SlideShare a Scribd company logo
An approach to language teaching is something that reflects a certain theory and beliefs about
language andlanguage learning.A methodisasetof procedures;asystemthatspellsoutexactlyhow
to teach a language (what particular skills and content to teach). Methods are more specific than
approaches but less specific than techniques. A technique is a classroom device or activity and thus
represents the narrowest term of the three. Some technique are widely used and found in many
methods (imitation and repetition); others are specific to or characteristic of a given method.
Here is a list of important variables to judge methods:
 Perceived goals of language learning.
 Decisions about what is to be taught.
 Beliefs about the nature of language.
 Belief about the process of language learning/ acquisition.
 Amount of prescription for teachers.
 Attitudes to different classroom techniques and activities.
 The role and nature of materials.
 The relative roles of teachers and learners.
 Attitude to the use of learners' native language (L1) in the classroom.
 Attitude to error.
 Belief about evaluation and assessment.
Module N°3:WhatDoWeMeanByTheTermsApproach,MethodAnd
Technique?
Design
Procedure
Approach
1. ATTHELEVELOF“METHOD”
1.1. TheObjectivesofaMethod
Depending on the goals of language learning, decisions may include whether to:
 Focus on language-using skills;
 Focus on knowledge about language;
 Focus on specific situational abilities;
 Focus on general competence;
 Include aspectsof the culture and/or literature of the target language community.
2. THEEARLYMETHODS
The purpose of this unit is to review the early history of language teaching methods; we will
provide you with a background for discussion and suggest the issues to keep in mind when
analyzing these methods.
Like educationalsystems,methodologiesare aproductof theirtimesand are equallyrootedinthe
ideas of their time. And in the same way that ideas have the habit of coming and going out of
fashion, methodologies also go out of fashion.
3. BeforeThe19Th
Century:TheNeedForAMethod
Methods:
3.1. TheGrammar-Translation Method
3.1.1. Background
The Grammar-TranslationMethodemergedinPrussiaatthe end18th
centuryand
became firmly entrenched in the 19th
century.
It was rooted in the formal teaching of Latin and Greek.
3.1.2. Objectives
The aim the course was to train students to read literature written in the foreign
language and to write the foreign language accurately. There was very little
opportunity to practice the language orally by means of listening or speaking
activities; there was just occasional reading-aloud practice.
3.1.3. AStructure-BasedMethodology
Analyzingthe grammarsystemof a language wasbasedon deductiontechniques:
the ruleswere firstexplained,the studentslearntthem, andafterwardsexamples
were provided.A typical textbookthusconsistedof chaptersor lessonsorganized
aroundgrammar points.The linguisticunitonwhichlanguage teachingwasbased
was the sentence.
Translation was the technique used to extract meaning from texts and the basic
activities developed in the classroom consistedof teaching grammar rules and of
regularpractice intranslatingsentenceslike thefollowingintoandoutof the target
language.
Teacherswere more preoccupiedwithwrittenexercisesandlengthybilingual lists
of vocabulary. The written exercises were repetitive and the language presented
was academic and unreal. The most immediate aim of the teacher was the
completionof allthe exercisesineachlessonandcoveringall thelessonscontained
in the book.
The students' native language was the medium of instruction and it was used to
explain new items and to enable comparisons to be made between the two
languages. The foreign language was not used in the class to any extent.
3.1.4. TeacherAndLearnerRoles
The teachingactivitywas focusedonthe teacherashe becomesthe mostrelevant
figure within the classroom. He gives a lot importance to error correction and
always looks for grammatical and lexical accuracy. However, the teacher's role in
the classroomwasnot verydemanding,since he hadnoneedtobe imaginativeor
creative in planning the lessons.
On the other hand, the student's role was a passive one: they absorbed the
information supplied by the teacher and afterwards they had to reproduce it in
order to satisfy the teacher.
3.1.5. Language TeachingInnovationsInTheNineteenthCentury
In Germany, England, France, and other parts of Europe, new approaches to
language teaching were developed by individual language teaching specialists.
Educators recognized the need for speaking proficiency rather than reading
comprehension,grammar,orliteraryappreciationasthe goal forforeignlanguage
programmers; there was an interest in how children learn languages.
4. THEREFORMMOVEMENT
The discipline of Linguisticswas revitalized.Phonetics(the scientificanalysisanddescriptionof the
sound systems of languages) was established, providing new insights into speech processes.The
International Phonetic Association was founded in 1886, and its International Phonetic Alphabet
(IPA) was designed to enable accurate sound transcription for any language.
4.1.TheDirectMethod
In the middle of the 19th
centurythe originsof whatwouldbecome the DirectMethodwere
developedbyJ.S.Blackie,aScottishteacher,whointhe 1850s wasadvocatingthe avoidance
of the mother tongue, the direct association of word with object, and the relegation of
grammar to a subordinate position.
At that time international relation in the fields of Politics and Commerce above all, were
gaining increasing relevance. It seems logical them that the interest was in stressing the
ability to use the foreign language rather than in analysing it. Besides, the fact that the
grammar-translation method did not have interpersonal communicationas one of its main
goals, made it unsuitable for students who were not from an academic background.
From a theoretical pointof view thismethodwasverymuchbasedonthe linguistictheories
of the time,whichconsideredthe oral language and Phoneticsasimportantcomponentsin
the teachingand learningprocessof a foreignlanguage.The studentslearntounderstanda
language by listening to a great deal of it, and they learn to speak it, by speaking it. Oral
communication skills are built up in a carefully graded progression organised around
question-and-answerexchangesbetweenteachers andstudentsinsmall,intensive classes.
The DirectMethodadvocateslearningbythe directassociationof foreignwordsandphrases
withobjectsand actionsor, in other words,speechisassociatedto appropriate action.This
means that students have to understand meaning clear, using miming, sketches or
explanations in order to clarify the meaning of abstract vocabulary.
Because of the importance given to the oral language, Phonetics also played an important
role; correct intonation became a key focus of interest. The students are taught the new
sound system right from the beginning and are encouraged to do phonetic transcription.
If there isa word that studentsdonot understand,thisisnevertranslated;onthe contrary,
students are encouraged to inter meaning of unknown words from the context.
4.2.TheReadingMethod
The Reading Method focused on the systematic teaching of reading comprehension. The
studentswere trainedtoreadthe foreignlanguage withdirectapprehensionof meaning,but
without a conscious effort to translate. It was expected that students would use the same
techniques theyhad used when learning to read in their native language. So, if there were
any words the students did not understand, they would infer meaning from the context.
Reading could either be intensive or extensive:
 The intensive readingtaskswere continuouslysupervisedbytheteacher,whowould
check the degree of comprehension achieved. The intensive reading al provided
source material for grammatical study and for the acquisition of vocabulary.
 Extensive reading activities were also part of the learning process. In this case the
students would read on their own texts graded to their language level; these
materials contained controlled vocabulary and syntax structures. The extensive
reading led the way to undertaking class projects, which were valuable from the
pedagogical point of view.
Writingwaslimitedtoexerciseswherethe studentshadthe opportunity touse some of the
vocabulary and essential structures also necessary to understand the text.
The studyof grammar wassupposed tobe directedtothe needsof the reader,sothere was
no need for active reproduction.
Some importance was also given to correct pronunciation, since there was oral practice
relatedtoatext:studentshadtoreadthe textaloudortodoexercisesconsistingof questions
and answer.
4.3.Oral ApproachOrSituational Approach
The Oral Approachis focusedonthe theoriesdevelopedinEnglandbetweenthe 1930s and
the 190s. Two of the leaders in this movement were Harold Palmer and A.S. Hornby, who
were familiar with the work of such linguists as Otto Jespersen and Daniel Jones.
4.3.1. MainFeatures
The main characteristics of the approach were as follows:
1. The firststepinthe learningprocesswasto become familiarwiththe new sound
systemand to understand simple spokenlanguage andthe use of simple speech
patterns;studentscarriedout listeningandspeakingactivitiescontainingsimple
phrases.
2. The target language wasthe language of instructionandthe native language was
to be avoided.However,inordertocorrect some of the flawstheyhadobserved
in that language teachingsystemof the DirectMethod,theyacceptedthe use of
the native language when explaining the meaning of some words or some
grammar points of a strictly functional kind.
3. Palmer viewed grammar as the underlying sentence patterns of the spoken
language,Palmer,Hornby,andotherBritishappliedlinguistsanalyzedEnglishand
classified its major grammatical structure into sentence patterns (later called
“substitutiontables”),whichcouldbe usedtohelpinternalizethe rulesof English
sentence structure.
They also consideredthat it was necessary to add more practice of grammatical
structures, and these were introduced gradually from simple forms to complex
ones, offering opportunities for practicing them in situational contexts.
4. Likewise, vocabulary was graded to ensure that an essential general service
vocabularywascovered.The effortstointroduce ascientificandrationalbasisfor
choosingthe vocabularycontentof alanguagecourse representthefirstattempts
to establish principles of syllabus design in language teaching.
5. Reading and writing were introduced one a sufficient lexical and grammatical
basis was established.Occasional translation was allowedas a checking method
on comprehension of precise details in reading.
Unlike the Direct Method or the Reading Method, which gave much more importance to
speaking and reading respectively, the Oral Approach sought a balance between the
developments of the four linguistic skills at all stages: oral comprehension, writing
comprehension,oral productionandwritingproduction,althoughthe emphasisremainedon
oral presentations.
4.4.TheAudio-LingualMethod
The existing methods at that were not considered suitable to promote the communicative
needs which had arisen as a consequence of war, so the “American Council of Learned
Societies” created a linguistic programme called “ASTP” (“Army Specialised Training
Programme”) in 1941. This programmer offered instruction for 50 different languages to
100,000 members of the Army who were expected to acquire oral competence in several
languages by means of using a combination of techniques from the different existing
methods, such as the Direct Method, audio-visual media (films, radio, and so on), and
recordings.
The “methodology”of the Army Method impliedintensive contactwiththe target language
(=tenhoursa day, six daysa week) insmall classesof mature andhighlymotivatedstudents,
which is why such excellent results were often achieved and the programme was very
successful.
Despite the difficulties in adapting it as a method, the success of the “ASTP”, together with
the linguisticneedsof foreignstudentsinthe Americanuniversitiesledtothe development
of a new method in foreign language teaching in the US in the 1950s: Audiolingualism.
4.5.WhatisTheBasicofAudiolingualism?
The history of the Audiolingual Method is linkedto the Institute of EnglishLanguage at the
University of Michigan, created in 1939. One of the linguists from this university, Charles
Fries, was trained in structural linguistics, and he applied the principles of structural
linguisticstolanguage teaching.The new approachfor language learningwasfirstcoinedas
the “Oral Approach”, the “Aural-Oral Method” or the “Structural Approach”; later on the
combination of structural linguistic theory, contrastive analysis, aural-oral procedures,and
behaviourist psychology led to the “Audiolingual Method”, a term coined in 1964 by
Professor Nelson Brooks. Although many of its aspects may seem similar to those of the
British Oral Approach, both traditions developed independently.
It was in the 1960s that the Audiolingual Method reached its greatest popularity.
4.5.1. MainFeatures
4.5.1.1. Typesofactivities
Audiolingualists based their theories on the observation of a corpus of a
particular language in order to describe its sound and the possibilitiesof
word combination. This descriptive approach led them to research what
people really say in their mother tongue. The Audiolingualists took as a
model the wayachildacquiresthesehabits.Childrenlearn alanguage,and
all the social ruleswhichare complementarytoit,inspokenform.Thisidea
ledthemto thinkthat studentsacquire the foreignlanguagemore easilyif
it is in the spoken form.
Teachingwasthereforebasedondialoguesthatcontainedcommonly-used
every-day expressions and basic structures. These dialogues provided a
meansof contextualizingkeystructuresandillustratingsituationsinwhich
structures might be used as well as some cultural aspects of the target
language.
Dialogues and pattern drills were learned by a process of mimicry and
memorization: first as a group, then in smaller groups and finally
individually. The benefits of these procedures were the relatively high
motivation of students, as the drilling protects them from their initial
embarrassment and minimizes mistakes.
Correct pronunciation,stress,rhythm, andintonationwere emphasizedas
opposed to grammatical explanations.
The reading tasks were at first an adaptation or recombination of what
students had learned orally. Writing was imitative, consisting of
transcriptions of words and dialogue sentences.
The use of the L1 was avoided in the classroom as much as possible,
althoughitwas neverforbidden.The treatmentof errorwas an important
component of the learning process and sometimes students were not
encouraged to speak in order to avoid mistakes.
4.5.1.2. LearnerandTeacherRoles
Learners played an active role in the classroom by responding to stimuli;
however,itwasthe teacherwhodecidedthe contentsof a lessonandthe
pace of learning, and who monitored and corrected the learners'
performance.
The teacher's role was therefore a central one, and it required
inventiveness and resourcefulness so as to encourage the practice of
structures by means of different drill and tasks, and by choosing relevant
situations.
4.6.TheRoleofMaterials
Instructional materialswere primarilyteacheroriented.Inthe elementaryphases of acourse
a student textbookwas often not used as students were primarily listening, repeating, and
responding.
Tape recordersandaudio-visualequipmentwere oftenusedinanaudionlingualcourse:they
providedaccurate modelsforlisteningpractice. A dialoguewaspresentedandstudentswere
engaged in drilling exercises, repeating the dialogue sentence by sentence, or in follow-up
fluency drills on grammar or pronunciation.
4.7.CognitiveCodeLearningorCognitiveApproach
Fromthe verybeginningthe objective of languageteachingwastogive the same importance
tothe fourskills,andthecontentswerefocusedonthegrammatical component,withspecial
relevance granted to morphology and syntax within the sentence. Some of the theoretical
underpinnings of the Cognitive Approach were:
1. Conscious learning of the language systemis promoted: learners need to have control
of the language rules in order to be able to generate their own language in new
situations(the principle of creativity).Inotherwords,learnersneedto understand the
systemof rules; thusgrammar isexplainedopenlyandisoftencontrastedwiththe first
language.Makingmistakesisviewsaspartof the processof achievinganunderstanding
of rules.
2. Conscious focus on grammar acknowledges the role of abstract mental processes in
learning rather than defining learning simply in terms of habit formation.
3. Learningmust go from the knownto the unknown,so that the learnerscan familiarize
themselveswiththe rulesfirst(knowledge) andapplythemafterwards(performance).
This meansthat learnersfirstdeal withcontrolledcomprehensionandmanipulationof
linguistic forms for later use in real communication situations. It is believedthat if the
students have a cognitive control over the language structure, they will automatically
develop the ability to use them in meaningful situations.
4. Learningmustbe meaningful(incontrasttothe routine repetitionof ´drills´),itmustbe
relatedtothe newmaterialsandadaptedto the learnersneeds.Thuslearningisunder
the learner's control.
Although many have considered the changes implemented by the Cognitive Approach as
superficial,particularlythose concerningtechniquesandclassroomdynamics,itwas widely
acceptedinthe UnitedStates,andmanyof the activitiescarriedoutinthe classroomcontext
consistedof the combinationof astructural ´syllabus´withacognitiveapproachandavariety
of communicative and personalized activities and strategies.
The term cognitive code is still sometimes invoked to refer to any conscious attempt to
organise materialsaroundagrammatical syllabuswhileallowingformeaningfulpractice and
use of language.
1. Which of the following can be found in the Grammar Translation Method?
2. Which of the following can be found in the Direct Method?
L1/L2 vocabularylists.
Grammar rulesexplainedinthe L2.
An activityforinferringinformationfromthe textinordertoanswer
comprehensionquestions.
Group work.
TASK
Done
a)
b)
c)
d)
3. Which of the following can be found in both the Oral Approach and Audiolingualism?
4. Which of the following can be found in the Cognitive Approach?
L1/L2 vocabularylists.
Grammar rulesexplainedinthe L2.
The teachershowsa picture to explainthe meaningof anew word.
An emphasisonaccurate pronunciation.
An occasional use of the L1.
Analysisof underlyinggrammaticalstructures.
A heavyemphasisonreadingandwritingskills.
The use of oral repetitiondrills.
A learner-centredapproach.
More emphasisonthe skillsof readingandwritingthanonspeakingand
listening.
Grammatical analysis.
The use of controlledpractice activities.
Mistakesare immediatelycorrected.
a)
b)
c)
d)
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
a)
b)
c)
d)
What has been the attitude toward the teaching of (a) pronunciation, (b) grammar, (c)
vocabulary in the approaches discussed in this unit?
TASK
Done

More Related Content

What's hot

Teaching of grammar
Teaching of grammarTeaching of grammar
Teaching of grammar
International advisers
 
Thành ngữ, quán ngữ trong hoạt động giao tiếp của giới trẻ, HAY
Thành ngữ, quán ngữ trong hoạt động giao tiếp của giới trẻ, HAYThành ngữ, quán ngữ trong hoạt động giao tiếp của giới trẻ, HAY
Thành ngữ, quán ngữ trong hoạt động giao tiếp của giới trẻ, HAY
Dịch Vụ Viết Bài Trọn Gói ZALO 0917193864
 
Evaluating CALL
Evaluating CALLEvaluating CALL
Evaluating CALL
Jonathan Smart
 
Lý LuậN Và PhươNg PháP DạY NgoạI Ngữ
Lý LuậN Và PhươNg PháP DạY NgoạI NgữLý LuậN Và PhươNg PháP DạY NgoạI Ngữ
Lý LuậN Và PhươNg PháP DạY NgoạI Ngữenglishonecfl
 
Inductive & deductive method ppt
Inductive & deductive method pptInductive & deductive method ppt
Inductive & deductive method ppt
Kamal Bhagat
 
Grammar translation method
Grammar translation method Grammar translation method
Grammar translation method
Zadi Rafique
 
The Audio-Lingual Method (ALM) = Army Method
The Audio-Lingual Method (ALM) = Army MethodThe Audio-Lingual Method (ALM) = Army Method
The Audio-Lingual Method (ALM) = Army Method
Aslı Coşkun
 
Whole language
Whole languageWhole language
Whole language
Beatriz Rodrigues
 
Eclectic method
Eclectic methodEclectic method
Eclectic method
1101989
 
Danh Sách 200 Đề Tài Tiểu Luận Nhập Môn Ngành Ngôn Ngữ Anh
Danh Sách 200 Đề Tài Tiểu Luận Nhập Môn Ngành Ngôn Ngữ AnhDanh Sách 200 Đề Tài Tiểu Luận Nhập Môn Ngành Ngôn Ngữ Anh
Danh Sách 200 Đề Tài Tiểu Luận Nhập Môn Ngành Ngôn Ngữ Anh
Dịch Vụ Viết Luận Văn Thuê ZALO/TELEGRAM 0934573149
 
Direct Method
Direct MethodDirect Method
Direct Method
Rio Tare
 
Material Development for Language Learning and Teaching
Material Development for Language Learning and TeachingMaterial Development for Language Learning and Teaching
Material Development for Language Learning and Teaching
Dwi Firli Ashari
 
Theory of communicative language teaching
Theory of communicative language teachingTheory of communicative language teaching
Theory of communicative language teaching
Han Nguyen
 
Coursebook evaluation
Coursebook evaluationCoursebook evaluation
Coursebook evaluation
Noura Al-Budeiwi
 
Chapter three the Direct Method
Chapter three  the Direct MethodChapter three  the Direct Method
Chapter three the Direct Method
Rajabul Gufron
 
USING COURSE BOOKS IN ELT
USING COURSE BOOKS IN ELT USING COURSE BOOKS IN ELT
USING COURSE BOOKS IN ELT
Sherro Lee Arellano-Lagrimas
 
Luận văn: Dạy đọc hiểu tác phẩm văn chương và vận dụng vào các đoạn trích Tru...
Luận văn: Dạy đọc hiểu tác phẩm văn chương và vận dụng vào các đoạn trích Tru...Luận văn: Dạy đọc hiểu tác phẩm văn chương và vận dụng vào các đoạn trích Tru...
Luận văn: Dạy đọc hiểu tác phẩm văn chương và vận dụng vào các đoạn trích Tru...
Dịch vụ viết thuê Khóa Luận - ZALO 0932091562
 
Grammar Translation Method
Grammar Translation MethodGrammar Translation Method
Grammar Translation Method
Anis Suhaila Azemi
 
Communicative Language Teaching
Communicative Language TeachingCommunicative Language Teaching
Communicative Language Teaching
Carlos Mayora
 
Grammar translation method
Grammar translation methodGrammar translation method
Grammar translation method
Nur Rohmah Dwi A II
 

What's hot (20)

Teaching of grammar
Teaching of grammarTeaching of grammar
Teaching of grammar
 
Thành ngữ, quán ngữ trong hoạt động giao tiếp của giới trẻ, HAY
Thành ngữ, quán ngữ trong hoạt động giao tiếp của giới trẻ, HAYThành ngữ, quán ngữ trong hoạt động giao tiếp của giới trẻ, HAY
Thành ngữ, quán ngữ trong hoạt động giao tiếp của giới trẻ, HAY
 
Evaluating CALL
Evaluating CALLEvaluating CALL
Evaluating CALL
 
Lý LuậN Và PhươNg PháP DạY NgoạI Ngữ
Lý LuậN Và PhươNg PháP DạY NgoạI NgữLý LuậN Và PhươNg PháP DạY NgoạI Ngữ
Lý LuậN Và PhươNg PháP DạY NgoạI Ngữ
 
Inductive & deductive method ppt
Inductive & deductive method pptInductive & deductive method ppt
Inductive & deductive method ppt
 
Grammar translation method
Grammar translation method Grammar translation method
Grammar translation method
 
The Audio-Lingual Method (ALM) = Army Method
The Audio-Lingual Method (ALM) = Army MethodThe Audio-Lingual Method (ALM) = Army Method
The Audio-Lingual Method (ALM) = Army Method
 
Whole language
Whole languageWhole language
Whole language
 
Eclectic method
Eclectic methodEclectic method
Eclectic method
 
Danh Sách 200 Đề Tài Tiểu Luận Nhập Môn Ngành Ngôn Ngữ Anh
Danh Sách 200 Đề Tài Tiểu Luận Nhập Môn Ngành Ngôn Ngữ AnhDanh Sách 200 Đề Tài Tiểu Luận Nhập Môn Ngành Ngôn Ngữ Anh
Danh Sách 200 Đề Tài Tiểu Luận Nhập Môn Ngành Ngôn Ngữ Anh
 
Direct Method
Direct MethodDirect Method
Direct Method
 
Material Development for Language Learning and Teaching
Material Development for Language Learning and TeachingMaterial Development for Language Learning and Teaching
Material Development for Language Learning and Teaching
 
Theory of communicative language teaching
Theory of communicative language teachingTheory of communicative language teaching
Theory of communicative language teaching
 
Coursebook evaluation
Coursebook evaluationCoursebook evaluation
Coursebook evaluation
 
Chapter three the Direct Method
Chapter three  the Direct MethodChapter three  the Direct Method
Chapter three the Direct Method
 
USING COURSE BOOKS IN ELT
USING COURSE BOOKS IN ELT USING COURSE BOOKS IN ELT
USING COURSE BOOKS IN ELT
 
Luận văn: Dạy đọc hiểu tác phẩm văn chương và vận dụng vào các đoạn trích Tru...
Luận văn: Dạy đọc hiểu tác phẩm văn chương và vận dụng vào các đoạn trích Tru...Luận văn: Dạy đọc hiểu tác phẩm văn chương và vận dụng vào các đoạn trích Tru...
Luận văn: Dạy đọc hiểu tác phẩm văn chương và vận dụng vào các đoạn trích Tru...
 
Grammar Translation Method
Grammar Translation MethodGrammar Translation Method
Grammar Translation Method
 
Communicative Language Teaching
Communicative Language TeachingCommunicative Language Teaching
Communicative Language Teaching
 
Grammar translation method
Grammar translation methodGrammar translation method
Grammar translation method
 

Similar to Module 3 (1)

English Language Teaching Methods
English Language Teaching MethodsEnglish Language Teaching Methods
English Language Teaching Methods
Hala Nur
 
Approaches
ApproachesApproaches
Approaches
Gladys Rivera
 
Language teaching methods p.pptx
Language teaching methods p.pptxLanguage teaching methods p.pptx
Language teaching methods p.pptx
Subramanian Mani
 
Grammar-Translation & Direct Methods
Grammar-Translation & Direct MethodsGrammar-Translation & Direct Methods
Grammar-Translation & Direct Methods
Waheeda Bushra
 
21 st century teaching language approaches
21 st century teaching language approaches21 st century teaching language approaches
21 st century teaching language approaches
ronadelarosa
 
Approaches and Methods in TESOL - Traditional Methods
Approaches and Methods in TESOL - Traditional MethodsApproaches and Methods in TESOL - Traditional Methods
Approaches and Methods in TESOL - Traditional Methods
Nando Aufar
 
Audim
AudimAudim
Strategies.pptx
Strategies.pptxStrategies.pptx
Strategies.pptx
EzekielAnselm
 
A VIEW OF THE HISTORY OF LANGUAGE TEACHING
A VIEW OF THE HISTORY OF LANGUAGE TEACHINGA VIEW OF THE HISTORY OF LANGUAGE TEACHING
A VIEW OF THE HISTORY OF LANGUAGE TEACHING
Libardo Ospino
 
History of language teaching methodology
History of language teaching methodologyHistory of language teaching methodology
History of language teaching methodology
ACorrea58
 
a slide history_of_language_teaching.ppt
a slide history_of_language_teaching.ppta slide history_of_language_teaching.ppt
a slide history_of_language_teaching.ppt
humaeroah
 
Audiolingualmethod.nadia.bat
Audiolingualmethod.nadia.batAudiolingualmethod.nadia.bat
Audiolingualmethod.nadia.bat
Nadia Bat
 
Methods_and_Approaches_in_ELT.pptx
Methods_and_Approaches_in_ELT.pptxMethods_and_Approaches_in_ELT.pptx
Methods_and_Approaches_in_ELT.pptx
vilmaleticiacoronado
 
UTNM.pptxPREPARATION COURSE FOR PET EXAM
UTNM.pptxPREPARATION COURSE FOR PET EXAMUTNM.pptxPREPARATION COURSE FOR PET EXAM
UTNM.pptxPREPARATION COURSE FOR PET EXAM
Jose Obando
 
Methods_and_Approaches_in_ELT.pptx
Methods_and_Approaches_in_ELT.pptxMethods_and_Approaches_in_ELT.pptx
Methods_and_Approaches_in_ELT.pptx
dvgchannu
 
History of language teaching
History of language teachingHistory of language teaching
History of language teaching
Annasta Tastha
 
Chart 23th april
Chart 23th aprilChart 23th april
Chart 23th april
Karina Cuellar
 
history_of_language_teaching
history_of_language_teachinghistory_of_language_teaching
history_of_language_teaching
Thanh Dung
 
Applied linguistics
Applied linguisticsApplied linguistics
Applied linguistics
Jordán Masías
 
Lecture 1 - TESL - A Brief History of Language Teaching.pptx
Lecture 1 - TESL - A Brief History of Language Teaching.pptxLecture 1 - TESL - A Brief History of Language Teaching.pptx
Lecture 1 - TESL - A Brief History of Language Teaching.pptx
ArielVillar2
 

Similar to Module 3 (1) (20)

English Language Teaching Methods
English Language Teaching MethodsEnglish Language Teaching Methods
English Language Teaching Methods
 
Approaches
ApproachesApproaches
Approaches
 
Language teaching methods p.pptx
Language teaching methods p.pptxLanguage teaching methods p.pptx
Language teaching methods p.pptx
 
Grammar-Translation & Direct Methods
Grammar-Translation & Direct MethodsGrammar-Translation & Direct Methods
Grammar-Translation & Direct Methods
 
21 st century teaching language approaches
21 st century teaching language approaches21 st century teaching language approaches
21 st century teaching language approaches
 
Approaches and Methods in TESOL - Traditional Methods
Approaches and Methods in TESOL - Traditional MethodsApproaches and Methods in TESOL - Traditional Methods
Approaches and Methods in TESOL - Traditional Methods
 
Audim
AudimAudim
Audim
 
Strategies.pptx
Strategies.pptxStrategies.pptx
Strategies.pptx
 
A VIEW OF THE HISTORY OF LANGUAGE TEACHING
A VIEW OF THE HISTORY OF LANGUAGE TEACHINGA VIEW OF THE HISTORY OF LANGUAGE TEACHING
A VIEW OF THE HISTORY OF LANGUAGE TEACHING
 
History of language teaching methodology
History of language teaching methodologyHistory of language teaching methodology
History of language teaching methodology
 
a slide history_of_language_teaching.ppt
a slide history_of_language_teaching.ppta slide history_of_language_teaching.ppt
a slide history_of_language_teaching.ppt
 
Audiolingualmethod.nadia.bat
Audiolingualmethod.nadia.batAudiolingualmethod.nadia.bat
Audiolingualmethod.nadia.bat
 
Methods_and_Approaches_in_ELT.pptx
Methods_and_Approaches_in_ELT.pptxMethods_and_Approaches_in_ELT.pptx
Methods_and_Approaches_in_ELT.pptx
 
UTNM.pptxPREPARATION COURSE FOR PET EXAM
UTNM.pptxPREPARATION COURSE FOR PET EXAMUTNM.pptxPREPARATION COURSE FOR PET EXAM
UTNM.pptxPREPARATION COURSE FOR PET EXAM
 
Methods_and_Approaches_in_ELT.pptx
Methods_and_Approaches_in_ELT.pptxMethods_and_Approaches_in_ELT.pptx
Methods_and_Approaches_in_ELT.pptx
 
History of language teaching
History of language teachingHistory of language teaching
History of language teaching
 
Chart 23th april
Chart 23th aprilChart 23th april
Chart 23th april
 
history_of_language_teaching
history_of_language_teachinghistory_of_language_teaching
history_of_language_teaching
 
Applied linguistics
Applied linguisticsApplied linguistics
Applied linguistics
 
Lecture 1 - TESL - A Brief History of Language Teaching.pptx
Lecture 1 - TESL - A Brief History of Language Teaching.pptxLecture 1 - TESL - A Brief History of Language Teaching.pptx
Lecture 1 - TESL - A Brief History of Language Teaching.pptx
 

More from ECPI

Classroom management (1)
Classroom management (1)Classroom management (1)
Classroom management (1)
ECPI
 
Pairworkgroup
PairworkgroupPairworkgroup
Pairworkgroup
ECPI
 
Estrategias para aprender
Estrategias para aprenderEstrategias para aprender
Estrategias para aprender
ECPI
 
Module 4
Module 4Module 4
Module 4
ECPI
 
Module 2 (2)
Module 2 (2)Module 2 (2)
Module 2 (2)
ECPI
 
Module 1 (2)
Module 1 (2)Module 1 (2)
Module 1 (2)
ECPI
 

More from ECPI (6)

Classroom management (1)
Classroom management (1)Classroom management (1)
Classroom management (1)
 
Pairworkgroup
PairworkgroupPairworkgroup
Pairworkgroup
 
Estrategias para aprender
Estrategias para aprenderEstrategias para aprender
Estrategias para aprender
 
Module 4
Module 4Module 4
Module 4
 
Module 2 (2)
Module 2 (2)Module 2 (2)
Module 2 (2)
 
Module 1 (2)
Module 1 (2)Module 1 (2)
Module 1 (2)
 

Recently uploaded

How to Manage Reception Report in Odoo 17
How to Manage Reception Report in Odoo 17How to Manage Reception Report in Odoo 17
How to Manage Reception Report in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
Data Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsx
Data Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsxData Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsx
Data Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsx
Prof. Dr. K. Adisesha
 
220711130083 SUBHASHREE RAKSHIT Internet resources for social science
220711130083 SUBHASHREE RAKSHIT  Internet resources for social science220711130083 SUBHASHREE RAKSHIT  Internet resources for social science
220711130083 SUBHASHREE RAKSHIT Internet resources for social science
Kalna College
 
CapTechTalks Webinar Slides June 2024 Donovan Wright.pptx
CapTechTalks Webinar Slides June 2024 Donovan Wright.pptxCapTechTalks Webinar Slides June 2024 Donovan Wright.pptx
CapTechTalks Webinar Slides June 2024 Donovan Wright.pptx
CapitolTechU
 
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdfمصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
سمير بسيوني
 
Simple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Simple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxSimple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Simple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
RandolphRadicy
 
FinalSD_MathematicsGrade7_Session2_Unida.pptx
FinalSD_MathematicsGrade7_Session2_Unida.pptxFinalSD_MathematicsGrade7_Session2_Unida.pptx
FinalSD_MathematicsGrade7_Session2_Unida.pptx
JennySularte1
 
How to Download & Install Module From the Odoo App Store in Odoo 17
How to Download & Install Module From the Odoo App Store in Odoo 17How to Download & Install Module From the Odoo App Store in Odoo 17
How to Download & Install Module From the Odoo App Store in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
Information and Communication Technology in Education
Information and Communication Technology in EducationInformation and Communication Technology in Education
Information and Communication Technology in Education
MJDuyan
 
220711130100 udita Chakraborty Aims and objectives of national policy on inf...
220711130100 udita Chakraborty  Aims and objectives of national policy on inf...220711130100 udita Chakraborty  Aims and objectives of national policy on inf...
220711130100 udita Chakraborty Aims and objectives of national policy on inf...
Kalna College
 
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptxSWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
zuzanka
 
INTRODUCTION TO HOSPITALS & AND ITS ORGANIZATION
INTRODUCTION TO HOSPITALS & AND ITS ORGANIZATION INTRODUCTION TO HOSPITALS & AND ITS ORGANIZATION
INTRODUCTION TO HOSPITALS & AND ITS ORGANIZATION
ShwetaGawande8
 
adjectives.ppt for class 1 to 6, grammar
adjectives.ppt for class 1 to 6, grammaradjectives.ppt for class 1 to 6, grammar
adjectives.ppt for class 1 to 6, grammar
7DFarhanaMohammed
 
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
TechSoup
 
Ch-4 Forest Society and colonialism 2.pdf
Ch-4 Forest Society and colonialism 2.pdfCh-4 Forest Society and colonialism 2.pdf
Ch-4 Forest Society and colonialism 2.pdf
lakshayrojroj
 
Accounting for Restricted Grants When and How To Record Properly
Accounting for Restricted Grants  When and How To Record ProperlyAccounting for Restricted Grants  When and How To Record Properly
Accounting for Restricted Grants When and How To Record Properly
TechSoup
 
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
nitinpv4ai
 
220711130082 Srabanti Bag Internet Resources For Natural Science
220711130082 Srabanti Bag Internet Resources For Natural Science220711130082 Srabanti Bag Internet Resources For Natural Science
220711130082 Srabanti Bag Internet Resources For Natural Science
Kalna College
 
THE SACRIFICE HOW PRO-PALESTINE PROTESTS STUDENTS ARE SACRIFICING TO CHANGE T...
THE SACRIFICE HOW PRO-PALESTINE PROTESTS STUDENTS ARE SACRIFICING TO CHANGE T...THE SACRIFICE HOW PRO-PALESTINE PROTESTS STUDENTS ARE SACRIFICING TO CHANGE T...
THE SACRIFICE HOW PRO-PALESTINE PROTESTS STUDENTS ARE SACRIFICING TO CHANGE T...
indexPub
 
Educational Technology in the Health Sciences
Educational Technology in the Health SciencesEducational Technology in the Health Sciences
Educational Technology in the Health Sciences
Iris Thiele Isip-Tan
 

Recently uploaded (20)

How to Manage Reception Report in Odoo 17
How to Manage Reception Report in Odoo 17How to Manage Reception Report in Odoo 17
How to Manage Reception Report in Odoo 17
 
Data Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsx
Data Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsxData Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsx
Data Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsx
 
220711130083 SUBHASHREE RAKSHIT Internet resources for social science
220711130083 SUBHASHREE RAKSHIT  Internet resources for social science220711130083 SUBHASHREE RAKSHIT  Internet resources for social science
220711130083 SUBHASHREE RAKSHIT Internet resources for social science
 
CapTechTalks Webinar Slides June 2024 Donovan Wright.pptx
CapTechTalks Webinar Slides June 2024 Donovan Wright.pptxCapTechTalks Webinar Slides June 2024 Donovan Wright.pptx
CapTechTalks Webinar Slides June 2024 Donovan Wright.pptx
 
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdfمصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
 
Simple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Simple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxSimple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Simple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
 
FinalSD_MathematicsGrade7_Session2_Unida.pptx
FinalSD_MathematicsGrade7_Session2_Unida.pptxFinalSD_MathematicsGrade7_Session2_Unida.pptx
FinalSD_MathematicsGrade7_Session2_Unida.pptx
 
How to Download & Install Module From the Odoo App Store in Odoo 17
How to Download & Install Module From the Odoo App Store in Odoo 17How to Download & Install Module From the Odoo App Store in Odoo 17
How to Download & Install Module From the Odoo App Store in Odoo 17
 
Information and Communication Technology in Education
Information and Communication Technology in EducationInformation and Communication Technology in Education
Information and Communication Technology in Education
 
220711130100 udita Chakraborty Aims and objectives of national policy on inf...
220711130100 udita Chakraborty  Aims and objectives of national policy on inf...220711130100 udita Chakraborty  Aims and objectives of national policy on inf...
220711130100 udita Chakraborty Aims and objectives of national policy on inf...
 
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptxSWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
 
INTRODUCTION TO HOSPITALS & AND ITS ORGANIZATION
INTRODUCTION TO HOSPITALS & AND ITS ORGANIZATION INTRODUCTION TO HOSPITALS & AND ITS ORGANIZATION
INTRODUCTION TO HOSPITALS & AND ITS ORGANIZATION
 
adjectives.ppt for class 1 to 6, grammar
adjectives.ppt for class 1 to 6, grammaradjectives.ppt for class 1 to 6, grammar
adjectives.ppt for class 1 to 6, grammar
 
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
 
Ch-4 Forest Society and colonialism 2.pdf
Ch-4 Forest Society and colonialism 2.pdfCh-4 Forest Society and colonialism 2.pdf
Ch-4 Forest Society and colonialism 2.pdf
 
Accounting for Restricted Grants When and How To Record Properly
Accounting for Restricted Grants  When and How To Record ProperlyAccounting for Restricted Grants  When and How To Record Properly
Accounting for Restricted Grants When and How To Record Properly
 
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
 
220711130082 Srabanti Bag Internet Resources For Natural Science
220711130082 Srabanti Bag Internet Resources For Natural Science220711130082 Srabanti Bag Internet Resources For Natural Science
220711130082 Srabanti Bag Internet Resources For Natural Science
 
THE SACRIFICE HOW PRO-PALESTINE PROTESTS STUDENTS ARE SACRIFICING TO CHANGE T...
THE SACRIFICE HOW PRO-PALESTINE PROTESTS STUDENTS ARE SACRIFICING TO CHANGE T...THE SACRIFICE HOW PRO-PALESTINE PROTESTS STUDENTS ARE SACRIFICING TO CHANGE T...
THE SACRIFICE HOW PRO-PALESTINE PROTESTS STUDENTS ARE SACRIFICING TO CHANGE T...
 
Educational Technology in the Health Sciences
Educational Technology in the Health SciencesEducational Technology in the Health Sciences
Educational Technology in the Health Sciences
 

Module 3 (1)

  • 1. An approach to language teaching is something that reflects a certain theory and beliefs about language andlanguage learning.A methodisasetof procedures;asystemthatspellsoutexactlyhow to teach a language (what particular skills and content to teach). Methods are more specific than approaches but less specific than techniques. A technique is a classroom device or activity and thus represents the narrowest term of the three. Some technique are widely used and found in many methods (imitation and repetition); others are specific to or characteristic of a given method. Here is a list of important variables to judge methods:  Perceived goals of language learning.  Decisions about what is to be taught.  Beliefs about the nature of language.  Belief about the process of language learning/ acquisition.  Amount of prescription for teachers.  Attitudes to different classroom techniques and activities.  The role and nature of materials.  The relative roles of teachers and learners.  Attitude to the use of learners' native language (L1) in the classroom.  Attitude to error.  Belief about evaluation and assessment. Module N°3:WhatDoWeMeanByTheTermsApproach,MethodAnd Technique? Design Procedure Approach
  • 2. 1. ATTHELEVELOF“METHOD” 1.1. TheObjectivesofaMethod Depending on the goals of language learning, decisions may include whether to:  Focus on language-using skills;  Focus on knowledge about language;  Focus on specific situational abilities;  Focus on general competence;  Include aspectsof the culture and/or literature of the target language community. 2. THEEARLYMETHODS The purpose of this unit is to review the early history of language teaching methods; we will provide you with a background for discussion and suggest the issues to keep in mind when analyzing these methods. Like educationalsystems,methodologiesare aproductof theirtimesand are equallyrootedinthe ideas of their time. And in the same way that ideas have the habit of coming and going out of fashion, methodologies also go out of fashion. 3. BeforeThe19Th Century:TheNeedForAMethod Methods: 3.1. TheGrammar-Translation Method 3.1.1. Background The Grammar-TranslationMethodemergedinPrussiaatthe end18th centuryand became firmly entrenched in the 19th century. It was rooted in the formal teaching of Latin and Greek. 3.1.2. Objectives The aim the course was to train students to read literature written in the foreign language and to write the foreign language accurately. There was very little opportunity to practice the language orally by means of listening or speaking activities; there was just occasional reading-aloud practice. 3.1.3. AStructure-BasedMethodology
  • 3. Analyzingthe grammarsystemof a language wasbasedon deductiontechniques: the ruleswere firstexplained,the studentslearntthem, andafterwardsexamples were provided.A typical textbookthusconsistedof chaptersor lessonsorganized aroundgrammar points.The linguisticunitonwhichlanguage teachingwasbased was the sentence. Translation was the technique used to extract meaning from texts and the basic activities developed in the classroom consistedof teaching grammar rules and of regularpractice intranslatingsentenceslike thefollowingintoandoutof the target language. Teacherswere more preoccupiedwithwrittenexercisesandlengthybilingual lists of vocabulary. The written exercises were repetitive and the language presented was academic and unreal. The most immediate aim of the teacher was the completionof allthe exercisesineachlessonandcoveringall thelessonscontained in the book. The students' native language was the medium of instruction and it was used to explain new items and to enable comparisons to be made between the two languages. The foreign language was not used in the class to any extent. 3.1.4. TeacherAndLearnerRoles The teachingactivitywas focusedonthe teacherashe becomesthe mostrelevant figure within the classroom. He gives a lot importance to error correction and always looks for grammatical and lexical accuracy. However, the teacher's role in the classroomwasnot verydemanding,since he hadnoneedtobe imaginativeor creative in planning the lessons. On the other hand, the student's role was a passive one: they absorbed the information supplied by the teacher and afterwards they had to reproduce it in order to satisfy the teacher. 3.1.5. Language TeachingInnovationsInTheNineteenthCentury In Germany, England, France, and other parts of Europe, new approaches to language teaching were developed by individual language teaching specialists. Educators recognized the need for speaking proficiency rather than reading comprehension,grammar,orliteraryappreciationasthe goal forforeignlanguage programmers; there was an interest in how children learn languages. 4. THEREFORMMOVEMENT The discipline of Linguisticswas revitalized.Phonetics(the scientificanalysisanddescriptionof the sound systems of languages) was established, providing new insights into speech processes.The International Phonetic Association was founded in 1886, and its International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) was designed to enable accurate sound transcription for any language.
  • 4. 4.1.TheDirectMethod In the middle of the 19th centurythe originsof whatwouldbecome the DirectMethodwere developedbyJ.S.Blackie,aScottishteacher,whointhe 1850s wasadvocatingthe avoidance of the mother tongue, the direct association of word with object, and the relegation of grammar to a subordinate position. At that time international relation in the fields of Politics and Commerce above all, were gaining increasing relevance. It seems logical them that the interest was in stressing the ability to use the foreign language rather than in analysing it. Besides, the fact that the grammar-translation method did not have interpersonal communicationas one of its main goals, made it unsuitable for students who were not from an academic background. From a theoretical pointof view thismethodwasverymuchbasedonthe linguistictheories of the time,whichconsideredthe oral language and Phoneticsasimportantcomponentsin the teachingand learningprocessof a foreignlanguage.The studentslearntounderstanda language by listening to a great deal of it, and they learn to speak it, by speaking it. Oral communication skills are built up in a carefully graded progression organised around question-and-answerexchangesbetweenteachers andstudentsinsmall,intensive classes. The DirectMethodadvocateslearningbythe directassociationof foreignwordsandphrases withobjectsand actionsor, in other words,speechisassociatedto appropriate action.This means that students have to understand meaning clear, using miming, sketches or explanations in order to clarify the meaning of abstract vocabulary. Because of the importance given to the oral language, Phonetics also played an important role; correct intonation became a key focus of interest. The students are taught the new sound system right from the beginning and are encouraged to do phonetic transcription. If there isa word that studentsdonot understand,thisisnevertranslated;onthe contrary, students are encouraged to inter meaning of unknown words from the context. 4.2.TheReadingMethod The Reading Method focused on the systematic teaching of reading comprehension. The studentswere trainedtoreadthe foreignlanguage withdirectapprehensionof meaning,but without a conscious effort to translate. It was expected that students would use the same techniques theyhad used when learning to read in their native language. So, if there were any words the students did not understand, they would infer meaning from the context. Reading could either be intensive or extensive:  The intensive readingtaskswere continuouslysupervisedbytheteacher,whowould check the degree of comprehension achieved. The intensive reading al provided source material for grammatical study and for the acquisition of vocabulary.  Extensive reading activities were also part of the learning process. In this case the students would read on their own texts graded to their language level; these
  • 5. materials contained controlled vocabulary and syntax structures. The extensive reading led the way to undertaking class projects, which were valuable from the pedagogical point of view. Writingwaslimitedtoexerciseswherethe studentshadthe opportunity touse some of the vocabulary and essential structures also necessary to understand the text. The studyof grammar wassupposed tobe directedtothe needsof the reader,sothere was no need for active reproduction. Some importance was also given to correct pronunciation, since there was oral practice relatedtoatext:studentshadtoreadthe textaloudortodoexercisesconsistingof questions and answer. 4.3.Oral ApproachOrSituational Approach The Oral Approachis focusedonthe theoriesdevelopedinEnglandbetweenthe 1930s and the 190s. Two of the leaders in this movement were Harold Palmer and A.S. Hornby, who were familiar with the work of such linguists as Otto Jespersen and Daniel Jones. 4.3.1. MainFeatures The main characteristics of the approach were as follows: 1. The firststepinthe learningprocesswasto become familiarwiththe new sound systemand to understand simple spokenlanguage andthe use of simple speech patterns;studentscarriedout listeningandspeakingactivitiescontainingsimple phrases. 2. The target language wasthe language of instructionandthe native language was to be avoided.However,inordertocorrect some of the flawstheyhadobserved in that language teachingsystemof the DirectMethod,theyacceptedthe use of the native language when explaining the meaning of some words or some grammar points of a strictly functional kind. 3. Palmer viewed grammar as the underlying sentence patterns of the spoken language,Palmer,Hornby,andotherBritishappliedlinguistsanalyzedEnglishand classified its major grammatical structure into sentence patterns (later called “substitutiontables”),whichcouldbe usedtohelpinternalizethe rulesof English sentence structure. They also consideredthat it was necessary to add more practice of grammatical structures, and these were introduced gradually from simple forms to complex ones, offering opportunities for practicing them in situational contexts. 4. Likewise, vocabulary was graded to ensure that an essential general service vocabularywascovered.The effortstointroduce ascientificandrationalbasisfor choosingthe vocabularycontentof alanguagecourse representthefirstattempts to establish principles of syllabus design in language teaching.
  • 6. 5. Reading and writing were introduced one a sufficient lexical and grammatical basis was established.Occasional translation was allowedas a checking method on comprehension of precise details in reading. Unlike the Direct Method or the Reading Method, which gave much more importance to speaking and reading respectively, the Oral Approach sought a balance between the developments of the four linguistic skills at all stages: oral comprehension, writing comprehension,oral productionandwritingproduction,althoughthe emphasisremainedon oral presentations. 4.4.TheAudio-LingualMethod The existing methods at that were not considered suitable to promote the communicative needs which had arisen as a consequence of war, so the “American Council of Learned Societies” created a linguistic programme called “ASTP” (“Army Specialised Training Programme”) in 1941. This programmer offered instruction for 50 different languages to 100,000 members of the Army who were expected to acquire oral competence in several languages by means of using a combination of techniques from the different existing methods, such as the Direct Method, audio-visual media (films, radio, and so on), and recordings. The “methodology”of the Army Method impliedintensive contactwiththe target language (=tenhoursa day, six daysa week) insmall classesof mature andhighlymotivatedstudents, which is why such excellent results were often achieved and the programme was very successful. Despite the difficulties in adapting it as a method, the success of the “ASTP”, together with the linguisticneedsof foreignstudentsinthe Americanuniversitiesledtothe development of a new method in foreign language teaching in the US in the 1950s: Audiolingualism. 4.5.WhatisTheBasicofAudiolingualism? The history of the Audiolingual Method is linkedto the Institute of EnglishLanguage at the University of Michigan, created in 1939. One of the linguists from this university, Charles Fries, was trained in structural linguistics, and he applied the principles of structural linguisticstolanguage teaching.The new approachfor language learningwasfirstcoinedas the “Oral Approach”, the “Aural-Oral Method” or the “Structural Approach”; later on the combination of structural linguistic theory, contrastive analysis, aural-oral procedures,and behaviourist psychology led to the “Audiolingual Method”, a term coined in 1964 by Professor Nelson Brooks. Although many of its aspects may seem similar to those of the British Oral Approach, both traditions developed independently. It was in the 1960s that the Audiolingual Method reached its greatest popularity.
  • 7. 4.5.1. MainFeatures 4.5.1.1. Typesofactivities Audiolingualists based their theories on the observation of a corpus of a particular language in order to describe its sound and the possibilitiesof word combination. This descriptive approach led them to research what people really say in their mother tongue. The Audiolingualists took as a model the wayachildacquiresthesehabits.Childrenlearn alanguage,and all the social ruleswhichare complementarytoit,inspokenform.Thisidea ledthemto thinkthat studentsacquire the foreignlanguagemore easilyif it is in the spoken form. Teachingwasthereforebasedondialoguesthatcontainedcommonly-used every-day expressions and basic structures. These dialogues provided a meansof contextualizingkeystructuresandillustratingsituationsinwhich structures might be used as well as some cultural aspects of the target language. Dialogues and pattern drills were learned by a process of mimicry and memorization: first as a group, then in smaller groups and finally individually. The benefits of these procedures were the relatively high motivation of students, as the drilling protects them from their initial embarrassment and minimizes mistakes. Correct pronunciation,stress,rhythm, andintonationwere emphasizedas opposed to grammatical explanations. The reading tasks were at first an adaptation or recombination of what students had learned orally. Writing was imitative, consisting of transcriptions of words and dialogue sentences. The use of the L1 was avoided in the classroom as much as possible, althoughitwas neverforbidden.The treatmentof errorwas an important component of the learning process and sometimes students were not encouraged to speak in order to avoid mistakes. 4.5.1.2. LearnerandTeacherRoles Learners played an active role in the classroom by responding to stimuli; however,itwasthe teacherwhodecidedthe contentsof a lessonandthe pace of learning, and who monitored and corrected the learners' performance. The teacher's role was therefore a central one, and it required inventiveness and resourcefulness so as to encourage the practice of structures by means of different drill and tasks, and by choosing relevant situations.
  • 8. 4.6.TheRoleofMaterials Instructional materialswere primarilyteacheroriented.Inthe elementaryphases of acourse a student textbookwas often not used as students were primarily listening, repeating, and responding. Tape recordersandaudio-visualequipmentwere oftenusedinanaudionlingualcourse:they providedaccurate modelsforlisteningpractice. A dialoguewaspresentedandstudentswere engaged in drilling exercises, repeating the dialogue sentence by sentence, or in follow-up fluency drills on grammar or pronunciation. 4.7.CognitiveCodeLearningorCognitiveApproach Fromthe verybeginningthe objective of languageteachingwastogive the same importance tothe fourskills,andthecontentswerefocusedonthegrammatical component,withspecial relevance granted to morphology and syntax within the sentence. Some of the theoretical underpinnings of the Cognitive Approach were: 1. Conscious learning of the language systemis promoted: learners need to have control of the language rules in order to be able to generate their own language in new situations(the principle of creativity).Inotherwords,learnersneedto understand the systemof rules; thusgrammar isexplainedopenlyandisoftencontrastedwiththe first language.Makingmistakesisviewsaspartof the processof achievinganunderstanding of rules. 2. Conscious focus on grammar acknowledges the role of abstract mental processes in learning rather than defining learning simply in terms of habit formation. 3. Learningmust go from the knownto the unknown,so that the learnerscan familiarize themselveswiththe rulesfirst(knowledge) andapplythemafterwards(performance). This meansthat learnersfirstdeal withcontrolledcomprehensionandmanipulationof linguistic forms for later use in real communication situations. It is believedthat if the students have a cognitive control over the language structure, they will automatically develop the ability to use them in meaningful situations. 4. Learningmustbe meaningful(incontrasttothe routine repetitionof ´drills´),itmustbe relatedtothe newmaterialsandadaptedto the learnersneeds.Thuslearningisunder the learner's control. Although many have considered the changes implemented by the Cognitive Approach as superficial,particularlythose concerningtechniquesandclassroomdynamics,itwas widely acceptedinthe UnitedStates,andmanyof the activitiescarriedoutinthe classroomcontext consistedof the combinationof astructural ´syllabus´withacognitiveapproachandavariety of communicative and personalized activities and strategies.
  • 9. The term cognitive code is still sometimes invoked to refer to any conscious attempt to organise materialsaroundagrammatical syllabuswhileallowingformeaningfulpractice and use of language. 1. Which of the following can be found in the Grammar Translation Method? 2. Which of the following can be found in the Direct Method? L1/L2 vocabularylists. Grammar rulesexplainedinthe L2. An activityforinferringinformationfromthe textinordertoanswer comprehensionquestions. Group work. TASK Done a) b) c) d)
  • 10. 3. Which of the following can be found in both the Oral Approach and Audiolingualism? 4. Which of the following can be found in the Cognitive Approach? L1/L2 vocabularylists. Grammar rulesexplainedinthe L2. The teachershowsa picture to explainthe meaningof anew word. An emphasisonaccurate pronunciation. An occasional use of the L1. Analysisof underlyinggrammaticalstructures. A heavyemphasisonreadingandwritingskills. The use of oral repetitiondrills. A learner-centredapproach. More emphasisonthe skillsof readingandwritingthanonspeakingand listening. Grammatical analysis. The use of controlledpractice activities. Mistakesare immediatelycorrected. a) b) c) d) a) b) c) d) e) a) b) c) d)
  • 11. What has been the attitude toward the teaching of (a) pronunciation, (b) grammar, (c) vocabulary in the approaches discussed in this unit? TASK Done