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MODULE 8:
Information and Communication Technology for RHIS
SESSION 1:
eHealth, mHealth, and Health Information System
EnterpriseArchitecture
ROUTINE HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEMS
A Curriculum on Basic Concepts and Practice
1
The complete RHIS curriculum is available here:
https://www.measureevaluation.org/our-work/ routine-health-information-systems/rhis-curriculum
Session 1: eHealth, mHealth, and HIS Enterprise
Architecture
Learning Objectives
By the end of this session, participants will be able to:
Explain key eHealth and mHealth concepts
• Define commonly used eHealth and mHealth terms
• Illustrate eHealth and mHealth applications
• Describe limitations and considerations for eHealth and
mHealth
Explain key HIS enterprise architecture (EA) concepts
• Explain the need for the EA approach
• Describe HIS architecture and its ecology
Topics Covered
• eHealth and mHealth
2
eHealth
• eHealth (or e-health) is a relatively recent term for healthcare
practice supported by electronic processes and
communication, dating back to at least 1999.
• World Health Organization definition: eHealth is the cost-
effective and secure use of information and communications
technologies in support of health and health-related fields,
including healthcare services, health surveillance, health
literature, and health education, knowledge and research.
• European Commission: the use of modern information and
communication technologies to meet needs of citizens,
patients, healthcare professionals, healthcare providers, and
policymakers
3
Common Terms in eHealth
• Electronic health record (EHR), or electronic medical
record (EMR): systematized collection of patient and population
health data in a digital format that is electronically-stored
• Clinical decision support system (CDSS): ICT solution designed
to provide health professionals with clinical decision support (CDS)
such as assistance with clinical decision-making tasks
• Telemedicine: physical and psychological diagnosis and
treatments at a distance, including telemonitoring of patient
functions
4
eHealth Interventions
• Delivering health information to health professionals and health
consumers through the Internet and telecommunication
• Using IT and e-commerce to improve public health services―for
example, through the education and training of health workers
• Applying e-commerce and e-business practices in health systems
management (planning, budgeting, accounting, etc.)
5
Why eHealth?
• In many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), health system
challenges relating to weak governance, health workforce
shortages, and geographic and economic barriers to care impede
effective delivery of health services to those in need.
• Information and communication technology (ICT) offers the potential
for addressing some of these challenges with innovative solutions,
especially if offered at scale.
• LMICs account for three-quarters of the rapidly expanding Internet
and mobile cellular subscriptions globally, thus creating
opportunities for innovative and cost-effective health services
through the use of ICT.
6
Application of eHealth in HIS
Data collection
• Use of hand-held devices
• Automated information messaging
• Use of different data management applications such as DHIS 2,
iHRIS, and eLMIS to collect, aggregate, and report routine data.
Data management and storage
• To address requirements of interoperability and integrated sets of
data
• More sophisticated data storage to address complexity and
variability of health data across the health enterprise
• Relational databases are increasingly the norm, as opposed to the
older, flat database formats that limited functionality and scalability,
such as Microsoft Excel workbooks
7
Application of eHealth in HMIS
Data analysis, presentation, and use
• Extraction and triangulation of health data
• Data analysis and synthesis tools to produce routine or ad hoc
reports, identify trends and issues of concerns, and track
progress
• Data dashboards and other data visualization tools can be
customized to include maps (geographic information systems,
or GIS)
Data quality
• Tools for improving data quality include data standardization,
geocoding, data matching, data monitoring, and profiling.
8
Common Terms in mHealth
mHealth or m-Health: includes the use of mobile devices in:
• Collecting aggregate and patient-level health data
• Providing healthcare information to practitioners, researchers, and
patients via Short Message Services (SMS) platforms such as
mHero
• Real-time monitoring of patient vital signs and direct provision of
care
9
mHealth Applications
• Rapid collection/sharing of current data via mobile phones
• Public health and lifestyle messages over mobile phones
• Medication alerts using mobile phones
• E-prescribing for repeat prescriptions via mobile phones
• Telemonitoring to transmit patient results to clinicians
10
mHealth Applications
• Transmission of test results to patients via SMS messages
• Online electronic health records via computer or phone
• Clinical emergency care for accidents, natural disasters
• Patient appointment booking and alerts via wireless e-mail
(continuity of care)
• Efficient workflow via wireless communication
11
Limitations and Considerations
• Lack of knowledge by health professionals concerning
the possible applications of eHealth
• Unknown cost-effectiveness of mHealth/eHealth
initiatives
• Cost of implementing eHealth solutions is perceived to be
high
12
Limitations and Considerations
• ICT infrastructure and particularly Internet access limited
by low connectivity and bandwidth (urban areas are
better covered than rural areas)
• Absence of legal guidelines on privacy and confidentiality
in the eHealth and mHealth domains
• Change management to consider to deal with the new
ICT cultural environment
13
HIS Architecture
HIS ARCHITECTURE
14
Ecology of HIS in LMICs
• Widespread dissatisfaction among both users and
producers of health information
• Complex and fragmented by disease-focused programs
and donors
• Epidemic of indicators and burdensome demands on
health personnel
• Poor quality data; lack of common standards; data
inconsistencies and inefficiencies; difficult to analyze and
synthesize
15
What Is Enterprise Architecture?
Enterprise architecture is the technical foundation of an effective
IT strategy. It consists of four types of interrelated architecture:
1. Business architecture
2. Data or information architecture
3. Application architecture
4. Technology architecture
Health information
system (HIS)
architecture
16
Need for Enterprise Architecture?
To give management the big picture
Enterprise architecture gives a “systems thinking” view that combines vision
and strategy, business architecture, information systems, and technology
domains.
To align IT investments with business goals
Creating a platform for business-ICT stakeholder collaboration is essential.
Effective EA supports strategy, analysis, and planning by providing
stakeholders a blueprint of the current state of the business and IT
landscape, and of the desired future state (vision).
To provide IT developers with specific requirements for software
applications
The business architecture provides the IT developer with the specific
software requirements of an application.
17
Enterprise Architecture
18
HIS Architecture Principles
19
HIS Architecture
• Can align and leverage investments to build stronger and
better integrated HIS supporting better health policy and
local health services management, and ultimately stronger
health systems
• To be built on a coherent set of best practices for promoting
data integration
• To foster stakeholder groups to collaboratively build on
common components and a common architecture within the
HIS
• Helps identify and create interoperability between the
components of the system
20
Rwanda Health Enterprise Architecture Framework
21
Summary
• Plethora of tools, methods, and practices for data collection and
analysis have created an unsustainable burden on frontline health
workers.
• This burden causes poor data quality and diverts critical health
resources from using information for decision making at all
management levels.
• An enterprise architecture approach can help address these
challenges.
• Improving health system performance through the consistent use
of EA will be the blueprint for better health outcomes resulting
from the routine use of better information to stronger national
health information systems.
22
ROUTINE HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEMS
A Curriculum on Basic Concepts and Practice
This presentation was produced with the support of the United States Agency for International
Development (USAID) under the terms of MEASURE Evaluation cooperative agreement AID-
OAA-L-14-00004. MEASURE Evaluation is implemented by the Carolina Population Center,
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in partnership with ICF International; John Snow,
Inc.; Management Sciences for Health; Palladium; and Tulane University. The views
expressed in this presentation do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID or the United
States government.
23

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module-8-ppt-session-1 for ehealth (1).pptx

  • 1. MODULE 8: Information and Communication Technology for RHIS SESSION 1: eHealth, mHealth, and Health Information System EnterpriseArchitecture ROUTINE HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEMS A Curriculum on Basic Concepts and Practice 1 The complete RHIS curriculum is available here: https://www.measureevaluation.org/our-work/ routine-health-information-systems/rhis-curriculum
  • 2. Session 1: eHealth, mHealth, and HIS Enterprise Architecture Learning Objectives By the end of this session, participants will be able to: Explain key eHealth and mHealth concepts • Define commonly used eHealth and mHealth terms • Illustrate eHealth and mHealth applications • Describe limitations and considerations for eHealth and mHealth Explain key HIS enterprise architecture (EA) concepts • Explain the need for the EA approach • Describe HIS architecture and its ecology Topics Covered • eHealth and mHealth 2
  • 3. eHealth • eHealth (or e-health) is a relatively recent term for healthcare practice supported by electronic processes and communication, dating back to at least 1999. • World Health Organization definition: eHealth is the cost- effective and secure use of information and communications technologies in support of health and health-related fields, including healthcare services, health surveillance, health literature, and health education, knowledge and research. • European Commission: the use of modern information and communication technologies to meet needs of citizens, patients, healthcare professionals, healthcare providers, and policymakers 3
  • 4. Common Terms in eHealth • Electronic health record (EHR), or electronic medical record (EMR): systematized collection of patient and population health data in a digital format that is electronically-stored • Clinical decision support system (CDSS): ICT solution designed to provide health professionals with clinical decision support (CDS) such as assistance with clinical decision-making tasks • Telemedicine: physical and psychological diagnosis and treatments at a distance, including telemonitoring of patient functions 4
  • 5. eHealth Interventions • Delivering health information to health professionals and health consumers through the Internet and telecommunication • Using IT and e-commerce to improve public health services―for example, through the education and training of health workers • Applying e-commerce and e-business practices in health systems management (planning, budgeting, accounting, etc.) 5
  • 6. Why eHealth? • In many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), health system challenges relating to weak governance, health workforce shortages, and geographic and economic barriers to care impede effective delivery of health services to those in need. • Information and communication technology (ICT) offers the potential for addressing some of these challenges with innovative solutions, especially if offered at scale. • LMICs account for three-quarters of the rapidly expanding Internet and mobile cellular subscriptions globally, thus creating opportunities for innovative and cost-effective health services through the use of ICT. 6
  • 7. Application of eHealth in HIS Data collection • Use of hand-held devices • Automated information messaging • Use of different data management applications such as DHIS 2, iHRIS, and eLMIS to collect, aggregate, and report routine data. Data management and storage • To address requirements of interoperability and integrated sets of data • More sophisticated data storage to address complexity and variability of health data across the health enterprise • Relational databases are increasingly the norm, as opposed to the older, flat database formats that limited functionality and scalability, such as Microsoft Excel workbooks 7
  • 8. Application of eHealth in HMIS Data analysis, presentation, and use • Extraction and triangulation of health data • Data analysis and synthesis tools to produce routine or ad hoc reports, identify trends and issues of concerns, and track progress • Data dashboards and other data visualization tools can be customized to include maps (geographic information systems, or GIS) Data quality • Tools for improving data quality include data standardization, geocoding, data matching, data monitoring, and profiling. 8
  • 9. Common Terms in mHealth mHealth or m-Health: includes the use of mobile devices in: • Collecting aggregate and patient-level health data • Providing healthcare information to practitioners, researchers, and patients via Short Message Services (SMS) platforms such as mHero • Real-time monitoring of patient vital signs and direct provision of care 9
  • 10. mHealth Applications • Rapid collection/sharing of current data via mobile phones • Public health and lifestyle messages over mobile phones • Medication alerts using mobile phones • E-prescribing for repeat prescriptions via mobile phones • Telemonitoring to transmit patient results to clinicians 10
  • 11. mHealth Applications • Transmission of test results to patients via SMS messages • Online electronic health records via computer or phone • Clinical emergency care for accidents, natural disasters • Patient appointment booking and alerts via wireless e-mail (continuity of care) • Efficient workflow via wireless communication 11
  • 12. Limitations and Considerations • Lack of knowledge by health professionals concerning the possible applications of eHealth • Unknown cost-effectiveness of mHealth/eHealth initiatives • Cost of implementing eHealth solutions is perceived to be high 12
  • 13. Limitations and Considerations • ICT infrastructure and particularly Internet access limited by low connectivity and bandwidth (urban areas are better covered than rural areas) • Absence of legal guidelines on privacy and confidentiality in the eHealth and mHealth domains • Change management to consider to deal with the new ICT cultural environment 13
  • 15. Ecology of HIS in LMICs • Widespread dissatisfaction among both users and producers of health information • Complex and fragmented by disease-focused programs and donors • Epidemic of indicators and burdensome demands on health personnel • Poor quality data; lack of common standards; data inconsistencies and inefficiencies; difficult to analyze and synthesize 15
  • 16. What Is Enterprise Architecture? Enterprise architecture is the technical foundation of an effective IT strategy. It consists of four types of interrelated architecture: 1. Business architecture 2. Data or information architecture 3. Application architecture 4. Technology architecture Health information system (HIS) architecture 16
  • 17. Need for Enterprise Architecture? To give management the big picture Enterprise architecture gives a “systems thinking” view that combines vision and strategy, business architecture, information systems, and technology domains. To align IT investments with business goals Creating a platform for business-ICT stakeholder collaboration is essential. Effective EA supports strategy, analysis, and planning by providing stakeholders a blueprint of the current state of the business and IT landscape, and of the desired future state (vision). To provide IT developers with specific requirements for software applications The business architecture provides the IT developer with the specific software requirements of an application. 17
  • 20. HIS Architecture • Can align and leverage investments to build stronger and better integrated HIS supporting better health policy and local health services management, and ultimately stronger health systems • To be built on a coherent set of best practices for promoting data integration • To foster stakeholder groups to collaboratively build on common components and a common architecture within the HIS • Helps identify and create interoperability between the components of the system 20
  • 21. Rwanda Health Enterprise Architecture Framework 21
  • 22. Summary • Plethora of tools, methods, and practices for data collection and analysis have created an unsustainable burden on frontline health workers. • This burden causes poor data quality and diverts critical health resources from using information for decision making at all management levels. • An enterprise architecture approach can help address these challenges. • Improving health system performance through the consistent use of EA will be the blueprint for better health outcomes resulting from the routine use of better information to stronger national health information systems. 22
  • 23. ROUTINE HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEMS A Curriculum on Basic Concepts and Practice This presentation was produced with the support of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) under the terms of MEASURE Evaluation cooperative agreement AID- OAA-L-14-00004. MEASURE Evaluation is implemented by the Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in partnership with ICF International; John Snow, Inc.; Management Sciences for Health; Palladium; and Tulane University. The views expressed in this presentation do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID or the United States government. 23