez & Meknes             Target Sector: Research
Target Sector: ITC         Target Sector: ITC,              based Spin-offs all fields.
                           Biotechnology, E-business
Incubation Context

                 Generate            Development                 Start                Consolidate


                       1.                    2.                    3.                     4.

Research                        Ideas                Projects
                                                                                                           Value/wealth
                                                                          Enterprises
Results                                                                                                      Creation


           University culture        Protection/Patent          Access to resources      Risks:
           - « publish or perish »   - IP management            -intangibles
           - Foster                  - Share of royalties       -tangibles               -Delocalization
           Entrepreneurship                                          + material
           -Promotion System         Development                     + finances          - Change of
                                     -Technological                                      Trajectory
           prospecting               (prototype)                Relations between
                                     -Commercial (business      University…              - Commercial
           Evaluation                plan)                      -…Spin-off               dependence
           -technological                                       -…professor, business
           -commercial               Funding                    creator
           -managerial               Development grants
                                     Seed Capital




                                                                                                            Source : Prinay (2000)
Incubation Context

                 Generate            Development                 Start                Consolidate


                       1.                    2.                    3.                     4.

Research                        Ideas                Projects
                                                                                                           Value/wealth
                                                                          Enterprises
Results                                                                                                      Creation


           University culture        Protection/Patent          Access to resources      Risks:
           - « publish or perish »   - IP management            -intangibles
           - Foster                  - Share of royalties       -tangibles               -Delocalization
           Entrepreneurship                                          + material
           -Promotion System         Development                     + finances          - Change of
                                     -Technological                                      Trajectory
           prospecting               (prototype)                Relations between
                                     -Commercial (business      University…              - Commercial
           Evaluation                plan)                      -…Spin-off               dependence
           -technological                                       -…professor, business
           -commercial               Funding                    creator
           -managerial               Development grants
                                     Seed Capital




                                                                                                            Source : Prinay (2000)
Incubation Context

                 Generate            Development                 Start                 Consolidate


                       1.                    2.                     3.                     4.

Research                        Ideas                Projects             Enterprises
                                                                                                            Value/wealth
Results                                                                                                       Creation


           University culture        Protection/Patent          Access to resources       Risks:
           - « publish or perish »   - IP management            -intangibles
           - Foster                  - Share of royalties       -tangibles                -Delocalization
           Entrepreneurship                                          + material
           -Promotion System         Development                     + finances           - Change of
                                     -Technological                                       Trajectory
           prospecting               (prototype)                Relations between
                                     -Commercial (business      University…               - Commercial
           Evaluation                plan)                      -…Spin-off                dependence
           -technological                                       -professor, Business
           -commercial               Funding                    creator
           -managerial               Development grants
                                     Seed Capital




                                                                                                             Source : Prinay (2000)
Incubation Context

                Generate             Development               Start                 Consolidate


                      1.                    2.                    3.                     4.

Research                        Ideas               Projects
                                                                                                          Value/wealth
                                                                        Enterprises
Results                                                                                                     Creation


           University culture        Protection/Patent         Access to resources      Risks:
           - « publish or perish »   - IP management           -intangibles
           - Foster                  - Share of royalties      -tangibles               -Delocalization
           Entrepreneurship                                         + material
           -Promotion System         Development                    + finances          - Change of
                                     -Technological                                     Trajectory
           prospecting               (prototype)               Relations between
                                     -Commercial (business     University…              - Commercial
           Evaluation                plan)                     -…Spin-off               dependence
           -technological                                      -…professor, Business
           -commercial               Funding                   creator
           -managerial               Development grants
                                     Seed Capital




                                                                                                           Source : Prinay (2000)
Presentation of
       RMIE
                                    Financers & pilots :
                             - Ministry of Higher Education
                             - Ministry of Commerce & Industry
                             - CNRST (Prime Contractor)
                                                 - French Embassy


    Training & Expertise :
                                                                        Post-creation
- Association R&D Maroc
                                                                        Financing
  - FBPCE                                 RMIE
 - OMPIC                                                            - Seed Capital Sindibad




                                   6 Incubators (active)
Presentation of
               RMIE



    International Vision to technology                         Financial support to the projects
    transfer Policy (RETIS, MENAinc)                           hosted in incubators (members of
                                                             RMIE) 25 000 US $


Development of innovative enterprises                                 Raising awareness of
creation in Morocco (assistance + expertise)                          entrepreneurship
                                              RMIE Missions    


 Training of human resources involved                         Professionnalization of incubators
 in the emergence of spin-offs                                  Promoting Best Practices (training)
Incubation Context

             Generate       Development             Start          Consolidate


                1.                  2.                3.                  4.

Research                                                                         Value/wealth
                         Ideas           Projects           Enterprises
Results                                                                            Creation


                                                     Financial Sector

                       Universities
                         Technology                          Business

                                         Incubators
                     Clusters                                     Clusters

                                 Entrepreneurship centers

                                         Authorities




                                                                                  Source : Prinay (2000)
Incubation Context

             Generate      Development           Start          Consolidate


                1.               2.                3.                  4.

Research                Ideas         Projects           Enterprises
                                                                              Value/wealth
Results                                                                         Creation




                     Universities

                                      Challenges

                     - Clarification of relations between researcher-
                     creator-Spin-off & university
                     - Development of the entrepreneurial culture
                     - Alleviation of the administrative burden –
                     - Enhancing the quality of economic
                     evaluation
                     - Improvement of the IP management
Incubation Context

             Generate       Development             Start          Consolidate


                1.                  2.                3.                  4.

Research                 Ideas           Projects           Enterprises           Value
Results                                                                          Creation

                                                    Financial sectors

                       Universities

                                 Levers of improvement

                     - Diversification of financial tools (One seed
                     Capital, No business angels, venture capitalists)
                     - Easing access to credit (Doing business
                     World bank- ranked Morocco 143rd place
                     regarding access to credit).


                                                                                 Source : Prinay (2000)
‫التمويل!!!!!‬

                     ‫توليد‬           ‫تطوير‬            ‫إنشاء‬             ‫نمو‬

                    ‫.1‬                ‫.2‬                ‫3‬                ‫.4‬

‫نتائج الحبحاث‬                ‫أفكار‬           ‫مشاريع‬           ‫مقاولت‬               ‫قيمة مضافة‬
‫شباب, حباحثون‬




                ‫ا‪Grants‬‬               ‫القروض الرأسمال المخاطر/المغامر‬
                  ‫لمنح‬                  ‫‪Private equity‬‬         ‫‪Loans‬‬
                   ‫تسبيق مقرون بالسداد‬
                       ‫في حالة النجاح‬
                ‫‪Reimbursable loans‬‬
                 ‫‪in case of success‬‬


                                                                                  ‫)0002( ‪Source : Prinay‬‬
‫التمويل!!!!!‬

                         ‫توليد‬           ‫تطوير‬            ‫إنشاء‬             ‫نمو‬

                        ‫.1‬                ‫.2‬                ‫3‬                ‫.4‬

     ‫نتائج الحبحاث‬               ‫أفكار‬           ‫مشاريع‬           ‫مقاولت‬                     ‫قيمة مضافة‬
     ‫شباب, حباحثون‬


‫السلطات العمومية‬
                           ‫ملئكة الستثمار‬
‫‪Public Money‬‬             ‫‪Business Angels‬‬
                                          ‫المستثمرين المغامرين‬                     ‫البنوك‬
         ‫الصناديق المختلطة‬                                                        ‫‪banks‬‬
                                                  ‫‪VC‬‬
          ‫‪Mixed funds‬‬
      ‫القطاعين العام و الخاص‬
Incubation Context

             Generate       Development             Start          Consolidate


                1.                 2.                 3.                  4.

Research                 Ideas           Projects           Enterprises           Value
Results                                                                          Creation

                        Technological                        business

                                        Incubators

                                        Challenges

                 - Reinforcing autonomy towards universities
                 ( Inadequate management)
                 - Recruiting experienced professionals in
                 business support  Provide adequate
                 business assistance
                 - Incubation and business creation definition?
Incubation Context

             Generate       Development          Start          Consolidate


                1.               2.                3.                  4.

Research                 Ideas        Projects           Enterprises           Value
Results                                                                       Creation

                                                  Financial Sector

                       Universities
                         Technology                       Business

                                      Incubators
                     Clusters                                  Clusters

                        Put In place national  Regional
                                    Clusters



                                                                              Source : Prinay (2000)
Incubation Context

             Generate       Development             Start          Consolidate


                1.                  2.                3.                  4.

Research                 Ideas           Projects           Enterprises           Value
Results                                                                          Creation

                                                     Financial Sector

                       Universities
                         Technology                          Business

                                         Incubators
                     Clusters                                     Clusters

                                 Entrepreneurship centers

                            Encourage Research on
                               entrepreneurship.
                Courses/trainnig on Business creation
                                                                                 Source : Prinay (2000)
Incubation Context

             Generate       Development             Start          Consolidate


                1.                  2.                3.                  4.

Research                 Ideas           Projects           Enterprises           Value
Results                                                                          Creation

                                                     Financial Sector

                       Universities
                         Technology                          Business

                                         Incubators
                     Clusters                                     Clusters

                                 Entrepreneurship centers

                                         Authorities

                                    Innovation Law

                                                                                 Source : Prinay (2000)
Incubation Context




            “Valley of Death”


              Inc
                 ub
                                                    The Darwinian Sea
                    ato
                       rs
 Basic
Research
             Lack of Skills
             Lack of $
Invention                             •Research                  •Innovation: new
                                 Innovation
                                      •Invention
                                                                  Viable
                                                                  •business

                                     
                                                                 Business
                                New Business
‫ولكن أحل م الرجال تضيق‬       ‫لعمرك ما ضاقت حبل د حبأهلها‬



‫شكرا على حسن الغصغاء‬
                ً 
 ‫مع تمنياتنا للجميع‬
     ‫بالتوفيق‬ Contact azzioui@cnrst.ma
                Tél: +212 537 56 98 42
    National Centre for Scientific and Technological
                       Research
                    www.cnrst.ma

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Morocco RDI and entrepreneurial environment ilyas azzioui escwa amman 12 13 november 2012

  • 1. Morocco RDI & Entrepreneurial Environment ESCWA Regional Workshop on “Innovation and Commercialization for Economic Development “ Prepared by : Ilyas AZZIOUI Amman: 12-13 November 2012
  • 2. Challenges RDI Syst Technology Transfer Pool of ideas System
  • 3. Challenges RDI Syst Technology Transfer Pool of ideas System
  • 4. Challenges RDI Syst Technology Transfer Pool of ideas Viable Business System
  • 5. Challenges RDI Syst Technology Transfer Pool of ideas Viable Business Researchers with ideas System
  • 6. RDI Syst Technology Transfer Pool of ideas Viable Business Researchers Technopreneur with ideas System
  • 7. The Approach RDI Syst Technology Transfer Pool of ideas Viable Business Researchers Entrepreneur with ideas System
  • 8. Problématique RDI Syst Technology Transfer Pool of ideas Researchers with ideas System
  • 9. Analyse du Système RDI Policy & governance  Funding People RDI output
  • 10. Analyse du Système RDI Policy, governance  and organisation  The Strategy and Vision 2025 developed in 2006 continues to serve as the reference for the implementation of policies and measures related to R&D. According to this vision the main societal challenges that should drive Moroccan research in the future are: 1. Education and training 2. Access to basic services (infrastructure, potable water, electricity, health, etc.) 3. Fight against poverty and social exclusion 4. Other challenges: fight against the effects of drought, environmental degradation, slums and diseases.
  • 11. Analyse du Système RDI Policy, governance  and organisation  Research priorities are : 1.improving quality of life, 2. knowledge, preservation and enhancement of natural resources, 3. socioeconomic and cultural development, 4.information science and technology, 5.agriculture in difficult conditions, 6.business competitiveness and innovation, 7.risk management 8.biotechnologies.
  • 12. Analyse du Système RDI Policy, governance  and organisation  The National Pact for Industrial Emergence (2009-2015): Launched by the Ministry of Industry, Trade and new technologies, it focuses on export oriented economic sectors where Morocco could obtain a sustainable advantage and a high potential for growth : 1.off-shoring (client relationship management, banking and insurance, management of payments, help desks and infrastructure management), 2. textiles and clothing, 3.automobile and aeronautics, 4.electronics, 5.agro-food, exploitation of marine resources; 6.Industrial crafts. 7.More recently added sectors include nanotechnology, biotechnology and microelectronics.
  • 13. Analyse du Système RDI Policy, governance  and organisation  The National Pact for Industrial Emergence (2009-2015): Sectors Managers Engineers Technicians Operators Total Off shoring 000 1 3000 10500 55000 70000 Automotive 1500 7000 9000 32500 70000 Aeronautics 300 1900 3000 9800 15000 Electronics 200 1400 2700 4700 9000 textiles and 300 2000 7500 24000 32000 leather Agro-food 500 500 8500 14500 24000 Total 3800 15800 39400 141000 220000
  • 14. Analyse du Système RDI Policy, governance  and organisation  Two main policies were driving the RDI System lately  The Emergency programme (2009-2012) : led By the Ministry of Higher Education and Research, the main focus was education but Project n°14 called “Promotion of Scientific Research” was expected to absorb 72 million Euros (720 million DH) of a total budget of 4.7 billion Euros (47 billion DH)  Morocco innovation initiative (2009-2014): led by the Ministry of Industry, Trade and new technologies
  • 15. Analyse du Système RDI Morocco Innovation Initiative • Governance and framework: 1. Setting up a National Innovation Committee; 2.The creation of a dedicated structure (Moroccan innovation Centre); 3. Fostering a flexible and effective legal framework for innovation •Infrastructure: 1.Technological infrastructures; 2.Technology transfer infrastructures (implementation of Innovation cities in some universities); 3.Clusters. • Funding & Support: Developing a portfolio of products/schemes to support innovation; Stimulation of the venture capital system; Development of the intellectual property market; Mobilisation of international funds for innovation. • Attracting Talents: Creation of the Moroccan Innovation Club; Promotion of the innovation culture; Positioning Morocco R&D and innovation offer.
  • 16. Analyse du Système RDI Achievements Morocco Innovation Initiative • Governance and framework: legal framework: A draft law (bill) was elaborated but has yet to go through the adoption process. The provisions of this bill focus on the following points: •Providing incentives to young innovative enterprise (JEI); •Providing a legal framework for spin-outs; •Incentive scheme to encourage the recruitment of researchers (or PhD students) Governance: the creation of the Moroccan Centre of Innovation (CMI) and the definition of its missions. The CMI plays a key role in managing new funding schemes such as Intilak (up to 100,000 Euros) to support innovative start-ups and Tatwir (up to 400,000 Euros) to support applied R&D project within the private sector.
  • 17. Analyse du Système RDI Achievements Morocco Innovation Initiative • Infrastructure: 1.Innovation cities (Cités de l’Innovation): Four universities were selected at this stage to host “innovations cities”. These structures will play a key role in incubation and technology transfer activities. 2.Clusters: Four clusters were legally formed in the fields of IT ((Maroc Numeric Cluster), microelectronics (Morocco Microelectronics Cluster), Electronics and Mécatronics (Cluster Electrique, Mécanique et Mécatronique du Maroc) and Sea products valorisation (Cluster Oceanopole Tan Tan). Funds to support the launching and functioning of these clusters were also devised and the managers of the clusters were recruited • Funding & Support: 1.call for proposals of Intilak (up to € 100,000) to support start-ups and Tatwir(up to € 400,000) to support applied R&D project within the private sector were launched by the Ministry of Industry. 2.Maroc Numeric fund: Early stage VC for IT sector. •
  • 18. Analyse du Système RDI Achievements Morocco Innovation Initiative • Attracting Talents: several concrete actions to promote innovation and entrepreneurship culture were identified and even implemented such as : 1. the “Innovation Trophy”, a prize to award innovative enterprises, 2. the launching of the Moroccan Club of Innovation Portal and 3. the implementation of a new entrepreneurship training module in partnership with four higher education institutes. .
  • 19. Analyse du Système RDI Funding GERD/GDP (2010): 0,73 % Share of private sector R&D (2010) : 30% Share of public sector R&D (2010): 68% HEIs are the main players in research, they counted more than 80% of R&D personnel (headcounts) and absorbed more than 45% of GERD in 2010. New funding schemes for Innovation (Intilak & Tatwir).
  • 20. Analyse du Système RDI People Researchers represented a share of 1.83/103 (FTE) of the economically active population in the 25-64 age group in 2008. The public and private research system in Morocco counted 37,246 R&D personnel in 2010 including 12,166 of academics in colleges and universities and 17,686 PhD students. Because of the meagre career prospects for researchers in Morocco, the majority of PhD students drop out from the research system when they find Public administration jobs. In 2009, 15,097 PhD Students were registered but only 676 PhD diplomas were delivered. Morocco has to train about 15000 (professors-researchers or full time researchers ) over this decade to face the research quality requirements (deemed insufficient currently), the increasing number of students and retirement departures.
  • 22. Analyse du Système RDI RDI output Patents: The Moroccan Industrial and Commercial Property Office received 1022 applications in 2011 against 1007 applications in 2010. 167 were filed by nationals and the rest by foreigners. In 2011, Moroccan universities applied for 37 patents and research institutions for 8 patents, Publications: Moroccan scientific production numbered 2377 publications in 2010 (Scopus)
  • 23. Problématique Technology Transfer Researchers with ideas System
  • 24. Context & background In this study we are interested in How Moroccan PhD Students perceive entrepreneurship by starting an innovative Start-up/Spin-off as a personal career alternative . 190 PhD Students answered properly and returned the Questionnaire among 1000 Targeted. Respondants: 56% Women 44% Man
  • 25. The framework for the study External factors Perceptions Intent Exogenous factors Exogenous factors Perceived Perceived -Gender, entrepreneurial or Gender, entrepreneurial or desirability desirability working experience, working experience, Social Norms entrepreneurial parents, entrepreneurial parents, Entrepreneurial training in training in intent entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship, Nurturing environment etc. Nurturing environment etc. Perceived Perceived feasibility feasibility Becoming an entrepreneur is intentional, planned behaviour. (Shapero – Sokol 1982, Krueger et al 2000)
  • 26. The framework for the study External factors Perceptions Intent Is it attractive ? Exogenous factors Exogenous factors Perceived Perceived -Gender, entrepreneurial or Gender, entrepreneurial or desirability desirability working experience, working experience, Social Norms entrepreneurial parents, entrepreneurial parents, Entrepreneurial training in training in intent entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship, Nurturing environment etc. Nurturing environment etc. Perceived Perceived feasibility feasibility Is it feasible ? Becoming an entrepreneur is intentional, planned behaviour. (Shapero – Sokol 1982, Krueger et al 2000)
  • 27. Key findings External factors Independent Variables Independent Variables  41% pretend to have scientific skills or research results that either have an economical potential or are patentable 60% have never participated in any kind of training in entrepreneurship or management  33% have at least one of their parents self-employed  65% have at least one of their siblings/close friends self-employed  33% have a kind of work experience in enterprise  10% have an entrepreneurial experience
  • 28. Key findings Independent Variables Independent Variables  Only These Independents Variables have Statistically Significant effect on entrepreneurial intention: 1- Gender: Man are more entrepreneurial than Women ⇒ gives a clear indication to put a continuous effort on encouraging female entrepreneurship 2- Starting Business Experience has positive effect on entrepreneurial intention 3- Work Experience In an enterprise has positive effect on entrepreneurial intention
  • 29. Key findings The framework for the study External factors Perceptions Intent Perceived Perceived desirability desirability Exogenous factors Exogenous factors Social Norms -Person related -Person related Entrepreneurial factors intent - Situational factors Perceived Perceived feasibility feasibility
  • 30. Perceptions Perceived desirability Perceived desirability  81% find attractive the idea of starting a university spin-off Cumulative Desirability Percent Percent Not attractive at all 2% 2% Not attractive 3% 5% Rather not attractive 4% 9% No the opinion 10% 19% Rather attractive 22% 40% attractive 36% 76% Very attractive 24% 100%
  • 31. Key findings Incentives to start a business 1. To improve skills & widen career perspectives 2. To improve the image of research & its social impact 3. Money 4. Autonomy, challenges, New environment
  • 32. Key findings Incentives to start a business 1. To improve skills & widen career perspectives 2. To improve the image of research & its social impact 3. Money 4. Autonomy, challenges, New environment Deterrents to start a business 1. Bankruptcy (financial risk) 2. To live a very risky and dubious situation 3. Not to have spare time for leisure activities, family, friends 4. Stress and anxiety about the success of the project 5. To lose contact with academia
  • 33. Key findings PhD students who are more interested in entrepreneurship are: -more motivated by positive consequences of entrepreneurship - less deterred by negative consequences of entrepreneurship
  • 34. The framework for the study External factors Perceptions Intent Perceived Perceived desirability desirability Exogenous factors Exogenous factors Social Norms -Person related -Person related Entrepreneurial factors intent - Situational factors Perceived Perceived feasibility feasibility
  • 35. Perceptions Perceived feasibility Perceived feasibility  71% believe that they are able to start a university spin-off? Cumulative Self efficacy Percent Percent Completely unable 3% 3% Unable 3% 5% Rather unable 9% 14% Neither able nor unable 15% 29% Rather able 33% 62% Able 29% 91% Completely able 9% 100%
  • 36. PhD students who are more interested in entrepreneurship trust more their skills and competences to carry out various tasks necessary to starting a university spin-off.
  • 37. The framework for the study External factors Perceptions Intent Perceived Perceived desirability desirability Exogenous factors Exogenous factors Social Norms -Person related -Person related Entrepreneurial factors intent - Situational factors Perceived Perceived feasibility feasibility
  • 38. Key findings Entrepreneurial Intent Entrepreneurial 1. 88% would seriously consider becoming an entrepreneur If they find commercial application for their research results/skills 2. 61% think it’s probable that they will start their own business in the next 5 years? 3. 63% would prefer entrepreneurship If they had to choose between setting up their own business or being an employee (on salary) 4. 75% have interested in either to create or take part in the creation of a university spin-off.
  • 39. Key findings Profile of intentionals Profile of intentionals • 72% of the intentionals are ready to abandon a job in public administration to start their business • 50% want to participate in both capital and work, 39% only in work • 24% want to be the major founder, 51% one of the major founders, 14% scientific counselor •5% want to occupy managerial position, 40% Scientific or technical position, 51% Occupy both managerial and technical position
  • 40. Key findings Major Perceived Obstacles The major perceived barriers that impede the translation of the entrepreneurial intentions into start-up actions are: 1. Access to funding (89 citations) , 2. lack of skills and information (72) , 3. Administrative bureaucracy (45), 4. The gap between research and the market (33), 5. Lack of support (infrastructure, expertise, counselling …) , 6. Risks (bankruptcy, failure), 7. Lack of ideas and opportunities, competition in the market 8. Social environment.
  • 41. Key findings Comparison of intentionals with Comparison of intentionals with incubatees incubatees Except for the management of Intellectual property issues Incubatees trust more themselves in carrying out the required tasks
  • 42. To Sum Up  A strong interest of Moroccan PhD students in the creation of innovative companies based on performance or skills of research. (81%: attractive); ( 71%: feel able); ( 75%: interested in starting a spin-off).  The major perceived barriers that prevent the transformation of entrepreneurial into innovative business are in order of importance: 1. access to finance, 2. lack of skills and access to information and training, 3. bureaucracy and red tape, 4. the nature and level of research in Morocco, 5. the risks (including financial risk and the risk of failure), 6. inadequate system of support for entrepreneurship, environment and social norms
  • 43. To Sum Up  Overall, PhD students who are interested in entrepreneurship: • tend to link entrepreneurship with positive consequences, • they are less hampered by the negative consequences of starting a business, • perceive more encouragement from their social environment and are more sensitive to the views of some social groups that compose it, • they also feel more able to create a university spin-off and perform the required tasks.  Comparison between the perceptions of PhD students who are interested in entrepreneurship and the more realistic views of incubatees has shown the existence of a number of significant differences on several levels. Indeed, Incubatees: • feel more motivated by the perspectives of profit, autonomy, • less hampered by the negative consequences of entrepreneurship, • less responsive to the views of their social circle and • consider themselves more capable to perform different tasks critical to business creation
  • 44. Key findings Importance from incubatees point of view Importance from incubatees point of view 1. Risks assessment 2. Identify relevant information about markets, potential clients et competitors 3. Negotiation and selling skills 4. Attract shareholders, private equity investors. 5. Find prospective industrial partners, client, suppliers etc. 6. Ensure the administrative and legal steps to start the business 7. Planning the creation process 8. manage and design the strategy of the start-up, team building and human resources management 9. Handle IP issues
  • 46. Background s ersitie n Univ r occa eof Mo 2008  l r ol no mica Turning point: o -eco RMIE: missions & a soci 2005 structure? ds Towar  Effective start of MISN 2002 2000  1999 Authorities + France (FSP) : National pgm of  technology transfer (IMIST, RDT, RGI et MISN) Charte COSEF LAW 01-00 Rapprochment University- Role of the university in entreprise :priority the dvlpt of the country
  • 47. MISN Funders et pilots : - Ministry of Higher Education - Ministère of Commerce et Industry - CNRST (Coordination of the network) - SCAC (France) Training & Expertise : PFinancing - Association R&D Maroc - FBPCE (Popular Bank Foundation) MISN - Seed Capital Sindibad - OMPIC (IPR) 6 Incubators
  • 48. MISN International Vision to technology Financial support to the projects transfer & Incubation Policy hosted in incubators (members of   MISN) Development of innovative start-ups Raise awareness about innovation & spin-off creation in Morocco & entrepreneurship  MISN Missions  Training of human resources involved   Professionalization of incubators in the emergence of spin-offs Promoting Best Practices
  • 49. Some numbers 2005-2008 Global amount 6 500 000 dh grants for projects 10 Structures members   72 months 6 Active Incubators allowances  living expenses  Incubatees 70 Submitted Projects  Training to Incubatees  30Supported Projects Trainings   Incubators Assistants   12 projects finished 18 Projects incubation abandoned-failed
  • 50. Marketing of incubators Moroccan Cases Casablanca Technopark Al Akhawayn University Marrakech University Incubator Incubator Incubator (IN MA) - Company: 35% Public Private University (Non profit Public University 65% Private (for profit organization) organization) Location : Ifrane mountainous Location : Marrakech 1st Location : Casablanca city in the middle Atlas at 60 touristic city. economical capital Km from Fez & Meknes Target Sector: Research Target Sector: ITC Target Sector: ITC, based Spin-offs all fields. Biotechnology, E-business
  • 51. Incubation Context Generate Development Start Consolidate 1. 2. 3. 4. Research Ideas Projects Value/wealth Enterprises Results Creation University culture Protection/Patent Access to resources Risks: - « publish or perish » - IP management -intangibles - Foster - Share of royalties -tangibles -Delocalization Entrepreneurship + material -Promotion System Development + finances - Change of -Technological Trajectory prospecting (prototype) Relations between -Commercial (business University… - Commercial Evaluation plan) -…Spin-off dependence -technological -…professor, business -commercial Funding creator -managerial Development grants Seed Capital Source : Prinay (2000)
  • 52. Incubation Context Generate Development Start Consolidate 1. 2. 3. 4. Research Ideas Projects Value/wealth Enterprises Results Creation University culture Protection/Patent Access to resources Risks: - « publish or perish » - IP management -intangibles - Foster - Share of royalties -tangibles -Delocalization Entrepreneurship + material -Promotion System Development + finances - Change of -Technological Trajectory prospecting (prototype) Relations between -Commercial (business University… - Commercial Evaluation plan) -…Spin-off dependence -technological -…professor, business -commercial Funding creator -managerial Development grants Seed Capital Source : Prinay (2000)
  • 53. Incubation Context Generate Development Start Consolidate 1. 2. 3. 4. Research Ideas Projects Enterprises Value/wealth Results Creation University culture Protection/Patent Access to resources Risks: - « publish or perish » - IP management -intangibles - Foster - Share of royalties -tangibles -Delocalization Entrepreneurship + material -Promotion System Development + finances - Change of -Technological Trajectory prospecting (prototype) Relations between -Commercial (business University… - Commercial Evaluation plan) -…Spin-off dependence -technological -professor, Business -commercial Funding creator -managerial Development grants Seed Capital Source : Prinay (2000)
  • 54. Incubation Context Generate Development Start Consolidate 1. 2. 3. 4. Research Ideas Projects Value/wealth Enterprises Results Creation University culture Protection/Patent Access to resources Risks: - « publish or perish » - IP management -intangibles - Foster - Share of royalties -tangibles -Delocalization Entrepreneurship + material -Promotion System Development + finances - Change of -Technological Trajectory prospecting (prototype) Relations between -Commercial (business University… - Commercial Evaluation plan) -…Spin-off dependence -technological -…professor, Business -commercial Funding creator -managerial Development grants Seed Capital Source : Prinay (2000)
  • 55. Presentation of RMIE Financers & pilots : - Ministry of Higher Education - Ministry of Commerce & Industry - CNRST (Prime Contractor) - French Embassy Training & Expertise : Post-creation - Association R&D Maroc Financing - FBPCE RMIE - OMPIC - Seed Capital Sindibad 6 Incubators (active)
  • 56. Presentation of RMIE International Vision to technology Financial support to the projects transfer Policy (RETIS, MENAinc) hosted in incubators (members of   RMIE) 25 000 US $ Development of innovative enterprises Raising awareness of creation in Morocco (assistance + expertise) entrepreneurship  RMIE Missions  Training of human resources involved   Professionnalization of incubators in the emergence of spin-offs Promoting Best Practices (training)
  • 57. Incubation Context Generate Development Start Consolidate 1. 2. 3. 4. Research Value/wealth Ideas Projects Enterprises Results Creation Financial Sector Universities Technology Business Incubators Clusters Clusters Entrepreneurship centers Authorities Source : Prinay (2000)
  • 58. Incubation Context Generate Development Start Consolidate 1. 2. 3. 4. Research Ideas Projects Enterprises Value/wealth Results Creation Universities Challenges - Clarification of relations between researcher- creator-Spin-off & university - Development of the entrepreneurial culture - Alleviation of the administrative burden – - Enhancing the quality of economic evaluation - Improvement of the IP management
  • 59. Incubation Context Generate Development Start Consolidate 1. 2. 3. 4. Research Ideas Projects Enterprises Value Results Creation Financial sectors Universities Levers of improvement - Diversification of financial tools (One seed Capital, No business angels, venture capitalists) - Easing access to credit (Doing business World bank- ranked Morocco 143rd place regarding access to credit). Source : Prinay (2000)
  • 60. ‫التمويل!!!!!‬ ‫توليد‬ ‫تطوير‬ ‫إنشاء‬ ‫نمو‬ ‫.1‬ ‫.2‬ ‫3‬ ‫.4‬ ‫نتائج الحبحاث‬ ‫أفكار‬ ‫مشاريع‬ ‫مقاولت‬ ‫قيمة مضافة‬ ‫شباب, حباحثون‬ ‫ا‪Grants‬‬ ‫القروض الرأسمال المخاطر/المغامر‬ ‫لمنح‬ ‫‪Private equity‬‬ ‫‪Loans‬‬ ‫تسبيق مقرون بالسداد‬ ‫في حالة النجاح‬ ‫‪Reimbursable loans‬‬ ‫‪in case of success‬‬ ‫)0002( ‪Source : Prinay‬‬
  • 61. ‫التمويل!!!!!‬ ‫توليد‬ ‫تطوير‬ ‫إنشاء‬ ‫نمو‬ ‫.1‬ ‫.2‬ ‫3‬ ‫.4‬ ‫نتائج الحبحاث‬ ‫أفكار‬ ‫مشاريع‬ ‫مقاولت‬ ‫قيمة مضافة‬ ‫شباب, حباحثون‬ ‫السلطات العمومية‬ ‫ملئكة الستثمار‬ ‫‪Public Money‬‬ ‫‪Business Angels‬‬ ‫المستثمرين المغامرين‬ ‫البنوك‬ ‫الصناديق المختلطة‬ ‫‪banks‬‬ ‫‪VC‬‬ ‫‪Mixed funds‬‬ ‫القطاعين العام و الخاص‬
  • 62. Incubation Context Generate Development Start Consolidate 1. 2. 3. 4. Research Ideas Projects Enterprises Value Results Creation Technological business Incubators Challenges - Reinforcing autonomy towards universities ( Inadequate management) - Recruiting experienced professionals in business support  Provide adequate business assistance - Incubation and business creation definition?
  • 63. Incubation Context Generate Development Start Consolidate 1. 2. 3. 4. Research Ideas Projects Enterprises Value Results Creation Financial Sector Universities Technology Business Incubators Clusters Clusters Put In place national Regional Clusters Source : Prinay (2000)
  • 64. Incubation Context Generate Development Start Consolidate 1. 2. 3. 4. Research Ideas Projects Enterprises Value Results Creation Financial Sector Universities Technology Business Incubators Clusters Clusters Entrepreneurship centers Encourage Research on entrepreneurship. Courses/trainnig on Business creation Source : Prinay (2000)
  • 65. Incubation Context Generate Development Start Consolidate 1. 2. 3. 4. Research Ideas Projects Enterprises Value Results Creation Financial Sector Universities Technology Business Incubators Clusters Clusters Entrepreneurship centers Authorities Innovation Law Source : Prinay (2000)
  • 66. Incubation Context “Valley of Death” Inc ub The Darwinian Sea ato rs Basic Research Lack of Skills Lack of $ Invention •Research •Innovation: new Innovation •Invention Viable •business Business New Business
  • 67. ‫ولكن أحل م الرجال تضيق‬ ‫لعمرك ما ضاقت حبل د حبأهلها‬ ‫شكرا على حسن الغصغاء‬ ً ‫مع تمنياتنا للجميع‬ ‫بالتوفيق‬ Contact azzioui@cnrst.ma Tél: +212 537 56 98 42 National Centre for Scientific and Technological Research www.cnrst.ma