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Mood and Emotions: Impact on Team
Performance
Marco Sampietro
marco.sampietro@sdabocconi.it
                                  NASA Project Management 1/29
       Project Management   Challenge Challenge 2007
                                      2008 – Reach Higher
Agenda

  Mood and Emotions: Definitions
  Impact of Mood and Emotions on Team
   Performance
  How to influence Mood and Emotions
  Conclusions




                              NASA Project Management   2/29
                                  Challenge 2007
Agenda

  Mood and Emotions: Definitions
  Impact of Mood and Emotions on Team
   Performance
  How to influence Mood and Emotions
  Conclusions




                             NASA Project Management   3/29
                                 Challenge 2007
Mood

   A relatively lasting emotional or affective state.
   Mood is an internal, subjective state, but it often can
    be inferred from posture and other observable
    behaviors.
   Moods are experiences that are longer and more
    diffuse, and lack awareness of the eliciting stimulus.
   Moods can be created by stimuli of relatively low
    intensity, or can be left behind by emotions that fade
    so that the initial antecedent is no longer salient.




Definitions                        NASA Project Management   4/29
                                       Challenge 2007
Emotion

   A reaction to a stimulus that has a range of possible
    consequences and typically refer to discrete and
    intense but short-lived experiences.
   A person's temporary internal state of being, which
    has a clear start and end, and it is an involuntary,
    subjective, physiological response to an object or a
    situation, based in or tied to physical state and
    sensory feelings.




Definitions                     NASA Project Management   5/29
                                    Challenge 2007
Comparison between Mood and Emotion

                         Mood                        Emotion
 Duration       Relatively long-term        Relatively short-term
                Gradual onset,              Rapid onset, episodic,
 Time Pattern   continuous, tonic           phasic
 Intensity      Relatively weak             Relatively strong
                Not caused by specific      Caused by a specific
 Causation
                events                      event
                Provides information        Provides information
 Function       about current state of      about current state of
                self                        situation
 Directedness   Unfocussed                  Takes specific object


Definitions                         NASA Project Management     6/29
                                        Challenge 2007
Examples

   Positive Mood & Negative Emotions
       The discrete event of encountering a malfunctioning
       photocopier at 9:50 this morning while rushing to
       prepare for a 10:00 meeting may cause one to feel
       frustration or anger for a short while, even if you are
       in cheerful mood. And so, for instance, one may
       snap at a secretary while frustrated about the
       photocopier.

   Negative Mood & Positive Emotions
        Finding 100$ on the ground, thus feeling happy for
       a while but being in black mood because of
       continuous sentimental problems
Definitions                          NASA Project Management   7/29
                                         Challenge 2007
Agenda

  Mood and Emotions: Definitions
  Impact of Mood and Emotions on Team
   Performance
  How to influence Mood and Emotions
  Conclusions




                              NASA Project Management   8/29
                                  Challenge 2007
The role of emotions
   “In decades past, workers were told to leave their
    emotions at home and most complied.”
   There is little debate nowadays that organizational life
    is saturated with emotion.
   People are emotional. Hebb once called humans “the
    most emotional of animals.”
   Academics and practitioners alike have come to the
    collective insight that emotion is a pervasive force in
    the workplace that has the capacity to influence the
    organization and its members in significant ways.


Impact on Team Performance       NASA Project Management   9/29
                                     Challenge 2007
The framework
                             Mood & Emotions


                                      P
                                      E
 Soft Skills:
                                      R                  Hard Skills:
 Leadership
                                  T   F                  Methodology
 Team Climate
                                  E   O                  Tools
 Motivation
                                  A   R                  Procedures
 Communication
                                  M   M
 Conflict Mgmt
                                      A
 Decision Making
                                      N
                                      C
                                      E
Impact on Team Performance            NASA Project Management   10/29
                                          Challenge 2007
Leadership
                                Team
                              Sentiment




   Leader’s                    Leader’s
                                                             Team
   Emotional                  Emotional
                                                          Performance
    Display                  Intelligence



                                Team
                             Performance
                              Inference
Impact on Team Performance             NASA Project Management   11/29
                                           Challenge 2007
Leadership and Team Climate

   A leader's emotional expressions may affect
    performance by evoking affective reactions in
    followers that may influence their performance.
   Several studies have demonstrated that people that
    work together may converge emotionally over time.
   R e s e a r c h e s f o u n d t h a t l e a d e r s ' e m o t i o n a l
    expressions instilled congruent moods in followers
    and influenced their liking of the leader as well as
    ratings of the leader's charisma and effectiveness.
   Emotional Contagion: leaders affect the group’s
    mood, both at individual and collective level.

Impact on Team Performance                NASA Project Management   12/29
                                              Challenge 2007
Motivation

   Scholars attest that human emotions and mood are
    likely to influence the processes underlying
    motivation.
   Emotion constitutes an important source of influence
    on human thought and behavior.
   Mood and Emotions influence work motivation via
    their influence on judgment components (expectancy
    judgments, utility judgments, and progress
    judgments) involved in conscious behavioral choices.




Impact on Team Performance     NASA Project Management   13/29
                                   Challenge 2007
Communication

   Emotions can be useful in terms of directing attention
    to pressing concerns and signalling what should be the
    focus of attention.
   Being able to provoke emotions while communicating
    improves the information retention and the ability to
    recall information.




Impact on Team Performance      NASA Project Management   14/29
                                    Challenge 2007
Conflict Management

   Conflict is an emotionally defined and driven process.
   Affective – Relationship Conflict negatively affects
    group outcomes.
   Studies found that induction of positve mood led to
    more cooperative and to less competitive behavior in
    negotiation than either neutral or negative mood.
   Positive emotional experience within the work team
    facilitated open discusssion of differences, which has
    been found to facilitate constructive conflict
    management.


Impact on Team Performance       NASA Project Management   15/29
                                     Challenge 2007
Decision Making

   Mood states often bias judgments in a mood
    consistent manner:
   People in positive moods make more positive
    judgments, whereas people in negative moods make
    more negative judgments.

Positive Moods               Negative Moods
Creativity                   Attention to details
                             Detection of errors and
Integrative Thinking
                             problems
Inductive Reasoning          Careful information processing

Impact on Team Performance     NASA Project Management   16/29
                                   Challenge 2007
Agenda

  Mood and Emotions: Definitions
  Impact of Mood and Emotions on Team
   Performance
  How to influence Mood and Emotions
  Conclusions




                              NASA Project Management   17/29
                                  Challenge 2007
How to Influence Mood and Emotions


                                Managerial Activities



                                    MOOD &
                                   EMOTIONS


                           Environmental Conditions


Influencing Mood and Emotions               NASA Project Management   18/29
                                                Challenge 2007
Managerial Activities: Leader’s Control of
Emotional Display
   A leader's emotional expressions can be thought of
    as success or failure feedback that may influence
    followers' inferences regarding their own
    performance.
   Research has documented a positive relationship
    between leader positive mood and group
    performance, based on these findings a leader's
    displays of happiness can be expected to inspire
    better performance than displays of anger.




Influencing Mood and Emotions   NASA Project Management   19/29
                                    Challenge 2007
Managerial Activities: Emotional Intelligence

   Emotional Intelligence: ‘the ability to perceive
    emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to
    assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional
    knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as
    to promote emotional and intellectual growth’.
   Leaders who are high on emotional intelligence will be
    better able to improve team performance by managing
    their own and their collaborators’ mood and emotions.




Influencing Mood and Emotions   NASA Project Management   20/29
                                    Challenge 2007
Managerial Activities: Feedbacks and
Celebrations
  Giving feedbacks after goal achievement or special
   efforts triggers positive emotions.
  Celebrating important events (project end, new
   contract etc.) permits to link challenging activities with
   positive emotions thus improving commitment.




Influencing Mood and Emotions     NASA Project Management   21/29
                                      Challenge 2007
Managerial Activities: Monitoring and
Improving Team Climate
   The creation of a playfull psychological safe
    atmosphere that foster trust, friendliness, and
    openess may help to induce positive moods and
    emotions that will instigate organizational spontaneity,
    creativity, innovation, and productivity.
   Group emotion results as from the combination of the
    groups’ affective composition and the affective context
    in which the group is behaving.
   One should try to create settings that have contextual
    qualities of being playful, safe and challenging all
    together; that is creating an affective context.


Influencing Mood and Emotions    NASA Project Management   22/29
                                     Challenge 2007
Managerial Activities: Humor

   Humor has been shown to be a powerful tool in
    helping to manage such disruptive negative emotions
    as anger and anxiety/tension.
   Humor can also elevate one’s mood from the depths
    of the daily sources of “depression” we all
    occasionally suffer from.
   Humor is especially effective in substituting a positive
    emotion for a negative one.
   Humor lowers tension and improves divergent
    thinking, and, especially in the outcome of laughing,
    helps in reducing the negative effects of stress.

Influencing Mood and Emotions    NASA Project Management   23/29
                                     Challenge 2007
Environment: Lighting and Colours

   Bright light stimulates us, while low levels of
    illumination quiet our senses.
   Insufficient lighting is linked to emotional stress and
    to physical ailments.
   Light, especially natural light, has been shown to
    enhance the performance of people while working.
   A bright room with light colors is preferred over a
    room with dark colors.
   A dim space with low contrasts might contribute to
    feelings of relaxation; a bright space with sparkle
    could be stimulating.

Influencing Mood and Emotions    NASA Project Management   24/29
                                     Challenge 2007
Environment: Air Quality and Odors

   A number of studies have suggested that odors
    affect mood and attitudes.
   It has been suggested that pleasant odors evoke
    happiness and surprise and that unpleasant odors
    evoke disgust and anger.
   Office air is typically highly filtered and de-
    humidified.
   The latent scents from various cleaners and the
    outgassing of many synthetic products fill the air with
    what the brain perceives as dangerous smelling
    chemicals, and that creates a lot of subliminal
    anxiety in workers.
Influencing Mood and Emotions     NASA Project Management   25/29
                                      Challenge 2007
Environment: Temperature and Humidity

   High heat and high levels of humidity can create
    problems because of difficulties in controlling body
    heat. This can lead to increased levels of stress and
    lower work efficiency.
   Temperature also tends to influence social behaviors
    such as aggression. High room temperature can
    easily lead to nervousness, tension, and negative
    emotional reactions.




Influencing Mood and Emotions   NASA Project Management   26/29
                                    Challenge 2007
Environment: Ergonomics

   Companies can encourage team productivity and
    innovation, as well as positive mood and emotions, by
    providing staff members with comfortable, attractive
    areas for team meetings, as well as individual work
    stations that can be tailored to personal needs and
    preferences.
   When people are working at improperly designed
    workstations, muscle fatigue, eyestrain, headaches,
    and other discomforts can become factors that
    negatively influence mood.



Influencing Mood and Emotions   NASA Project Management   27/29
                                    Challenge 2007
Agenda

  Mood and Emotions: Definitions
  Impact of Mood and Emotions on Team
   Performance
  How to influence Mood and Emotions
  Conclusions




                              NASA Project Management   28/29
                                  Challenge 2007
Conclusions

   Mood and emotions are well debated in the private
    life but their impacts on individual and team
    performance are underestimated.
   Mood and emotions could be shaped even inside the
    company’s boudaries.
   Managerial behaviours and work environment can be
    leveraged as tools to change mood and trigger
    emotions.




Conclusions                   NASA Project Management   29/29
                                  Challenge 2007

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Mood and emotions impact on team performance

  • 1. Mood and Emotions: Impact on Team Performance Marco Sampietro marco.sampietro@sdabocconi.it NASA Project Management 1/29 Project Management Challenge Challenge 2007 2008 – Reach Higher
  • 2. Agenda   Mood and Emotions: Definitions   Impact of Mood and Emotions on Team Performance   How to influence Mood and Emotions   Conclusions NASA Project Management 2/29 Challenge 2007
  • 3. Agenda   Mood and Emotions: Definitions   Impact of Mood and Emotions on Team Performance   How to influence Mood and Emotions   Conclusions NASA Project Management 3/29 Challenge 2007
  • 4. Mood   A relatively lasting emotional or affective state.   Mood is an internal, subjective state, but it often can be inferred from posture and other observable behaviors.   Moods are experiences that are longer and more diffuse, and lack awareness of the eliciting stimulus.   Moods can be created by stimuli of relatively low intensity, or can be left behind by emotions that fade so that the initial antecedent is no longer salient. Definitions NASA Project Management 4/29 Challenge 2007
  • 5. Emotion   A reaction to a stimulus that has a range of possible consequences and typically refer to discrete and intense but short-lived experiences.   A person's temporary internal state of being, which has a clear start and end, and it is an involuntary, subjective, physiological response to an object or a situation, based in or tied to physical state and sensory feelings. Definitions NASA Project Management 5/29 Challenge 2007
  • 6. Comparison between Mood and Emotion Mood Emotion Duration Relatively long-term Relatively short-term Gradual onset, Rapid onset, episodic, Time Pattern continuous, tonic phasic Intensity Relatively weak Relatively strong Not caused by specific Caused by a specific Causation events event Provides information Provides information Function about current state of about current state of self situation Directedness Unfocussed Takes specific object Definitions NASA Project Management 6/29 Challenge 2007
  • 7. Examples   Positive Mood & Negative Emotions The discrete event of encountering a malfunctioning photocopier at 9:50 this morning while rushing to prepare for a 10:00 meeting may cause one to feel frustration or anger for a short while, even if you are in cheerful mood. And so, for instance, one may snap at a secretary while frustrated about the photocopier.   Negative Mood & Positive Emotions Finding 100$ on the ground, thus feeling happy for a while but being in black mood because of continuous sentimental problems Definitions NASA Project Management 7/29 Challenge 2007
  • 8. Agenda   Mood and Emotions: Definitions   Impact of Mood and Emotions on Team Performance   How to influence Mood and Emotions   Conclusions NASA Project Management 8/29 Challenge 2007
  • 9. The role of emotions   “In decades past, workers were told to leave their emotions at home and most complied.”   There is little debate nowadays that organizational life is saturated with emotion.   People are emotional. Hebb once called humans “the most emotional of animals.”   Academics and practitioners alike have come to the collective insight that emotion is a pervasive force in the workplace that has the capacity to influence the organization and its members in significant ways. Impact on Team Performance NASA Project Management 9/29 Challenge 2007
  • 10. The framework Mood & Emotions P E Soft Skills: R Hard Skills: Leadership T F Methodology Team Climate E O Tools Motivation A R Procedures Communication M M Conflict Mgmt A Decision Making N C E Impact on Team Performance NASA Project Management 10/29 Challenge 2007
  • 11. Leadership Team Sentiment Leader’s Leader’s Team Emotional Emotional Performance Display Intelligence Team Performance Inference Impact on Team Performance NASA Project Management 11/29 Challenge 2007
  • 12. Leadership and Team Climate   A leader's emotional expressions may affect performance by evoking affective reactions in followers that may influence their performance.   Several studies have demonstrated that people that work together may converge emotionally over time.   R e s e a r c h e s f o u n d t h a t l e a d e r s ' e m o t i o n a l expressions instilled congruent moods in followers and influenced their liking of the leader as well as ratings of the leader's charisma and effectiveness.   Emotional Contagion: leaders affect the group’s mood, both at individual and collective level. Impact on Team Performance NASA Project Management 12/29 Challenge 2007
  • 13. Motivation   Scholars attest that human emotions and mood are likely to influence the processes underlying motivation.   Emotion constitutes an important source of influence on human thought and behavior.   Mood and Emotions influence work motivation via their influence on judgment components (expectancy judgments, utility judgments, and progress judgments) involved in conscious behavioral choices. Impact on Team Performance NASA Project Management 13/29 Challenge 2007
  • 14. Communication   Emotions can be useful in terms of directing attention to pressing concerns and signalling what should be the focus of attention.   Being able to provoke emotions while communicating improves the information retention and the ability to recall information. Impact on Team Performance NASA Project Management 14/29 Challenge 2007
  • 15. Conflict Management   Conflict is an emotionally defined and driven process.   Affective – Relationship Conflict negatively affects group outcomes.   Studies found that induction of positve mood led to more cooperative and to less competitive behavior in negotiation than either neutral or negative mood.   Positive emotional experience within the work team facilitated open discusssion of differences, which has been found to facilitate constructive conflict management. Impact on Team Performance NASA Project Management 15/29 Challenge 2007
  • 16. Decision Making   Mood states often bias judgments in a mood consistent manner:   People in positive moods make more positive judgments, whereas people in negative moods make more negative judgments. Positive Moods Negative Moods Creativity Attention to details Detection of errors and Integrative Thinking problems Inductive Reasoning Careful information processing Impact on Team Performance NASA Project Management 16/29 Challenge 2007
  • 17. Agenda   Mood and Emotions: Definitions   Impact of Mood and Emotions on Team Performance   How to influence Mood and Emotions   Conclusions NASA Project Management 17/29 Challenge 2007
  • 18. How to Influence Mood and Emotions Managerial Activities MOOD & EMOTIONS Environmental Conditions Influencing Mood and Emotions NASA Project Management 18/29 Challenge 2007
  • 19. Managerial Activities: Leader’s Control of Emotional Display   A leader's emotional expressions can be thought of as success or failure feedback that may influence followers' inferences regarding their own performance.   Research has documented a positive relationship between leader positive mood and group performance, based on these findings a leader's displays of happiness can be expected to inspire better performance than displays of anger. Influencing Mood and Emotions NASA Project Management 19/29 Challenge 2007
  • 20. Managerial Activities: Emotional Intelligence   Emotional Intelligence: ‘the ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth’.   Leaders who are high on emotional intelligence will be better able to improve team performance by managing their own and their collaborators’ mood and emotions. Influencing Mood and Emotions NASA Project Management 20/29 Challenge 2007
  • 21. Managerial Activities: Feedbacks and Celebrations   Giving feedbacks after goal achievement or special efforts triggers positive emotions.   Celebrating important events (project end, new contract etc.) permits to link challenging activities with positive emotions thus improving commitment. Influencing Mood and Emotions NASA Project Management 21/29 Challenge 2007
  • 22. Managerial Activities: Monitoring and Improving Team Climate   The creation of a playfull psychological safe atmosphere that foster trust, friendliness, and openess may help to induce positive moods and emotions that will instigate organizational spontaneity, creativity, innovation, and productivity.   Group emotion results as from the combination of the groups’ affective composition and the affective context in which the group is behaving.   One should try to create settings that have contextual qualities of being playful, safe and challenging all together; that is creating an affective context. Influencing Mood and Emotions NASA Project Management 22/29 Challenge 2007
  • 23. Managerial Activities: Humor   Humor has been shown to be a powerful tool in helping to manage such disruptive negative emotions as anger and anxiety/tension.   Humor can also elevate one’s mood from the depths of the daily sources of “depression” we all occasionally suffer from.   Humor is especially effective in substituting a positive emotion for a negative one.   Humor lowers tension and improves divergent thinking, and, especially in the outcome of laughing, helps in reducing the negative effects of stress. Influencing Mood and Emotions NASA Project Management 23/29 Challenge 2007
  • 24. Environment: Lighting and Colours   Bright light stimulates us, while low levels of illumination quiet our senses.   Insufficient lighting is linked to emotional stress and to physical ailments.   Light, especially natural light, has been shown to enhance the performance of people while working.   A bright room with light colors is preferred over a room with dark colors.   A dim space with low contrasts might contribute to feelings of relaxation; a bright space with sparkle could be stimulating. Influencing Mood and Emotions NASA Project Management 24/29 Challenge 2007
  • 25. Environment: Air Quality and Odors   A number of studies have suggested that odors affect mood and attitudes.   It has been suggested that pleasant odors evoke happiness and surprise and that unpleasant odors evoke disgust and anger.   Office air is typically highly filtered and de- humidified.   The latent scents from various cleaners and the outgassing of many synthetic products fill the air with what the brain perceives as dangerous smelling chemicals, and that creates a lot of subliminal anxiety in workers. Influencing Mood and Emotions NASA Project Management 25/29 Challenge 2007
  • 26. Environment: Temperature and Humidity   High heat and high levels of humidity can create problems because of difficulties in controlling body heat. This can lead to increased levels of stress and lower work efficiency.   Temperature also tends to influence social behaviors such as aggression. High room temperature can easily lead to nervousness, tension, and negative emotional reactions. Influencing Mood and Emotions NASA Project Management 26/29 Challenge 2007
  • 27. Environment: Ergonomics   Companies can encourage team productivity and innovation, as well as positive mood and emotions, by providing staff members with comfortable, attractive areas for team meetings, as well as individual work stations that can be tailored to personal needs and preferences.   When people are working at improperly designed workstations, muscle fatigue, eyestrain, headaches, and other discomforts can become factors that negatively influence mood. Influencing Mood and Emotions NASA Project Management 27/29 Challenge 2007
  • 28. Agenda   Mood and Emotions: Definitions   Impact of Mood and Emotions on Team Performance   How to influence Mood and Emotions   Conclusions NASA Project Management 28/29 Challenge 2007
  • 29. Conclusions   Mood and emotions are well debated in the private life but their impacts on individual and team performance are underestimated.   Mood and emotions could be shaped even inside the company’s boudaries.   Managerial behaviours and work environment can be leveraged as tools to change mood and trigger emotions. Conclusions NASA Project Management 29/29 Challenge 2007