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Course Outlines:

1. Data Base Fundamentals.
2. PL-SQL.
3. Oracle 10g Forms.
4. Oracle 10g Reports.




                   Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Basic Definitions
• Database: A collection of related data.
• Data: Known facts that can be recorded and have an implicit
  meaning.
• Mini-world: Some part of the real world about which data is
  stored in a database. For example, student grades and
  transcripts at a university.
• Database Management System (DBMS): A software
  package/ system to facilitate the creation and maintenance
  of a computerized database.
• Database System: The DBMS software together with the
  data itself. Sometimes, the applications are also included.
Types of Databases and Database
              Applications
•   Numeric and Textual Databases
•   Multimedia Databases
•   Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
•   Data Warehouses
•   Real-time and Active Databases
    Ex: Weather Database, Multimedia DB


                           Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Typical DBMS Functionality
• Define a database : in terms of data types,
  structures and constraints.
• Construct or Load the Database on a secondary
  storage medium.
• Manipulating the database : querying, generating
  reports, insertions, deletions and modifications to
  its content.
• Concurrent Processing and Sharing by a set of
  users and programs – yet, keeping all data valid
  and consistent.

                     Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Typical DBMS Functionality

Other features:
  – Protection or Security measures to prevent
    unauthorized access
  – “Active” processing to take internal actions
    on data
  – Presentation and Visualization of data




                    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Examples of DBMS
Oracle
Sqlserver
Access
Informix
MySQL




            Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Example of a Database
• Part of a UNIVERSITY environment.
• Entities (Tables):
   –   STUDENTs
   –   COURSEs
   –   SECTIONs (of COURSEs)
   –   (academic) DEPARTMENTs
   –   INSTRUCTORs
Note: The above could be expressed in the ENTITY-
  RELATIONSHIP data model.



                      Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
• Some relationships:
   –   SECTIONs are of specific COURSEs
   –   STUDENTs take SECTIONs
   –   COURSEs have prerequisite COURSEs
   –   INSTRUCTORs teach SECTIONs
   –   COURSEs are offered by DEPARTMENTs
   –   STUDENTs major in DEPARTMENTs

Note: The above could be expressed in the ENTITY-
  RELATIONSHIP data model.




                      Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Main Characteristics of the Database
            Approach
• Data Abstraction: A data model is used to
  hide storage details and present the users
  with a conceptual view of the database.

• Support of multiple views of the data: Each
  user may see a different view of the database,
  which describes only the data of interest to
  that user.


                    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
• Sharing of data and multiuser transaction
  processing : allowing a set of concurrent users to
  retrieve and to update the database.
  Concurrency control within the DBMS guarantees
  that each transaction is correctly executed or
  completely aborted. OLTP (Online Transaction
  Processing) is a major part of database
  applications.




                     Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Database Users
Users may be divided into those who actually
  use and control the content (called “Actors
  on the Scene”) and those who enable the
  database to be developed and the DBMS
  software to be designed and implemented
  (called “Workers Behind the Scene”).




                  Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Database Users Types:
  – Database administrators: responsible for authorizing
    access to the database, for co-ordinating and
    monitoring its use, acquiring software, and hardware
    resources, controlling its use and monitoring efficiency
    of operations.
  – Database Designers: responsible to define the
    content, the structure, the constraints, and functions
    or transactions against the database. They must
    communicate with the end-users and understand their
    needs.
  – End-users: they use the data for queries, reports and
    some of them actually update the database content.



                       Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Categories of End-users
• Casual : access database occasionally when
  needed

• Parametric : they make up a large section of the
  end-user population. They use previously well-
  defined functions in the form of “canned
  transactions” against the database. Examples are
  bank-tellers or reservation clerks who do this
  activity for an entire shift of operations.


                    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
• Sophisticated : these include business analysts,
  scientists, engineers, others thoroughly familiar
  with the system capabilities. Many use tools in the
  form of software packages that work closely with
  the stored database.

• Stand-alone : mostly maintain personal databases
  using ready-to-use packaged applications. An
  example is a tax program user that creates his or
  her own internal database.


                     Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Advantages of Using the Database
              Approach
• Controlling redundancy in data storage and in
  development and maintenance efforts.
• Sharing of data among multiple users.
• Restricting unauthorized access to data.
• Providing persistent storage for program
  Objects.
• Providing Storage Structures for efficient
  Query Processing.

                   Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
• Providing backup and recovery services.
• Representing complex relationships among data.
• Enforcing integrity constraints on the database.
• Flexibility to change data structures: database
  structure may evolve as new requirements are
  defined.
• Availability of up-to-date information – very
  important for on-line transaction systems such as
  airline, hotel, car reservations.
• Economies of scale: by consolidating data and
  applications across departments wasteful overlap of
  resources and personnel can be avoided.
                     Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Historical Development of Database
             Technology
• Early Database Applications: The Hierarchical and
  Network Models were introduced in mid 1960’s
  and dominated during the seventies. A bulk of the
  worldwide database processing still occurs using
  these models.

• Relational Model based Systems: The model that
  was originally introduced in 1970 was heavily
  researched and experimented with in IBM and the
  universities. Relational DBMS Products emerged in
  the 1980’s.
                    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Data on the Web and E-commerce Applications:
Web contains data in HTML (Hypertext markup
language) with links among pages. This has given rise
to a new set of applications and E-commerce is using
new standards like XML (eXtended Markup
Language).




                     Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Extending Database Capabilities
• New functionality is being added to DBMSs
  in the following areas:
  – Scientific Applications
  – Image
  – Audio and Video




                      Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Data Models
• Data Model: A set of concepts to describe the
  structure of a database, and certain constraints
  that the database should obey.

• Data Model Operations: Operations for specifying
  database retrievals and updates by referring to
  the concepts of the data model. Operations on
  the data model may include basic operations and
  user-defined operations.


                     Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Categories of data models
• Conceptual (high-level, semantic) data models:
  Provide concepts that are close to the way many
  users perceive data. (Also called entity-based or
  object-based data models.)

• Physical (low-level, internal) data models: Provide
  concepts that describe details of how data is stored in
  the computer.

• Implementation (representational) data models:
  Provide concepts that fall between the above two,
  balancing user views with some computer storage
  details.
                      Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
•Database Schema: The description of a database.
Includes descriptions of the database structure and
the constraints that should hold on the database.

•Schema Diagram: A diagrammatic display of (some
aspects of) a database schema.




                    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Three-Schema Architecture
• Defines DBMS schemas at three levels:
   • Internal schema at the internal level to describe physical
     storage structures and access paths. Typically uses a
     physical data model.

   • Conceptual schema at the conceptual level to describe the
     structure and constraints for the whole database for a
     community of users. Uses a conceptual or an
     implementation data model.

   • External schemas at the external level to describe the
     various user views. Usually uses the same data model as
     the conceptual level.
                          Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
DBMS Languages
• Data Definition Language (DDL): Used by the DBA
  and database designers to specify the conceptual
  schema of a database. In many DBMSs, the DDL is
  also used to define internal and external schemas
  (views). In some DBMSs, separate storage
  definition language (SDL) and view definition
  language (VDL) are used to define internal and
  external schemas.




                    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
• Data Manipulation Language (DML): Used to
  specify database retrievals and updates.

• High Level or Non-procedural Languages:
  e.g., SQL, are set-oriented and specify what
  data to retrieve than how to retrieve. Also
  called declarative languages.




                     Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
DEFINITION SUMMARY
Informal Terms                          Formal Terms


Table                                   Relation
Column                                  Attribute/Domain
Row                                     Tuple
Values in a column                      Domain
Table Definition                        Schema of a Relation

                     Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Relational Keys
• Primary Key
  –   Candidate key selected to identify records uniquely within
      table.

• Alternate Keys
  –   Candidate keys that are not selected to be primary key.

• Foreign Key
  – Column, or set of columns, within one table that matches candidate
    key (primary key) of some (possibly same) table.

• Secondary key
  – Key used strictly for data retrieval purposes.
  – Does not necessarily yield a unique number.
                            Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Example COMPANY Database
• The company is organized into DEPARTMENTs. Each department
  has a name, number and an employee who manages the
  department. We keep track of the start date of the department
  manager.
• Each department controls a number of PROJECTs. Each project has
  a name, number and is located at a single location.
• We store each EMPLOYEE’s social security number, address,
  salary, sex, and birthdate. Each employee works for one
  department but may work on several projects. We keep track of
  the number of hours per week that an employee currently works
  on each project. We also keep track of the direct supervisor of
  each employee.
• Each employee may have a number of DEPENDENTs. For each
  dependent, we keep track of their name, sex, birthdate, and
  relationship to employee.


                          Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
ER DIAGRAM FOR THE COMPANY DATABASE




              Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
SQL
• Main language for relational DBMSs.
• Main characteristics:
   – relatively easy to learn;
   – non-procedural - you specify what information
     you require, rather than      how to get it.
   – Easy to learn, consists of standard English words
     like SELECT, INSERT, and UPDATE.
• SQL is a transform-oriented language with 2 major
  components:
   – a DDL for defining database structure;
   – a DML for retrieving and updating data.

                      Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Objectives of SQL
• Ideally database language should let user:
   – create database and table structures.
   – perform basic tasks like insert, update,
     delete;
   – perform both simple and complex queries.
• Must perform these tasks with minimal user
  effort.



                 Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
SELECT      Data retrieval
INSERT
UPDATE
            Data Manipulation Language (DML)
DELETE
CREATE
ALTER
DROP
RENAME      Data Definition Language (DDL)
TRUNCATE
COMMIT
ROLLBACK
            Transaction control
SAVEPOINT
GRANT       Data Control Language (DCL)
REVOKE


                      Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Writing SQL Commands
• SQL statement consists of reserved words and user-defined
  words.
• Most components of an SQL statement are case insensitive,
  except for literal character data.
• All non-numeric literals must be enclosed in single quotes (eg.
  ‘London’).
• All numeric literals must not be enclosed in quotes (eg. 650.00).
• SQL statements are not case sensitive.
• SQL statements can be on one or more lines.
• Keywords cannot be abbreviated or split across lines.
• Clauses are usually placed on separate lines.
• Tabs and indents are used to enhance readability.

                           Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Logging In to SQL*Plus
– From Windows environment:




              Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Naming Conventions
• Must begin with a letter
• Can be 1–30 characters long
• Must contain only A–Z, a–z, 0–9, _, $, and #
• Must not duplicate the name of another object
  owned by the same user
• Must not be an Oracle Server reserved word



                   Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
CREATE Command
– You must have :
   • CREATE TABLE privilege
   • A storage area
CREATE TABLE tableName
(columnName1   columnType(size),
.
.
 columnNamen columnType(size))

– You specify:
   • Table name
   • Column name, column datatype, and column size

                     Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Creating Tables
 SQL> CREATE TABLE dept
   2         (deptno NUMBER(2),
   3          dname VARCHAR2(14),
   4          loc    VARCHAR2(13));
 Table created.




SQL> DESCRIBE dept

 Name                        Null?          Type
 --------------------------- --------       ---------
 DEPTNO                                     NUMBER(2)
 DNAME                                      VARCHAR2(14)
 LOC                                        VARCHAR2(13)



                     Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Datatypes
Datatype             Description
VARCHAR2(size)       Variable-length character data
CHAR(size)           Fixed-length character data
NUMBER(p,s)          Variable-length numeric data
DATE                 Date and time values
LONG                 Variable-length character data
                     up to 2 gigabytes
CLOB                 Single-byte character data up to 4
                     gigabytes
RAW and LONG RAW     Raw binary data
BLOB                 Binary data up to 4 gigabytes
BFILE                Binary data stored in an external
                     file; up to 4 gigabytes
                    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Dropping a Table
– All data and structure in the table is deleted.
– Any pending transactions are committed.
– All indexes are dropped.
– You cannot roll back this statement.


SQL> DROP TABLE dept30;
Table dropped.




                    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Renaming a Table

SQL> RENAME dept2 TO deptartment
Table renamed.




                   Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Alter a Table

ALTER TABLE table
ADD         (column datatype [DEFAULT expr]
            [, column datatype]...);




SQL> ALTER TABLE dept30
  2 ADD         (job VARCHAR2(9));
Table altered.




                    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
SQL> ALTER TABLE dept2
2 MODIFY ( dname VARCHAR2(20) );
Table altered .

   For changing the column size




SQL> ALTER TABLE dept2
2 DROP COLUMN REGION ;
Table altered .


 For deleting column




                             Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
What Are Constraints?
– Constraints enforce rules at the table level.
– Constraints prevent the deletion of a table if there
  are dependencies.
– The following constraint types are valid in Oracle:
   •   NOT NULL
   •   UNIQUE
   •   PRIMARY KEY
   •   FOREIGN KEY
   •   CHECK



                     Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Defining Constraints

CREATE TABLE [schema.]table
             (column datatype [DEFAULT expr]
              [column_constraint],
              ...
              [table_constraint][,...]);



CREATE TABLE emp(
              empno NUMBER(4),
              ename VARCHAR2(10),
              ...
              deptno NUMBER(7,2) NOT NULL,
              CONSTRAINT emp_empno_pk
                           PRIMARY KEY (EMPNO));



                   Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Defining Constraints

– Column constraint level
column [CONSTRAINT constraint_name] constraint_type,


– Table constraint level

column,...
  [CONSTRAINT constraint_name] constraint_type
  (column, ...),




                    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
The NOT NULL Constraint
• Ensures that null values are not permitted for
  the column
• Defined only at the column level
   SQL> CREATE TABLE   emp(
     2      empno      NUMBER(4),
     3      ename      VARCHAR2(10) NOT NULL,
     4      job        VARCHAR2(9),
     5      mgr        NUMBER(4),
     6      hiredate   DATE,
     7      sal        NUMBER(7,2),
     8      comm       NUMBER(7,2),
     9      deptno     NUMBER(7,2) NOT NULL);


                        Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
The UNIQUE Key Constraint
                   UNIQUE key constraint
     DEPT
     DEPTNO   DNAME        LOC
     ------   ----------   --------
         10   ACCOUNTING   NEW YORK
         20   RESEARCH     DALLAS
         30   SALES        CHICAGO
         40   OPERATIONS   BOSTON



• Defined at either the table level or the column level
     SQL> CREATE TABLE       dept(
       2      deptno         NUMBER(2),
       3      dname          VARCHAR2(14),
       4      loc            VARCHAR2(13),
       5      CONSTRAINT     dept_dname_uk UNIQUE(dname));

                            Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
The PRIMARY KEY Constraint

• Entity integrity supported by PRIMARY KEY
  clause.
• Defined at either the table level or the column
  level

  SQL> CREATE TABLE     dept(
    2      deptno       NUMBER(2),
    3      dname        VARCHAR2(14),
    4      loc          VARCHAR2(13),
    5      CONSTRAINT   dept_dname_uk UNIQUE (dname),
    6      CONSTRAINT   dept_deptno_pk PRIMARY KEY(deptno));

                         Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
FOREIGN KEY & Referential Integrity
• Use FOREIGN KEY clause to define any foreign
  keys in the table.
• SQL rejects any INSERT or UPDATE that attempts
  to create a FK value in child table without
  matching PK value in parent table.
• The action SQL takes for any UPDATE or DELETE
  that attempts to update or delete a PK value in
  the parent table with some matching rows in
  child table is dependent upon specified
  referential action.

                   Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
The FOREIGN KEY Constraint
                 DEPT
PRIMARY          DEPTNO    DNAME              LOC
KEY              ------    ----------         --------
                     10    ACCOUNTING         NEW YORK
                     20    RESEARCH           DALLAS
                   ...
 EMP
   EMPNO ENAME   JOB           ...      COMM      DEPTNO   FOREIGN
                                                           KEY
    7839 KING    PRESIDENT                            10
    7698 BLAKE   MANAGER                              30
    ...                                                    Not allowed
                                                           (DEPTNO 9 does
                              Insert into                  not exist in the
                                                           DEPT table)
    7571 FORD    MANAGER       ...      200           9
    7571 FORD    MANAGER       ...      200          20    Allowed
                           Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
The FOREIGN KEY Constraint
• Defined at either the table level or the column
  level
  SQL> CREATE TABLE emp(
    2      empno    NUMBER(4),
    3      ename    VARCHAR2(10) NOT NULL,
    4      job      VARCHAR2(9),
    5      mgr      NUMBER(4),
    6      hiredate DATE,
    7      sal      NUMBER(7,2),
    8      comm     NUMBER(7,2),
    9      deptno   NUMBER(7,2) NOT NULL,
   10      CONSTRAINT emp_deptno_fk FOREIGN KEY (deptno)
   11                 REFERENCES dept (deptno));

                       Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Data Manipulation Language
– A DML statement is executed when you:
  • Add new rows to a table
  • Modify existing rows in a table
  • Remove existing rows from a table




                 Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Adding a New Row to a Table
       50 DEVELOPMENT DETROIT
New row
                                           “…insert a new row
DEPT
                                            into DEPT table…”
DEPTNO    DNAME        LOC
------    ----------   --------
    10    ACCOUNTING   NEW YORK
    20    RESEARCH     DALLAS          DEPT
    30    SALES        CHICAGO          DEPTNO       DNAME        LOC
    40    OPERATIONS   BOSTON           ------       ----------   --------
                                            10       ACCOUNTING   NEW YORK
                                            20       RESEARCH     DALLAS
                                            30       SALES        CHICAGO
                                            40       OPERATIONS   BOSTON
                                                  50 DEVELOPMENT DETROIT


                           Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
The INSERT Statement
– Add new rows to a table by using the INSERT
  statement.

INSERT INTO   table [(column [, column...])]
VALUES        (value [, value...]);


– Only one row is inserted at a time with this syntax.


SQL> INSERT INTO    dept (deptno, dname, loc)
  2 VALUES          (50, 'DEVELOPMENT', 'DETROIT');
1 row created.

                     Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Changing Data in a Table
EMP
 EMPNO ENAME     JOB             ...      DEPTNO
                                                         “…update a row
  7839   KING    PRESIDENT                          10
  7698   BLAKE   MANAGER                            30   in EMP table…”
  7782   CLARK   MANAGER                            10
  7566   JONES   MANAGER                            20
  ...

                       EMP
                        EMPNO ENAME           JOB          ...   DEPTNO

                         7839     KING        PRESIDENT              10
                         7698     BLAKE       MANAGER                30
                         7782     CLARK       MANAGER                20
                                                                     10
                         7566     JONES       MANAGER                20
                         ...

                             Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
The UPDATE Statement
– Modify existing rows with the UPDATE statement.


UPDATE      table
SET         column = value [, column = value, ...]
[WHERE      condition];


– Update more than one row at a time, if required.




                   Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Updating Rows in a Table
– Specific row or rows are modified when you
  specify the WHERE clause.
SQL> UPDATE emp
  2 SET      deptno = 20
  3 WHERE    empno = 7782;
1 row updated.

– All rows in the table are modified if you omit the
  WHERE clause.
SQL> UPDATE employee
  2 SET      deptno = 20;
14 rows updated.

                    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Updating Rows:
         Integrity Constraint Error

SQL> UPDATE   emp
  2 SET       deptno = 55
  3 WHERE     deptno = 10;




UPDATE emp
       *
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-02291: integrity constraint (USR.EMP_DEPTNO_FK)
violated - parent key not found



                     Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Removing a Row from a Table
DEPT
DEPTNO   DNAME       LOC
------   ----------  --------
    10   ACCOUNTING  NEW YORK
    20   RESEARCH    DALLAS         “…delete a row
    30   SALES       CHICAGO
    40   OPERATIONS  BOSTON         from DEPT table…”
    50   DEVELOPMENT DETROIT
    60   MIS                         DEPT
   ...
                                      DEPTNO    DNAME        LOC
                                      ------    ----------   --------
                                          10    ACCOUNTING   NEW YORK
                                          20    RESEARCH     DALLAS
                                          30    SALES        CHICAGO
                                          40    OPERATIONS   BOSTON
                                          60    MIS
                                         ...

                         Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
The DELETE Statement
• You can remove existing rows from a table by using the DELETE
  statement.
   DELETE [FROM]    table
   [WHERE           condition];

   – Specific rows are deleted when you specify the WHERE
     clause.
   SQL> DELETE FROM      department
     2 WHERE             dname = 'DEVELOPMENT';
   1 row deleted.

   – All rows in the table are deleted if you omit the WHERE
     clause
   SQL> DELETE FROM      department;
   4 rows deleted.
                         Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Deleting Rows:
         Integrity Constraint Error

SQL> DELETE FROM    dept
  2 WHERE           deptno = 10;



DELETE FROM dept
            *
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-02292: integrity constraint (USR.EMP_DEPTNO_FK)
violated - child record found




                    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Basic SELECT Statement
– SELECT identifies what columns.
– FROM identifies which table.
SELECT    [DISTINCT] {*, column [alias],...}
FROM      table;


SQL> SELECT *
  2 FROM    dept;


   DEPTNO   DNAME             LOC
---------   -------------- -------------
       10   ACCOUNTING        NEW YORK
       20   RESEARCH          DALLAS
       30   SALES             CHICAGO
       40   OPERATIONS Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
                              BOSTON
Selecting Specific Columns
SQL> SELECT deptno, loc
  2 FROM    dept;


   DEPTNO    LOC
---------    -------------
       10    NEW YORK
       20    DALLAS
       30    CHICAGO
       40    BOSTON


SQL> select ename, 12*sal+comm
  2 from    emp
  3 WHERE ename='KING';


ENAME      12*SAL+COMM
---------- -----------
KING                 Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Using Column Aliases
SQL> SELECT ename AS name, sal salary
  2 FROM    emp;


NAME             SALARY
------------- ---------
...


SQL> SELECT ename "Name",
  2         sal*12 "Annual Salary"
  3 FROM    emp;


Name          Annual Salary
------------- -------------
...
                    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Duplicate Rows
• The default display of queries is all rows, including duplicate
  rows.
    SQL> SELECT deptno
      2 FROM    emp;


       DEPTNO
    ---------
           10
           30
           10
           20
    ...
    14 rows selected.




                           Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Eliminating Duplicate Rows
Eliminate duplicate rows by using the DISTINCT
keyword in the SELECT clause.
SQL> SELECT DISTINCT deptno
  2 FROM    emp;


   DEPTNO
---------
       10
       20
       30




                    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Limiting Rows Selected
– Restrict the rows returned by using the WHERE clause.
SELECT          [DISTINCT] {*| column [alias], ...}
FROM            table
[WHERE          condition(s)];

– The WHERE clause follows the FROM clause.

SQL> SELECT ename, job, deptno
  2 FROM    emp
  3 WHERE job='CLERK';

ENAME        JOB            DEPTNO
----------   --------- ---------
JAMES        CLERK                  30
SMITH        CLERK                  20
ADAMS        CLERK                  20
                       Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
MILLER       CLERK                  10
Comparison Operators
             Operator    Meaning

                 =       Equal to

                 >       Greater than

                 >=      Greater than or equal to

                 <       Less than

                 <=      Less than or equal to

                 <>      Not equal to

SQL> SELECT ename, sal, comm
  2 FROM    emp
  3 WHERE sal<=comm;



ENAME            SAL          COMM
---------- --------- ---------
MARTIN          1250 Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
                              1400
Other Comparison Operators
     Operator        Meaning

     BETWEEN         Between two values (inclusive)
     ...AND...

     IN(list)        Match any of a list of values

     LIKE            Match a character pattern

     IS NULL         Is a null value

SQL> SELECT      empno, ename, sal, mgr
  2 FROM         emp
  3 WHERE        mgr IN (7902, 7566, 7788);


    EMPNO   ENAME                 SAL       MGR
---------   ---------- --------- ---------
     7902   FORD                3000       7566
     7369   SMITH                 800      7902
     7788   SCOTT               3000       7566
                      Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
     7876   ADAMS               1100       7788
Using the BETWEEN Operator
  SQL> SELECT   ename, sal
    2 FROM      emp
    3 WHERE     sal BETWEEN 1000 AND 1500;
  ENAME            SAL
  ---------- ---------
  MARTIN          1250           Lower          Higher
  TURNER          1500            limit          limit
  WARD            1250
  ADAMS           1100
  MILLER          1300



Using the IS NULL Operator
  SQL> SELECT   ename, mgr
    2 FROM      emp
    3 WHERE     mgr IS NULL;

  ENAME            MGR
  ---------- ---------
  KING
                         Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Using the LIKE Operator

SQL> SELECT   ename
  2 FROM      emp
  3 WHERE     ename LIKE '_A%';

ENAME
----------
MARTIN
JAMES
WARD



SQL> SELECT   ename
  2 FROM      emp
  3 WHERE     ename LIKE 'S%';

                    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Logical Operators
   Operator         Meaning

   AND              Returns TRUE if both component
                    conditions are TRUE
   OR               Returns TRUE if either component
                    condition is TRUE

   NOT              Returns TRUE if the following condition is
                    FALSE
SQL>   SELECT   empno, ename, job, sal
  2    FROM     emp
  3    WHERE    sal>=1100
  4    AND      job='CLERK';


    EMPNO   ENAME      JOB                  SAL
---------   ---------- --------- ---------
     7876   ADAMS      CLERK               1100
     7934   MILLER     CLERK
                      Mohannad Al-Hanahnah 1300
Using the OR Operator
SQL>   SELECT   empno, ename, job, sal
  2    FROM     emp
  3    WHERE    sal>=1100
  4    OR       job='CLERK';
    EMPNO ENAME          JOB             SAL
--------- ----------     --------- ---------
     7839 KING           PRESIDENT      5000
     7698 BLAKE          MANAGER        2850
     7782 CLARK          MANAGER        2450
     7566 JONES          MANAGER        2975
     7654 MARTIN         SALESMAN       1250
     ...
     7900 JAMES          CLERK                 950
     ...
14 rows selected.
                        Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Using the NOT Operator
SQL> SELECT ename, job
  2 FROM    emp
  3 WHERE job NOT IN ('CLERK','MANAGER','ANALYST');



ENAME        JOB
----------   ---------
KING         PRESIDENT
MARTIN       SALESMAN
ALLEN        SALESMAN
TURNER       SALESMAN
WARD         SALESMAN




                         Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
ORDER BY Clause
– Sort rows with the ORDER BY clause
   • ASC: ascending order, default
   • DESC: descending order
– The ORDER BY clause comes last in the SELECT statement.

SQL> SELECT  ename, job, deptno, hiredate
  2 FROM     emp
  3 ORDER BY hiredate;

ENAME      JOB          DEPTNO HIREDATE
---------- --------- --------- ---------
SMITH      CLERK            20 17-DEC-80
ALLEN      SALESMAN         30 20-FEB-81
...
14 rows selected.
                         Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
ORDER BY Clause
– Sort rows with the ORDER BY clause
   • ASC: ascending order, default
   • DESC: descending order
– The ORDER BY clause comes last in the SELECT statement.

SQL> SELECT  ename, job, deptno, hiredate
  2 FROM     emp
  3 ORDER BY hiredate;

ENAME      JOB          DEPTNO HIREDATE
---------- --------- --------- ---------
SMITH      CLERK            20 17-DEC-80
ALLEN      SALESMAN         30 20-FEB-81
...
14 rows selected.
                         Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Sorting in Descending Order
SQL> SELECT  ename, job, deptno, hiredate
  2 FROM     emp
  3 ORDER BY hiredate DESC;


ENAME      JOB          DEPTNO HIREDATE
---------- --------- --------- ---------
ADAMS      CLERK            20 12-JAN-83
SCOTT      ANALYST          20 09-DEC-82
MILLER     CLERK            10 23-JAN-82
JAMES      CLERK            30 03-DEC-81
FORD       ANALYST          20 03-DEC-81
KING       PRESIDENT        10 17-NOV-81
MARTIN     SALESMAN         30 28-SEP-81
...
14 rows selected.


                    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Obtaining Data from Multiple Tables
 EMP                              DEPT
  EMPNO   ENAME   ... DEPTNO       DEPTNO      DNAME        LOC
 ------   -----   ... ------       ------      ----------   --------
   7839   KING    ...     10           10      ACCOUNTING   NEW YORK
   7698   BLAKE   ...     30           20      RESEARCH     DALLAS
    ...                                30      SALES        CHICAGO
   7934   MILLER ...        10         40      OPERATIONS   BOSTON


              EMPNO DEPTNO LOC
              ----- ------- --------
               7839       10 NEW YORK
               7698       30 CHICAGO
               7782       10 NEW YORK
               7566       20 DALLAS
               7654       30 CHICAGO
               7499       30 CHICAGO
              ...
              14 rows selected.
                        Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
What Is a Join?
• Use a join to query data from more than one
  table.
   SELECT   table1.column, table2.column
   FROM     table1, table2
   WHERE    table1.column1 = table2.column2;


  – Write the join condition in the WHERE clause.
  – Prefix the column name with the table name
    when the same column name appears in more
    than one table.


                      Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Types of Join?

1.   Equijoin.                     ‫الربط بالتساوي‬
2.   Non-Equijoin.             ‫الربط بعدم التساوي‬
3.   Outer Join.                   ‫الربط الخارجي‬
4.   Self Join.        ‫الربط الداخلي في نفس الجدول‬

We can do join through SELECT statement and using
WHERE.




                     Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
What Is an Equijoin?
EMP                          DEPT
 EMPNO ENAME    DEPTNO         DEPTNO       DNAME        LOC
------ ------- -------        -------       ----------   --------
  7839 KING         10             10       ACCOUNTING   NEW YORK
  7698 BLAKE        30             30       SALES        CHICAGO
  7782 CLARK        10             10       ACCOUNTING   NEW YORK
  7566 JONES        20             20       RESEARCH     DALLAS
  7654 MARTIN       30             30       SALES        CHICAGO
  7499 ALLEN        30             30       SALES        CHICAGO
  7844 TURNER       30             30       SALES        CHICAGO
  7900 JAMES        30             30       SALES        CHICAGO
  7521 WARD         30             30       SALES        CHICAGO
  7902 FORD         20             20       RESEARCH     DALLAS
  7369 SMITH        20             20       RESEARCH     DALLAS
...                           ...
14 rows selected.             14 rows       selected.

              Foreign key       Primary key
                     Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Retrieving Records
                with Equijoins
SQL> SELECT   emp.empno, emp.ename, emp.deptno,
  2           dept.deptno, dept.loc
  3 FROM      emp, dept
  4 WHERE     emp.deptno=dept.deptno;


EMPNO ENAME DEPTNO DEPTNO LOC
----- ------ ------ ------ ---------
 7839 KING        10     10 NEW YORK
 7698 BLAKE       30     30 CHICAGO
 7782 CLARK       10     10 NEW YORK
 7566 JONES       20     20 DALLAS
...
14 rows selected.



                     Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Using Table Aliases
• Simplify queries by using table aliases.

  SQL> SELECT emp.empno, emp.ename, emp.deptno,
    2         dept.deptno, dept.loc
    3 FROM    emp, dept
    4 WHERE emp.deptno=dept.deptno;


  SQL> SELECT e.empno, e.ename, e.deptno,
    2         d.deptno, d.loc
    3 FROM    emp e, dept d
    4 WHERE e.deptno=d.deptno;


                      Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Non-Equijoins
EMP                                  SALGRADE
 EMPNO ENAME       SAL                GRADE LOSAL HISAL
------ ------- ------                 ----- ----- ------
  7839 KING       5000                1       700   1200
  7698 BLAKE      2850                2      1201   1400
  7782 CLARK      2450                3      1401   2000
  7566 JONES      2975                4      2001   3000
  7654 MARTIN     1250                5      3001   9999
  7499 ALLEN      1600
  7844 TURNER     1500
  7900 JAMES       950
...                                   “salary in the EMP
14 rows selected.                     table is between
                                      low salary and high
                                      salary in the SALGRADE
                                      table”

                   Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Retrieving Records
                 with Non-Equijoins
SQL>   SELECT     e.ename, e.sal, s.grade
   2   FROM       emp e, salgrade s
   3   WHERE      e.sal
   4   BETWEEN    s.losal AND s.hisal;


ENAME             SAL    GRADE
---------- --------- ---------
JAMES             950        1
SMITH             800        1
ADAMS           1100         1
...
14 rows selected.



                       Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Outer Joins
EMP                   DEPT
ENAME   DEPTNO          DEPTNO      DNAME
-----   ------          ------      ----------
KING    10              10          ACCOUNTING
BLAKE   30              30          SALES
CLARK   10              10          ACCOUNTING
JONES   20              20          RESEARCH
...                     ...
                        40          OPERATIONS



         No employee in the
         OPERATIONS department



             Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Outer Joins
– You use an outer join to also see rows that do not
  usually meet the join condition.
– Outer join operator is the plus sign (+).
SELECT table1.column, table2.column
FROM   table1, table2
WHERE table1.column(+) = table2.column;


SELECT table1.column, table2.column
FROM   table1, table2
WHERE table1.column = table2.column(+);



                    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Using Outer Joins
SQL>   SELECT     e.ename, d.deptno, d.dname
  2    FROM       emp e, dept d
  3    WHERE      e.deptno(+) = d.deptno
  4    ORDER BY   e.deptno;


ENAME         DEPTNO DNAME
---------- --------- -------------
KING              10 ACCOUNTING
CLARK             10 ACCOUNTING
...
                  40 OPERATIONS
15 rows selected.




                        Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Self Joins
EMP (WORKER)                    EMP (MANAGER)
EMPNO   ENAME     MGR            EMPNO ENAME
-----   ------   ----            ----- --------
 7839   KING
 7698   BLAKE    7839              7839   KING
 7782   CLARK    7839              7839   KING
 7566   JONES    7839              7839   KING
 7654   MARTIN   7698              7698   BLAKE
 7499   ALLEN    7698              7698   BLAKE




 “MGR in the WORKER table is equal to EMPNO in the
                MANAGER table”


                  Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Joining a Table to Itself
SQL> SELECT worker.ename||' works for '||manager.ename
  2 FROM    emp worker, emp manager
  3 WHERE worker.mgr = manager.empno;


WORKER.ENAME||'WORKSFOR'||MANAG
-------------------------------
BLAKE works for KING
CLARK works for KING
JONES works for KING
MARTIN works for BLAKE
...
13 rows selected.




                     Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
What Is a View?
          EMP Table
          EMPNO ENAME
          EMPNOENAME      JOB
                        JOB            MGR HIREDATE
                                  MGR HIREDATE   SAL       SAL COMM
                                                        COMM DEPTNO     DEPTNO
          ------------- --------- --------- -------------- -------
          ----- ------- --------- --------- ------ ----- -----          -------
           7839 KING
          7839 KING       PRESIDENT
                        PRESIDENT           17-NOV-81
                                      17-NOV-81  5000    5000    10         10
           7698 BLAKE
          7782 CLARK      MANAGER7839 09-JUN-81
                        MANAGER       7839 01-MAY-81
                                                1500     2850
                                                        300      10         30
           7782 CLARK
          7934 MILLER     MANAGER7782 23-JAN-82
                        CLERK         7839 09-JUN-81
                                                1300     2450    10         10
           7566 JONES
          7566 JONES      MANAGER7839 02-APR-81
                        MANAGER       7839 02-APR-81
                                                2975     2975    20         20
  EMPVU10 View ANALYST 7566 09-DEC-82 3000 1250
        7654 MARTIN SALESMAN
       7788 SCOTT                7698 28-SEP-81                 1400
                                                                 20         30
        7499 ALLEN CLERK
       7876 ADAMS    SALESMAN    7698 20-FEB-81 1600
                            7788 12-JAN-83 1100                  300
                                                                 20         30
 EMPNO 7844 TURNER SALESMAN 17-DEC-80 800
         ENAME            JOB 7698 08-SEP-81
------ 7369 SMITH CLERK ----------- 1500
         --------           7902                                 20 0       30
        7900 JAMES ANALYST
       7902 FORD     CLERK 7566 03-DEC-81
                                 7698 03-DEC-81
                                           3000    950           20         30
  7839 7698 BLAKE MANAGERPRESIDENT 2850 1250
         KING
        7521 WARD    SALESMAN    7698 22-FEB-81
                            7839 01-MAY-81                       500
                                                                 30         30
  7782 7654 MARTIN SALESMAN 7698 28-SEP-81 1250 1400
         CLARK ANALYST 7566 03-DEC-81 3000
        7902 FORD         MANAGER                                30         20

  7934 7499 ALLEN SALESMAN 7698 20-FEB-81 1600 300
         MILLER CLERK
        7369 SMITH
                          CLERK 17-DEC-80 800
                                 7902                            30         20
           7788 SCOTT
          7844 TURNER     ANALYST     7566 09-DEC-82
                        SALESMAN 7698 08-SEP-81 1500     3000
                                                          0      30         20
           7876 ADAMS
          7900 JAMES      CLERK
                        CLERK          7788 12-JAN-83
                                  7698 03-DEC-81  950    1100    30         20
           7934 MILLER SALESMAN
          7521 WARD      CLERK         7782 23-JAN-82
                                  7698 22-FEB-81 1250    1300
                                                        500      30         10




                          Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Why Use Views?
– To restrict database access
– To make complex queries easy
– To allow data independence
– To present different views of the same data




                   Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Creating a View
– You embed a subquery within the CREATE VIEW
  statement.
CREATE [OR REPLACE] [FORCE|NOFORCE] VIEW view
  [(alias[, alias]...)]
AS subquery
[WITH CHECK OPTION [CONSTRAINT constraint]]
[WITH READ ONLY]

– The subquery can contain complex SELECT syntax.
– The subquery cannot contain an ORDER BY clause.




                    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Creating a View
– Create a view, EMPVU10, that contains details of
  employees in department 10.
SQL>   CREATE VIEW   empvu10
  2    AS SELECT     empno, ename, job
  3    FROM          emp
  4    WHERE         deptno = 10;
View   created.




SQL> DESCRIBE empvu10


                     Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Creating a View
– Create a view by using column aliases in the
  subquery.
SQL>   CREATE VIEW    salvu30
  2    AS SELECT      empno EMPLOYEE_NUMBER, ename NAME,
  3                   sal SALARY
  4    FROM           emp
  5    WHERE          deptno = 30;
View   created.

– Select the columns from this view by the given
  alias names.


                      Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Retrieving Data from a View
SQL>   SELECT *
  2    FROM   salvu30;

EMPLOYEE_NUMBER   NAME          SALARY
---------------   ---------- ---------
           7698   BLAKE           2850
           7654   MARTIN          1250
           7499   ALLEN           1600
           7844   TURNER          1500
           7900   JAMES            950
           7521   WARD            1250

6 rows selected.




                      Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Removing a View
• Remove a view without losing data because a
  view is based on underlying tables in the
  database.
  DROP VIEW view;



  SQL> DROP VIEW empvu10;
  View dropped.




                      Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Testing a Form: Starting OC4J
– On NT, run batch file to start
  OC4J: startinst.bat.
– OC4J starts in DOS window:
   • Minimize window
   • Closing window aborts OC4J
– Run batch file to stop OC4J: stopinst.bat.
– Start menu: Programs > Oracle Developer Suite –
  iDS10g > Forms Developer > Start [Shutdown] OC4J
  Instance.




                    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Running a Form

Oracle Forms Services deployment:

      Browser URL
        Java Applet




                      Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Running a Form: Browser
How do I
access this application?
                             http://summit.com:8889/forms90/f90servlet?form=customers.fmx&userid=




http://summit.com:8889/forms90/f90servlet
?form=customers.fmx&userid=username/password@database
&buffer_records=NO&debug_messages=NO&array=YES
&query_only=NO

                           Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Starting a Run-Time Session
           Client Tier                               Middle Tier: Application Server

         1 Web Browser                                             Web Server
                                                           Static HTML files
URLhttp://summit.com:8889/forms90/f90             2        OC4J
                                                           or HTTP Server
                                                               Forms Services
                                                 3         Forms Servlet

                                                           Forms Listener Servlet

                                                           Forms Runtime Engine


                            Forms Application Executables

                        FMX files        MMX files         PLX files            DB

                                        Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Starting a Run-Time Session
           Client Tier                              Middle Tier: Application Server

            Web Browser                                           Web Server
                                                          Static HTML files
URLhttp://summit.com:8889/forms90/f90                     OC4J
                                                4         or HTTP Server
                                                              Forms Services
                                                          Forms Servlet

        Applet started                          5         Forms Listener Servlet      6

                                                          Forms Runtime Engine


                            Forms Application Executables

                        FMX files        MMX files        PLX files            DB

                                        Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Starting a Run-Time Session
           Client Tier                            Middle Tier: Application Server

            Web Browser                                           Web Server
                                                          Static HTML files
URLhttp://summit.com:8889/forms90/f90                     OC4J
                                             7            or HTTP Server
                                                              Forms Services
                                                          Forms Servlet
                                             8
                                                          Forms Listener Servlet    8

                                                          Forms Runtime Engine


                            Forms Application Executables

                        FMX files        MMX files        PLX files            DB

                                        Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
What You See at Run Time

                                   3
1                                      4




5                                      2




            Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Data Block Wizard: Type Page




          Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Data Block Wizard: Table Page




           Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Layout Wizard: Style Page




         Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Layout Wizard: Rows Page




        Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Design Reports
List of Products


Product
Number       Description                  Price




                           Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Reports




Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Supported File Types

– RDF
– REP
– JSP
– HTML
– XML




          Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Reports Builder




    Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Reports Builder Components




         Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
Generating Output




     Mohannad Al-Hanahnah

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SQL- Data Base

  • 1.
  • 2. Course Outlines: 1. Data Base Fundamentals. 2. PL-SQL. 3. Oracle 10g Forms. 4. Oracle 10g Reports. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 3. Basic Definitions • Database: A collection of related data. • Data: Known facts that can be recorded and have an implicit meaning. • Mini-world: Some part of the real world about which data is stored in a database. For example, student grades and transcripts at a university. • Database Management System (DBMS): A software package/ system to facilitate the creation and maintenance of a computerized database. • Database System: The DBMS software together with the data itself. Sometimes, the applications are also included.
  • 4. Types of Databases and Database Applications • Numeric and Textual Databases • Multimedia Databases • Geographic Information Systems (GIS) • Data Warehouses • Real-time and Active Databases Ex: Weather Database, Multimedia DB Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 5. Typical DBMS Functionality • Define a database : in terms of data types, structures and constraints. • Construct or Load the Database on a secondary storage medium. • Manipulating the database : querying, generating reports, insertions, deletions and modifications to its content. • Concurrent Processing and Sharing by a set of users and programs – yet, keeping all data valid and consistent. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 6. Typical DBMS Functionality Other features: – Protection or Security measures to prevent unauthorized access – “Active” processing to take internal actions on data – Presentation and Visualization of data Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 8. Example of a Database • Part of a UNIVERSITY environment. • Entities (Tables): – STUDENTs – COURSEs – SECTIONs (of COURSEs) – (academic) DEPARTMENTs – INSTRUCTORs Note: The above could be expressed in the ENTITY- RELATIONSHIP data model. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 9. • Some relationships: – SECTIONs are of specific COURSEs – STUDENTs take SECTIONs – COURSEs have prerequisite COURSEs – INSTRUCTORs teach SECTIONs – COURSEs are offered by DEPARTMENTs – STUDENTs major in DEPARTMENTs Note: The above could be expressed in the ENTITY- RELATIONSHIP data model. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 10. Main Characteristics of the Database Approach • Data Abstraction: A data model is used to hide storage details and present the users with a conceptual view of the database. • Support of multiple views of the data: Each user may see a different view of the database, which describes only the data of interest to that user. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 11. • Sharing of data and multiuser transaction processing : allowing a set of concurrent users to retrieve and to update the database. Concurrency control within the DBMS guarantees that each transaction is correctly executed or completely aborted. OLTP (Online Transaction Processing) is a major part of database applications. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 12. Database Users Users may be divided into those who actually use and control the content (called “Actors on the Scene”) and those who enable the database to be developed and the DBMS software to be designed and implemented (called “Workers Behind the Scene”). Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 13. Database Users Types: – Database administrators: responsible for authorizing access to the database, for co-ordinating and monitoring its use, acquiring software, and hardware resources, controlling its use and monitoring efficiency of operations. – Database Designers: responsible to define the content, the structure, the constraints, and functions or transactions against the database. They must communicate with the end-users and understand their needs. – End-users: they use the data for queries, reports and some of them actually update the database content. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 14. Categories of End-users • Casual : access database occasionally when needed • Parametric : they make up a large section of the end-user population. They use previously well- defined functions in the form of “canned transactions” against the database. Examples are bank-tellers or reservation clerks who do this activity for an entire shift of operations. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 15. • Sophisticated : these include business analysts, scientists, engineers, others thoroughly familiar with the system capabilities. Many use tools in the form of software packages that work closely with the stored database. • Stand-alone : mostly maintain personal databases using ready-to-use packaged applications. An example is a tax program user that creates his or her own internal database. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 16. Advantages of Using the Database Approach • Controlling redundancy in data storage and in development and maintenance efforts. • Sharing of data among multiple users. • Restricting unauthorized access to data. • Providing persistent storage for program Objects. • Providing Storage Structures for efficient Query Processing. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 17. • Providing backup and recovery services. • Representing complex relationships among data. • Enforcing integrity constraints on the database. • Flexibility to change data structures: database structure may evolve as new requirements are defined. • Availability of up-to-date information – very important for on-line transaction systems such as airline, hotel, car reservations. • Economies of scale: by consolidating data and applications across departments wasteful overlap of resources and personnel can be avoided. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 18. Historical Development of Database Technology • Early Database Applications: The Hierarchical and Network Models were introduced in mid 1960’s and dominated during the seventies. A bulk of the worldwide database processing still occurs using these models. • Relational Model based Systems: The model that was originally introduced in 1970 was heavily researched and experimented with in IBM and the universities. Relational DBMS Products emerged in the 1980’s. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 19. Data on the Web and E-commerce Applications: Web contains data in HTML (Hypertext markup language) with links among pages. This has given rise to a new set of applications and E-commerce is using new standards like XML (eXtended Markup Language). Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 20. Extending Database Capabilities • New functionality is being added to DBMSs in the following areas: – Scientific Applications – Image – Audio and Video Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 21. Data Models • Data Model: A set of concepts to describe the structure of a database, and certain constraints that the database should obey. • Data Model Operations: Operations for specifying database retrievals and updates by referring to the concepts of the data model. Operations on the data model may include basic operations and user-defined operations. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 22. Categories of data models • Conceptual (high-level, semantic) data models: Provide concepts that are close to the way many users perceive data. (Also called entity-based or object-based data models.) • Physical (low-level, internal) data models: Provide concepts that describe details of how data is stored in the computer. • Implementation (representational) data models: Provide concepts that fall between the above two, balancing user views with some computer storage details. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 23. •Database Schema: The description of a database. Includes descriptions of the database structure and the constraints that should hold on the database. •Schema Diagram: A diagrammatic display of (some aspects of) a database schema. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 24. Three-Schema Architecture • Defines DBMS schemas at three levels: • Internal schema at the internal level to describe physical storage structures and access paths. Typically uses a physical data model. • Conceptual schema at the conceptual level to describe the structure and constraints for the whole database for a community of users. Uses a conceptual or an implementation data model. • External schemas at the external level to describe the various user views. Usually uses the same data model as the conceptual level. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 25. DBMS Languages • Data Definition Language (DDL): Used by the DBA and database designers to specify the conceptual schema of a database. In many DBMSs, the DDL is also used to define internal and external schemas (views). In some DBMSs, separate storage definition language (SDL) and view definition language (VDL) are used to define internal and external schemas. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 26. • Data Manipulation Language (DML): Used to specify database retrievals and updates. • High Level or Non-procedural Languages: e.g., SQL, are set-oriented and specify what data to retrieve than how to retrieve. Also called declarative languages. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 27. DEFINITION SUMMARY Informal Terms Formal Terms Table Relation Column Attribute/Domain Row Tuple Values in a column Domain Table Definition Schema of a Relation Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 28. Relational Keys • Primary Key – Candidate key selected to identify records uniquely within table. • Alternate Keys – Candidate keys that are not selected to be primary key. • Foreign Key – Column, or set of columns, within one table that matches candidate key (primary key) of some (possibly same) table. • Secondary key – Key used strictly for data retrieval purposes. – Does not necessarily yield a unique number. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 31. Example COMPANY Database • The company is organized into DEPARTMENTs. Each department has a name, number and an employee who manages the department. We keep track of the start date of the department manager. • Each department controls a number of PROJECTs. Each project has a name, number and is located at a single location. • We store each EMPLOYEE’s social security number, address, salary, sex, and birthdate. Each employee works for one department but may work on several projects. We keep track of the number of hours per week that an employee currently works on each project. We also keep track of the direct supervisor of each employee. • Each employee may have a number of DEPENDENTs. For each dependent, we keep track of their name, sex, birthdate, and relationship to employee. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 33. ER DIAGRAM FOR THE COMPANY DATABASE Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 35. SQL • Main language for relational DBMSs. • Main characteristics: – relatively easy to learn; – non-procedural - you specify what information you require, rather than how to get it. – Easy to learn, consists of standard English words like SELECT, INSERT, and UPDATE. • SQL is a transform-oriented language with 2 major components: – a DDL for defining database structure; – a DML for retrieving and updating data. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 36. Objectives of SQL • Ideally database language should let user: – create database and table structures. – perform basic tasks like insert, update, delete; – perform both simple and complex queries. • Must perform these tasks with minimal user effort. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 37. SELECT Data retrieval INSERT UPDATE Data Manipulation Language (DML) DELETE CREATE ALTER DROP RENAME Data Definition Language (DDL) TRUNCATE COMMIT ROLLBACK Transaction control SAVEPOINT GRANT Data Control Language (DCL) REVOKE Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 38. Writing SQL Commands • SQL statement consists of reserved words and user-defined words. • Most components of an SQL statement are case insensitive, except for literal character data. • All non-numeric literals must be enclosed in single quotes (eg. ‘London’). • All numeric literals must not be enclosed in quotes (eg. 650.00). • SQL statements are not case sensitive. • SQL statements can be on one or more lines. • Keywords cannot be abbreviated or split across lines. • Clauses are usually placed on separate lines. • Tabs and indents are used to enhance readability. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 39. Logging In to SQL*Plus – From Windows environment: Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 40. Naming Conventions • Must begin with a letter • Can be 1–30 characters long • Must contain only A–Z, a–z, 0–9, _, $, and # • Must not duplicate the name of another object owned by the same user • Must not be an Oracle Server reserved word Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 41. CREATE Command – You must have : • CREATE TABLE privilege • A storage area CREATE TABLE tableName (columnName1 columnType(size), . . columnNamen columnType(size)) – You specify: • Table name • Column name, column datatype, and column size Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 42. Creating Tables SQL> CREATE TABLE dept 2 (deptno NUMBER(2), 3 dname VARCHAR2(14), 4 loc VARCHAR2(13)); Table created. SQL> DESCRIBE dept Name Null? Type --------------------------- -------- --------- DEPTNO NUMBER(2) DNAME VARCHAR2(14) LOC VARCHAR2(13) Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 43. Datatypes Datatype Description VARCHAR2(size) Variable-length character data CHAR(size) Fixed-length character data NUMBER(p,s) Variable-length numeric data DATE Date and time values LONG Variable-length character data up to 2 gigabytes CLOB Single-byte character data up to 4 gigabytes RAW and LONG RAW Raw binary data BLOB Binary data up to 4 gigabytes BFILE Binary data stored in an external file; up to 4 gigabytes Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 44. Dropping a Table – All data and structure in the table is deleted. – Any pending transactions are committed. – All indexes are dropped. – You cannot roll back this statement. SQL> DROP TABLE dept30; Table dropped. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 45. Renaming a Table SQL> RENAME dept2 TO deptartment Table renamed. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 46. Alter a Table ALTER TABLE table ADD (column datatype [DEFAULT expr] [, column datatype]...); SQL> ALTER TABLE dept30 2 ADD (job VARCHAR2(9)); Table altered. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 47. SQL> ALTER TABLE dept2 2 MODIFY ( dname VARCHAR2(20) ); Table altered . For changing the column size SQL> ALTER TABLE dept2 2 DROP COLUMN REGION ; Table altered . For deleting column Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 48. What Are Constraints? – Constraints enforce rules at the table level. – Constraints prevent the deletion of a table if there are dependencies. – The following constraint types are valid in Oracle: • NOT NULL • UNIQUE • PRIMARY KEY • FOREIGN KEY • CHECK Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 49. Defining Constraints CREATE TABLE [schema.]table (column datatype [DEFAULT expr] [column_constraint], ... [table_constraint][,...]); CREATE TABLE emp( empno NUMBER(4), ename VARCHAR2(10), ... deptno NUMBER(7,2) NOT NULL, CONSTRAINT emp_empno_pk PRIMARY KEY (EMPNO)); Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 50. Defining Constraints – Column constraint level column [CONSTRAINT constraint_name] constraint_type, – Table constraint level column,... [CONSTRAINT constraint_name] constraint_type (column, ...), Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 51. The NOT NULL Constraint • Ensures that null values are not permitted for the column • Defined only at the column level SQL> CREATE TABLE emp( 2 empno NUMBER(4), 3 ename VARCHAR2(10) NOT NULL, 4 job VARCHAR2(9), 5 mgr NUMBER(4), 6 hiredate DATE, 7 sal NUMBER(7,2), 8 comm NUMBER(7,2), 9 deptno NUMBER(7,2) NOT NULL); Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 52. The UNIQUE Key Constraint UNIQUE key constraint DEPT DEPTNO DNAME LOC ------ ---------- -------- 10 ACCOUNTING NEW YORK 20 RESEARCH DALLAS 30 SALES CHICAGO 40 OPERATIONS BOSTON • Defined at either the table level or the column level SQL> CREATE TABLE dept( 2 deptno NUMBER(2), 3 dname VARCHAR2(14), 4 loc VARCHAR2(13), 5 CONSTRAINT dept_dname_uk UNIQUE(dname)); Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 53. The PRIMARY KEY Constraint • Entity integrity supported by PRIMARY KEY clause. • Defined at either the table level or the column level SQL> CREATE TABLE dept( 2 deptno NUMBER(2), 3 dname VARCHAR2(14), 4 loc VARCHAR2(13), 5 CONSTRAINT dept_dname_uk UNIQUE (dname), 6 CONSTRAINT dept_deptno_pk PRIMARY KEY(deptno)); Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 54. FOREIGN KEY & Referential Integrity • Use FOREIGN KEY clause to define any foreign keys in the table. • SQL rejects any INSERT or UPDATE that attempts to create a FK value in child table without matching PK value in parent table. • The action SQL takes for any UPDATE or DELETE that attempts to update or delete a PK value in the parent table with some matching rows in child table is dependent upon specified referential action. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 55. The FOREIGN KEY Constraint DEPT PRIMARY DEPTNO DNAME LOC KEY ------ ---------- -------- 10 ACCOUNTING NEW YORK 20 RESEARCH DALLAS ... EMP EMPNO ENAME JOB ... COMM DEPTNO FOREIGN KEY 7839 KING PRESIDENT 10 7698 BLAKE MANAGER 30 ... Not allowed (DEPTNO 9 does Insert into not exist in the DEPT table) 7571 FORD MANAGER ... 200 9 7571 FORD MANAGER ... 200 20 Allowed Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 56. The FOREIGN KEY Constraint • Defined at either the table level or the column level SQL> CREATE TABLE emp( 2 empno NUMBER(4), 3 ename VARCHAR2(10) NOT NULL, 4 job VARCHAR2(9), 5 mgr NUMBER(4), 6 hiredate DATE, 7 sal NUMBER(7,2), 8 comm NUMBER(7,2), 9 deptno NUMBER(7,2) NOT NULL, 10 CONSTRAINT emp_deptno_fk FOREIGN KEY (deptno) 11 REFERENCES dept (deptno)); Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 57. Data Manipulation Language – A DML statement is executed when you: • Add new rows to a table • Modify existing rows in a table • Remove existing rows from a table Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 58. Adding a New Row to a Table 50 DEVELOPMENT DETROIT New row “…insert a new row DEPT into DEPT table…” DEPTNO DNAME LOC ------ ---------- -------- 10 ACCOUNTING NEW YORK 20 RESEARCH DALLAS DEPT 30 SALES CHICAGO DEPTNO DNAME LOC 40 OPERATIONS BOSTON ------ ---------- -------- 10 ACCOUNTING NEW YORK 20 RESEARCH DALLAS 30 SALES CHICAGO 40 OPERATIONS BOSTON 50 DEVELOPMENT DETROIT Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 59. The INSERT Statement – Add new rows to a table by using the INSERT statement. INSERT INTO table [(column [, column...])] VALUES (value [, value...]); – Only one row is inserted at a time with this syntax. SQL> INSERT INTO dept (deptno, dname, loc) 2 VALUES (50, 'DEVELOPMENT', 'DETROIT'); 1 row created. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 60. Changing Data in a Table EMP EMPNO ENAME JOB ... DEPTNO “…update a row 7839 KING PRESIDENT 10 7698 BLAKE MANAGER 30 in EMP table…” 7782 CLARK MANAGER 10 7566 JONES MANAGER 20 ... EMP EMPNO ENAME JOB ... DEPTNO 7839 KING PRESIDENT 10 7698 BLAKE MANAGER 30 7782 CLARK MANAGER 20 10 7566 JONES MANAGER 20 ... Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 61. The UPDATE Statement – Modify existing rows with the UPDATE statement. UPDATE table SET column = value [, column = value, ...] [WHERE condition]; – Update more than one row at a time, if required. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 62. Updating Rows in a Table – Specific row or rows are modified when you specify the WHERE clause. SQL> UPDATE emp 2 SET deptno = 20 3 WHERE empno = 7782; 1 row updated. – All rows in the table are modified if you omit the WHERE clause. SQL> UPDATE employee 2 SET deptno = 20; 14 rows updated. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 63. Updating Rows: Integrity Constraint Error SQL> UPDATE emp 2 SET deptno = 55 3 WHERE deptno = 10; UPDATE emp * ERROR at line 1: ORA-02291: integrity constraint (USR.EMP_DEPTNO_FK) violated - parent key not found Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 64. Removing a Row from a Table DEPT DEPTNO DNAME LOC ------ ---------- -------- 10 ACCOUNTING NEW YORK 20 RESEARCH DALLAS “…delete a row 30 SALES CHICAGO 40 OPERATIONS BOSTON from DEPT table…” 50 DEVELOPMENT DETROIT 60 MIS DEPT ... DEPTNO DNAME LOC ------ ---------- -------- 10 ACCOUNTING NEW YORK 20 RESEARCH DALLAS 30 SALES CHICAGO 40 OPERATIONS BOSTON 60 MIS ... Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 65. The DELETE Statement • You can remove existing rows from a table by using the DELETE statement. DELETE [FROM] table [WHERE condition]; – Specific rows are deleted when you specify the WHERE clause. SQL> DELETE FROM department 2 WHERE dname = 'DEVELOPMENT'; 1 row deleted. – All rows in the table are deleted if you omit the WHERE clause SQL> DELETE FROM department; 4 rows deleted. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 66. Deleting Rows: Integrity Constraint Error SQL> DELETE FROM dept 2 WHERE deptno = 10; DELETE FROM dept * ERROR at line 1: ORA-02292: integrity constraint (USR.EMP_DEPTNO_FK) violated - child record found Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 67. Basic SELECT Statement – SELECT identifies what columns. – FROM identifies which table. SELECT [DISTINCT] {*, column [alias],...} FROM table; SQL> SELECT * 2 FROM dept; DEPTNO DNAME LOC --------- -------------- ------------- 10 ACCOUNTING NEW YORK 20 RESEARCH DALLAS 30 SALES CHICAGO 40 OPERATIONS Mohannad Al-Hanahnah BOSTON
  • 68. Selecting Specific Columns SQL> SELECT deptno, loc 2 FROM dept; DEPTNO LOC --------- ------------- 10 NEW YORK 20 DALLAS 30 CHICAGO 40 BOSTON SQL> select ename, 12*sal+comm 2 from emp 3 WHERE ename='KING'; ENAME 12*SAL+COMM ---------- ----------- KING Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 69. Using Column Aliases SQL> SELECT ename AS name, sal salary 2 FROM emp; NAME SALARY ------------- --------- ... SQL> SELECT ename "Name", 2 sal*12 "Annual Salary" 3 FROM emp; Name Annual Salary ------------- ------------- ... Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 70. Duplicate Rows • The default display of queries is all rows, including duplicate rows. SQL> SELECT deptno 2 FROM emp; DEPTNO --------- 10 30 10 20 ... 14 rows selected. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 71. Eliminating Duplicate Rows Eliminate duplicate rows by using the DISTINCT keyword in the SELECT clause. SQL> SELECT DISTINCT deptno 2 FROM emp; DEPTNO --------- 10 20 30 Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 72. Limiting Rows Selected – Restrict the rows returned by using the WHERE clause. SELECT [DISTINCT] {*| column [alias], ...} FROM table [WHERE condition(s)]; – The WHERE clause follows the FROM clause. SQL> SELECT ename, job, deptno 2 FROM emp 3 WHERE job='CLERK'; ENAME JOB DEPTNO ---------- --------- --------- JAMES CLERK 30 SMITH CLERK 20 ADAMS CLERK 20 Mohannad Al-Hanahnah MILLER CLERK 10
  • 73. Comparison Operators Operator Meaning = Equal to > Greater than >= Greater than or equal to < Less than <= Less than or equal to <> Not equal to SQL> SELECT ename, sal, comm 2 FROM emp 3 WHERE sal<=comm; ENAME SAL COMM ---------- --------- --------- MARTIN 1250 Mohannad Al-Hanahnah 1400
  • 74. Other Comparison Operators Operator Meaning BETWEEN Between two values (inclusive) ...AND... IN(list) Match any of a list of values LIKE Match a character pattern IS NULL Is a null value SQL> SELECT empno, ename, sal, mgr 2 FROM emp 3 WHERE mgr IN (7902, 7566, 7788); EMPNO ENAME SAL MGR --------- ---------- --------- --------- 7902 FORD 3000 7566 7369 SMITH 800 7902 7788 SCOTT 3000 7566 Mohannad Al-Hanahnah 7876 ADAMS 1100 7788
  • 75. Using the BETWEEN Operator SQL> SELECT ename, sal 2 FROM emp 3 WHERE sal BETWEEN 1000 AND 1500; ENAME SAL ---------- --------- MARTIN 1250 Lower Higher TURNER 1500 limit limit WARD 1250 ADAMS 1100 MILLER 1300 Using the IS NULL Operator SQL> SELECT ename, mgr 2 FROM emp 3 WHERE mgr IS NULL; ENAME MGR ---------- --------- KING Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 76. Using the LIKE Operator SQL> SELECT ename 2 FROM emp 3 WHERE ename LIKE '_A%'; ENAME ---------- MARTIN JAMES WARD SQL> SELECT ename 2 FROM emp 3 WHERE ename LIKE 'S%'; Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 77. Logical Operators Operator Meaning AND Returns TRUE if both component conditions are TRUE OR Returns TRUE if either component condition is TRUE NOT Returns TRUE if the following condition is FALSE SQL> SELECT empno, ename, job, sal 2 FROM emp 3 WHERE sal>=1100 4 AND job='CLERK'; EMPNO ENAME JOB SAL --------- ---------- --------- --------- 7876 ADAMS CLERK 1100 7934 MILLER CLERK Mohannad Al-Hanahnah 1300
  • 78. Using the OR Operator SQL> SELECT empno, ename, job, sal 2 FROM emp 3 WHERE sal>=1100 4 OR job='CLERK'; EMPNO ENAME JOB SAL --------- ---------- --------- --------- 7839 KING PRESIDENT 5000 7698 BLAKE MANAGER 2850 7782 CLARK MANAGER 2450 7566 JONES MANAGER 2975 7654 MARTIN SALESMAN 1250 ... 7900 JAMES CLERK 950 ... 14 rows selected. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 79. Using the NOT Operator SQL> SELECT ename, job 2 FROM emp 3 WHERE job NOT IN ('CLERK','MANAGER','ANALYST'); ENAME JOB ---------- --------- KING PRESIDENT MARTIN SALESMAN ALLEN SALESMAN TURNER SALESMAN WARD SALESMAN Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 80. ORDER BY Clause – Sort rows with the ORDER BY clause • ASC: ascending order, default • DESC: descending order – The ORDER BY clause comes last in the SELECT statement. SQL> SELECT ename, job, deptno, hiredate 2 FROM emp 3 ORDER BY hiredate; ENAME JOB DEPTNO HIREDATE ---------- --------- --------- --------- SMITH CLERK 20 17-DEC-80 ALLEN SALESMAN 30 20-FEB-81 ... 14 rows selected. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 81. ORDER BY Clause – Sort rows with the ORDER BY clause • ASC: ascending order, default • DESC: descending order – The ORDER BY clause comes last in the SELECT statement. SQL> SELECT ename, job, deptno, hiredate 2 FROM emp 3 ORDER BY hiredate; ENAME JOB DEPTNO HIREDATE ---------- --------- --------- --------- SMITH CLERK 20 17-DEC-80 ALLEN SALESMAN 30 20-FEB-81 ... 14 rows selected. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 82. Sorting in Descending Order SQL> SELECT ename, job, deptno, hiredate 2 FROM emp 3 ORDER BY hiredate DESC; ENAME JOB DEPTNO HIREDATE ---------- --------- --------- --------- ADAMS CLERK 20 12-JAN-83 SCOTT ANALYST 20 09-DEC-82 MILLER CLERK 10 23-JAN-82 JAMES CLERK 30 03-DEC-81 FORD ANALYST 20 03-DEC-81 KING PRESIDENT 10 17-NOV-81 MARTIN SALESMAN 30 28-SEP-81 ... 14 rows selected. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 83. Obtaining Data from Multiple Tables EMP DEPT EMPNO ENAME ... DEPTNO DEPTNO DNAME LOC ------ ----- ... ------ ------ ---------- -------- 7839 KING ... 10 10 ACCOUNTING NEW YORK 7698 BLAKE ... 30 20 RESEARCH DALLAS ... 30 SALES CHICAGO 7934 MILLER ... 10 40 OPERATIONS BOSTON EMPNO DEPTNO LOC ----- ------- -------- 7839 10 NEW YORK 7698 30 CHICAGO 7782 10 NEW YORK 7566 20 DALLAS 7654 30 CHICAGO 7499 30 CHICAGO ... 14 rows selected. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 84. What Is a Join? • Use a join to query data from more than one table. SELECT table1.column, table2.column FROM table1, table2 WHERE table1.column1 = table2.column2; – Write the join condition in the WHERE clause. – Prefix the column name with the table name when the same column name appears in more than one table. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 85. Types of Join? 1. Equijoin. ‫الربط بالتساوي‬ 2. Non-Equijoin. ‫الربط بعدم التساوي‬ 3. Outer Join. ‫الربط الخارجي‬ 4. Self Join. ‫الربط الداخلي في نفس الجدول‬ We can do join through SELECT statement and using WHERE. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 86. What Is an Equijoin? EMP DEPT EMPNO ENAME DEPTNO DEPTNO DNAME LOC ------ ------- ------- ------- ---------- -------- 7839 KING 10 10 ACCOUNTING NEW YORK 7698 BLAKE 30 30 SALES CHICAGO 7782 CLARK 10 10 ACCOUNTING NEW YORK 7566 JONES 20 20 RESEARCH DALLAS 7654 MARTIN 30 30 SALES CHICAGO 7499 ALLEN 30 30 SALES CHICAGO 7844 TURNER 30 30 SALES CHICAGO 7900 JAMES 30 30 SALES CHICAGO 7521 WARD 30 30 SALES CHICAGO 7902 FORD 20 20 RESEARCH DALLAS 7369 SMITH 20 20 RESEARCH DALLAS ... ... 14 rows selected. 14 rows selected. Foreign key Primary key Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 87. Retrieving Records with Equijoins SQL> SELECT emp.empno, emp.ename, emp.deptno, 2 dept.deptno, dept.loc 3 FROM emp, dept 4 WHERE emp.deptno=dept.deptno; EMPNO ENAME DEPTNO DEPTNO LOC ----- ------ ------ ------ --------- 7839 KING 10 10 NEW YORK 7698 BLAKE 30 30 CHICAGO 7782 CLARK 10 10 NEW YORK 7566 JONES 20 20 DALLAS ... 14 rows selected. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 88. Using Table Aliases • Simplify queries by using table aliases. SQL> SELECT emp.empno, emp.ename, emp.deptno, 2 dept.deptno, dept.loc 3 FROM emp, dept 4 WHERE emp.deptno=dept.deptno; SQL> SELECT e.empno, e.ename, e.deptno, 2 d.deptno, d.loc 3 FROM emp e, dept d 4 WHERE e.deptno=d.deptno; Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 89. Non-Equijoins EMP SALGRADE EMPNO ENAME SAL GRADE LOSAL HISAL ------ ------- ------ ----- ----- ------ 7839 KING 5000 1 700 1200 7698 BLAKE 2850 2 1201 1400 7782 CLARK 2450 3 1401 2000 7566 JONES 2975 4 2001 3000 7654 MARTIN 1250 5 3001 9999 7499 ALLEN 1600 7844 TURNER 1500 7900 JAMES 950 ... “salary in the EMP 14 rows selected. table is between low salary and high salary in the SALGRADE table” Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 90. Retrieving Records with Non-Equijoins SQL> SELECT e.ename, e.sal, s.grade 2 FROM emp e, salgrade s 3 WHERE e.sal 4 BETWEEN s.losal AND s.hisal; ENAME SAL GRADE ---------- --------- --------- JAMES 950 1 SMITH 800 1 ADAMS 1100 1 ... 14 rows selected. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 91. Outer Joins EMP DEPT ENAME DEPTNO DEPTNO DNAME ----- ------ ------ ---------- KING 10 10 ACCOUNTING BLAKE 30 30 SALES CLARK 10 10 ACCOUNTING JONES 20 20 RESEARCH ... ... 40 OPERATIONS No employee in the OPERATIONS department Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 92. Outer Joins – You use an outer join to also see rows that do not usually meet the join condition. – Outer join operator is the plus sign (+). SELECT table1.column, table2.column FROM table1, table2 WHERE table1.column(+) = table2.column; SELECT table1.column, table2.column FROM table1, table2 WHERE table1.column = table2.column(+); Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 93. Using Outer Joins SQL> SELECT e.ename, d.deptno, d.dname 2 FROM emp e, dept d 3 WHERE e.deptno(+) = d.deptno 4 ORDER BY e.deptno; ENAME DEPTNO DNAME ---------- --------- ------------- KING 10 ACCOUNTING CLARK 10 ACCOUNTING ... 40 OPERATIONS 15 rows selected. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 94. Self Joins EMP (WORKER) EMP (MANAGER) EMPNO ENAME MGR EMPNO ENAME ----- ------ ---- ----- -------- 7839 KING 7698 BLAKE 7839 7839 KING 7782 CLARK 7839 7839 KING 7566 JONES 7839 7839 KING 7654 MARTIN 7698 7698 BLAKE 7499 ALLEN 7698 7698 BLAKE “MGR in the WORKER table is equal to EMPNO in the MANAGER table” Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 95. Joining a Table to Itself SQL> SELECT worker.ename||' works for '||manager.ename 2 FROM emp worker, emp manager 3 WHERE worker.mgr = manager.empno; WORKER.ENAME||'WORKSFOR'||MANAG ------------------------------- BLAKE works for KING CLARK works for KING JONES works for KING MARTIN works for BLAKE ... 13 rows selected. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 96. What Is a View? EMP Table EMPNO ENAME EMPNOENAME JOB JOB MGR HIREDATE MGR HIREDATE SAL SAL COMM COMM DEPTNO DEPTNO ------------- --------- --------- -------------- ------- ----- ------- --------- --------- ------ ----- ----- ------- 7839 KING 7839 KING PRESIDENT PRESIDENT 17-NOV-81 17-NOV-81 5000 5000 10 10 7698 BLAKE 7782 CLARK MANAGER7839 09-JUN-81 MANAGER 7839 01-MAY-81 1500 2850 300 10 30 7782 CLARK 7934 MILLER MANAGER7782 23-JAN-82 CLERK 7839 09-JUN-81 1300 2450 10 10 7566 JONES 7566 JONES MANAGER7839 02-APR-81 MANAGER 7839 02-APR-81 2975 2975 20 20 EMPVU10 View ANALYST 7566 09-DEC-82 3000 1250 7654 MARTIN SALESMAN 7788 SCOTT 7698 28-SEP-81 1400 20 30 7499 ALLEN CLERK 7876 ADAMS SALESMAN 7698 20-FEB-81 1600 7788 12-JAN-83 1100 300 20 30 EMPNO 7844 TURNER SALESMAN 17-DEC-80 800 ENAME JOB 7698 08-SEP-81 ------ 7369 SMITH CLERK ----------- 1500 -------- 7902 20 0 30 7900 JAMES ANALYST 7902 FORD CLERK 7566 03-DEC-81 7698 03-DEC-81 3000 950 20 30 7839 7698 BLAKE MANAGERPRESIDENT 2850 1250 KING 7521 WARD SALESMAN 7698 22-FEB-81 7839 01-MAY-81 500 30 30 7782 7654 MARTIN SALESMAN 7698 28-SEP-81 1250 1400 CLARK ANALYST 7566 03-DEC-81 3000 7902 FORD MANAGER 30 20 7934 7499 ALLEN SALESMAN 7698 20-FEB-81 1600 300 MILLER CLERK 7369 SMITH CLERK 17-DEC-80 800 7902 30 20 7788 SCOTT 7844 TURNER ANALYST 7566 09-DEC-82 SALESMAN 7698 08-SEP-81 1500 3000 0 30 20 7876 ADAMS 7900 JAMES CLERK CLERK 7788 12-JAN-83 7698 03-DEC-81 950 1100 30 20 7934 MILLER SALESMAN 7521 WARD CLERK 7782 23-JAN-82 7698 22-FEB-81 1250 1300 500 30 10 Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 97. Why Use Views? – To restrict database access – To make complex queries easy – To allow data independence – To present different views of the same data Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 98. Creating a View – You embed a subquery within the CREATE VIEW statement. CREATE [OR REPLACE] [FORCE|NOFORCE] VIEW view [(alias[, alias]...)] AS subquery [WITH CHECK OPTION [CONSTRAINT constraint]] [WITH READ ONLY] – The subquery can contain complex SELECT syntax. – The subquery cannot contain an ORDER BY clause. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 99. Creating a View – Create a view, EMPVU10, that contains details of employees in department 10. SQL> CREATE VIEW empvu10 2 AS SELECT empno, ename, job 3 FROM emp 4 WHERE deptno = 10; View created. SQL> DESCRIBE empvu10 Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 100. Creating a View – Create a view by using column aliases in the subquery. SQL> CREATE VIEW salvu30 2 AS SELECT empno EMPLOYEE_NUMBER, ename NAME, 3 sal SALARY 4 FROM emp 5 WHERE deptno = 30; View created. – Select the columns from this view by the given alias names. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 101. Retrieving Data from a View SQL> SELECT * 2 FROM salvu30; EMPLOYEE_NUMBER NAME SALARY --------------- ---------- --------- 7698 BLAKE 2850 7654 MARTIN 1250 7499 ALLEN 1600 7844 TURNER 1500 7900 JAMES 950 7521 WARD 1250 6 rows selected. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 102. Removing a View • Remove a view without losing data because a view is based on underlying tables in the database. DROP VIEW view; SQL> DROP VIEW empvu10; View dropped. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 104. Testing a Form: Starting OC4J – On NT, run batch file to start OC4J: startinst.bat. – OC4J starts in DOS window: • Minimize window • Closing window aborts OC4J – Run batch file to stop OC4J: stopinst.bat. – Start menu: Programs > Oracle Developer Suite – iDS10g > Forms Developer > Start [Shutdown] OC4J Instance. Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 105. Running a Form Oracle Forms Services deployment: Browser URL Java Applet Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 106. Running a Form: Browser How do I access this application? http://summit.com:8889/forms90/f90servlet?form=customers.fmx&userid= http://summit.com:8889/forms90/f90servlet ?form=customers.fmx&userid=username/password@database &buffer_records=NO&debug_messages=NO&array=YES &query_only=NO Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 107. Starting a Run-Time Session Client Tier Middle Tier: Application Server 1 Web Browser Web Server Static HTML files URLhttp://summit.com:8889/forms90/f90 2 OC4J or HTTP Server Forms Services 3 Forms Servlet Forms Listener Servlet Forms Runtime Engine Forms Application Executables FMX files MMX files PLX files DB Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 108. Starting a Run-Time Session Client Tier Middle Tier: Application Server Web Browser Web Server Static HTML files URLhttp://summit.com:8889/forms90/f90 OC4J 4 or HTTP Server Forms Services Forms Servlet Applet started 5 Forms Listener Servlet 6 Forms Runtime Engine Forms Application Executables FMX files MMX files PLX files DB Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 109. Starting a Run-Time Session Client Tier Middle Tier: Application Server Web Browser Web Server Static HTML files URLhttp://summit.com:8889/forms90/f90 OC4J 7 or HTTP Server Forms Services Forms Servlet 8 Forms Listener Servlet 8 Forms Runtime Engine Forms Application Executables FMX files MMX files PLX files DB Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 110. What You See at Run Time 3 1 4 5 2 Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 111. Data Block Wizard: Type Page Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 112. Data Block Wizard: Table Page Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 113. Layout Wizard: Style Page Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 114. Layout Wizard: Rows Page Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 115. Design Reports List of Products Product Number Description Price Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 117. Supported File Types – RDF – REP – JSP – HTML – XML Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 118. Reports Builder Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 119. Reports Builder Components Mohannad Al-Hanahnah
  • 120. Generating Output Mohannad Al-Hanahnah