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PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 
BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 1 
SECTION A [60 marks] Answer all the questions Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini 
1. Diagram 1.1 shows the structure of animal cell 
Rajah 1.1 menunjukkan struktur sel haiwan 
Diagram 1.1 Rajah 1.1 
(a) On Diagram 1.1, label X and Y. 
Pada Rajah 1.1, labelkan X dan Y [1marks] 
(b) Explain one characteristic of Y related to cell division. 
Terangkan satu ciri Y berkaitan dengan pembahagian sel. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... [2marks] 
Y : 
X :
PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 
BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 2 
(c) Explain the function of X in cell division. 
Terangkan fungsi X dalam pembahagian sel. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... [2marks] 
(d) Diagram 1.2 shows stage of cell division in somatic cell of human. 
Draw another two stage in that cell division in the box given. Rajah 1.2 menunjukkan peringkat pembahagian sel dalam sel soma manusia. Lukiskan dua peringkat dalam pembahagian sel tersebut dalam petak yang diberi. 
[2marks] 
Diagram 1.2 
Rajah 1.2 
(a) 
(b) 
(c) 
(d)
PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 
BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 3 
(e) If spindle fibre is not form in Diagram 1.2 (d), explain the effect on the number of chromosome in the daughter cell. 
Jika gentian gelendong tidak terbentuk dalam Rajah 1.2 (d), terangkan kesan ke atas bilangan kromosom dalam sel anak. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... [2 marks] 
(f) Explain how the cell division above can be used to increase the number of given example of the plant in the farm. 
Terangkan bagaimanakah pembahagian sel di atas dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan bilangan tumbuhan yang dinamakan dalam ladang. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... [3 marks]
PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 
BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 4 
2.(a) Diagram 2.1 shows the shape of red blood cells after being immersed for 30 minutes in three solutions with different concentration. Rajah 2.1 menunjukkan bentuk sel darah merah selepas direndam selama 30 minit dalam tiga larutan yang berbeza kepekatannya. 
Based on the Diagram 2.1 Berdasarkan Rajah 2.1 (i) State the condition of the red blood cells after being immersed in solution : Nyatakan keadaan sel darah merah selepas direndam di dalam larutan : P : ............................................................................................................................ Q : .......................................................................................................................... [2 marks] 
Diagram 2.1 
Red blood cells in Q solution 
Sel darah merah dalam larutan Q 
Red blood cells in P solution 
Sel darah merah dalam larutan P 
Red blood cells in R solution 
Sel darah merah dalam larutan R
PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 
BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 5 
(ii) Name the type of solution R in which the red blood cells are immersed. Namakan jenis larutan R yang mana sel darah merah direndam. .................................................................................................................................. [1 mark] (iii) Explain your answers given in a(ii) Terangkan jawapan yang anda berikan di a(ii) .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. [3 marks] 
(b) Based on the statement, explain why vinegar is suitable to be used as the natural preservative for the preservation of garlic. Berdasarkan pernyataan di atas, terangkan mengapa cuka adalah sesuai digunakan sebagai pengawet semulajadi untuk bawang putih. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... [3 marks] 
Food such as mushrooms, fruits, vegetables and fish can be preserved longer by using natural preservatives such as salt, sugar and vinegar. 
Makanan seperti cendawan, buah-buahan, sayur-sayuran dan ikan boleh diawet untuk tahan lama menggunakan bahan-bahan pengawet semulajadi seperti garam,gula dan cuka.
PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 
BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 6 
(c) Diagram 2.2 shows the condition of herbaceous plant due to water shortage in soil. Rajah 2.2 menunjukkan keadaan pokok herba disebabkan oleh kekurangan air dalam tanah. 
Explain the condition of the plant in Diagram 2.2 after one week. Terangkan keadaan pokok dalam Rajah 2.2 selepas satu minggu. .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... [3 marks] 
Water shortage after one week 
Kekurangan air selepas satu minggu 
Diagram 2.2 
Rajah 2.2
PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 
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4. Diagram 4.1 shows the process of phagocytosis as second line of defence to destroy the bacteria. 
Rajah 4.1 menunjukkan proses fagositosis sebagai barisan pertahanan kedua untuk memusnahkan bakteria. 
Stage 1 Stage 2 
Peringkat 1 Peringkat 2 
Stage 4 Stage 3 Peringkat 4 Peringkat 3 Diagram 4.1 Rajah 4.1 
(a) (i) Name cell M involved in mechanism above. 
Namakan sel M yang terlibat dalam mekanisma di atas. .......................................................................................................................... [1 mark] 
(ii) Draw a diagram in stage 3 
Lukis rajah dalam peringkat 3. 
M
PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 
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(b) Explain the function of lisosome in mechanism above 
Terangkan peranan lisosom dalam mekanisma di atas ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ………………………………………………………………………………………………… [2 mark] 
(c) Explain what happen in stage 2. 
Terangkan apa yang berlaku dalam peringkat 2. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ………………………………………………………………………………………………… [2 mark] 
(d) How the action of M to pathogen is different to lymphocyte? 
Bagaimanakah tindakan M terhadap patogen adalah berbeza dengan limfosit? .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. …………………………………………………………………………………………….. [2 marks] 
(e) Diagram 4.2 show a type of immunity occurs in human. 
Rajah 4.2 menunjukkan satu jenis keimunan yang berlaku dalam manusia.
PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 
BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 9 
Diagram 4.2 / Rajah 4.2 
(i) Name the type of immunity shows in the Diagram 4.2. 
Namakan jenis keimunan yang ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 4.2. .................................................................................................................................. [1 mark] 
(ii) Name the second injection and why the person should take second injection? 
Namakan suntikan kedua dan mengapa individu ini perlu mengambil suntikan kedua? .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. [2 marks] 
(f) The above immunity is example of third line of defence. What make it different to the second line of defence? 
Keimunan di atas merupakan contoh barisan pertahanan ketiga. Apakah yang menjadikannya berbeza dengan barisan pertahanan ke dua? ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... [2 marks]
PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 
BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 10 
Q 
5. Diagram 5.1 shows the stages of the ovarian cycle in human ovary Diagram 5.2 shows the thickness of the endometrium of uterus before the fertilisation in the second menstrual cycle. Rajah 5.1 menunjukkan peringkat kitaran ovary dalam ovari manusia. Rajah 5.2 menunjukkan ketebalan endometrium dalam uterus sebelum berlaku persenyawaan dalam kitar haid yang kedua. 
Diagram 5.1 /Rajah 5.1 
Diagram 5.2 Rajah 5.2 
Y 
P 
Secondary follicle 
Folikel sekunder 
Secondary oocyte 
Oosit sekunder 
X 
Q
PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 
BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 11 
a) (i) Describe the change in the structure of follicle P into a secondary follicle. 
Terangkan perubahan struktur folikel P sehingga pembentukan folikel sekunder. ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... [2 marks] (ii) Relate the change in (a)(i) to the thickness of the endometrium Hubungkan perubahan dalam (a) (i) dengan ketebalan endometrium .................................................................................................................................. [1 mark] 
b) Explain the process that occurs at X. 
Terangkan proses yang berlaku pada X. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... [2 marks] 
c) Explain the effect of the change of structure Q to the thickness of the endometrium. 
Terangkan kesan perubahan struktur Q ke atas ketebalan dinding endometrium. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... [2 marks] 
d) (i) Fertilisation takes place in the second menstrual cycle. 
Complete the graph in Diagram 5.2 to show the changes in the thickness of the endometrium after point Y Persenyawaan berlaku dalam kitar haid yang kedua. Lengkapkan graf dalam Rajah 5.2 untuk menunjukkan perubahan ketebalan endometrium selepas titik Y [1 mark]
PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 
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(ii) Explain your answer in (d)(i). Terangkan jawapan anda dalam (d)(i). .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. [2 marks] 
e) (i) State the changes in the thickness of the endometrium after point Y relating to the secretion of hormones secreted by the ovary. 
Terangkan hubungan perubahan ketebalan endometrium selepas titik Y dengan perembesan hormon oleh ovari. ................................................................................................................................... [1 mark] (ii) State the importance of thickened endometrium to the continuity of life Nyatakan kepentingan ketebalan endometrium dalam kesinambungan hidupan .................................................................................................................................. [1 mark]
PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 
BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 13 
SECTION B [40 marks] Answer any two questions from this section. Jawab mana-mana dua soalan daripada bahagian ini. 6. Diagram 6.1 shows the growth and development process at the shoot tip. Rajah 6.1 menunjukkan proses pertumbuhan dan perkembangan pada hujung pucuk. 
Diagram 6.1/ Rajah 6.1 
a) Explain the process of primary growth that shown in Diagram 6.1 
Terangkan proses pertumbuhan primer yang ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 6.1 [8 marks] 
b) Explain the importance of primary growth to plant. 
Terangkan kepentingan pertumbuhan primer kepada tumbuhan 
[4 marks]
PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 
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c) Diagram 6.2 shown the tropism respond at shoot tip and root tip. 
Rajah 6.2 menunjukkan gerakbalas tropisme pada hujung pucuk dan hujung akar. 
Diagram 6.2 Based on diagram 6.2 explain how the tropism response occurred. Berdasarkan rajah 6.2 terangkan bagaimana gerakbalas tropisme berlaku. [8 marks] 7. (a) Explain the interaction based on Diagram 7.1 Terangkan interaksi berdasarkan Rajah 7.1 
Diagram 7.1 Rajah 7.1 [4marks]
PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 
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(b) Diagram 7.2 shows mechanism of photosynthesis in plant. Explain why the product from light reaction need for dark reaction. Rajah 7.2 menunjukkan mekanisma fotosintesis dalam tumbuhan. Terangkan Mengapa produk dari tindak balas cahaya diperlukan untuk tindakbalas gelap. 
[6marks] (c) Diagram 7.3 shows the condition of the town. Rajah 7.3 menunjukkan sebuah bandar. 
Diagram 7.3 Rajah 7.3 
Diagram 7.2 
Rajah 7.2
PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 
BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 16 
(i) Discuss the effect of air pollution may occur in the town. 
Bincangkan kesan pencemaran udara yang mungkin berlaku dalam bandar. [6 marks] 
(ii) If you are an environmental activist, suggest how you would explain to the government about the measures needed to overcome the pollution. 
Jika anda seorang aktivis alam sekitar, cadangkan bagaimana anda akan menjelaskan kepada kerajaan mengenai langkah-langkah yang diperlukan untuk mengatasi pencemaran. [4 marks] 8. (a) Diagram 8.1 shows three types of neurons. Rajah 8.1 menunjukkan tiga jenis neuron. 
Diagram 8.1 Rajah 8.1 Name types of neurone P, Q and R and state two differences between the structure of neurone P and neurone Q Namakan jenis neuron P, Q dan R dan nyatakan dua perbezaan di antara struktur bagi neuron P dan neuron Q [4 marks] 
Neurone P 
Neuron P 
Neurone Q 
Neuron Q 
Neurone R 
Neuron R
PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 
BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 17 
(b) Diagram 8.2 shows the transmission of a nerve impulse from neurone P to neurone R. Rajah 8.2 menunjukkan pemindahan impuls saraf dari neuron P ke neuron R. 
Diagram 8.2 /Rajah 8.2 Explain the transmission of a nerve impulse from neurone P to neurone R Terangkan pemindahan impuls saraf dari neuron P ke neuron R [6 marks] (c) Diagram 8.3a shows example of voluntary action and Diagram 8.3b shows example of involuntary action. By using pathway of transmission of information from receptors to effectors, explain similarities and difference between voluntary action and involuntary action. Rajah 8.3a menunjukkan contoh tindakan terkawal dan Rajah 8.3b menunjukkan contoh tindakan luar kawal. Dengan menggunakan laluan pemindahan maklumat dari reseptor kepada efektor, terangkan persamaan dan perbezaan tindakan terkawal dan tindakan luar kawal. 
Diagram 8.3a Diagram 8.3b [10 mark]
PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 
BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 18 
9. (a) Diagram 9.1 and 9.2 shows the histogram about distribution of genetic variation in human. 
Rajah 9.1 dan 9.2 menunjukkan histogram mengenai taburan variasi genetik dalam manusia. 
Diagram 9.1 Diagram 9.2 
(i) With a suitable example, explain the differences of two kinds of variation. 
Dengan menggunakan contoh yang sesuai, terangkan perbezaan di antara kedua- dua variasi tersebut. [7 marks] (ii) What is the importance of variation to organism? Apakah kepentingan variasi kepada organisma? [3 marks]
PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 
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(b) Diagram 9.3a, 9.3b and 9.3c shows the genetic factors that affected on the variation of organism. Rajah 9.3a, 9.3b dan 9.3c menunjukkan faktor-faktor genetik yang memberi kesan ke atas variasi pada organisma. 
Diagram 9.3a 
Diagram 9.3b Diagram 9.3b Explain how these factors in the diagram above will cause the variation among the organism. Terangkan bagaimana faktor-faktor dalam rajah di atas akan menyebabkan variasi di kalangan organisma. [10 marks] 
END OF QUESTION PAPER 
KERTAS SOALAN TAMAT 
Combination 4 
Gabungan4 
Combination 1 
Gabungan 1 
Combination 2 
Gabungan2 
Combination 3 
Gabungan3
PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 
BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 | 1 
SECTION A [60 marks] Answer all questions in this section. Jawab semua soalan di bahagian ini 
1. 
Diagram 1 shows a microscopic structure of a part of pancreatic cell. Rajah 1 menunjukan struktur mikroskopik sebahagian sel pancreas. 
(a) 
(i) 
Name the organelle K and organelle L Namakan organel K dan organel L. K : ….…………………………………………………………………………………. L : …………………………………………………………………………………….. [2 marks] 
(ii) 
Explain how the organelle K and organelle L are interrelated in their function Terangkan bagaimana organel K dan organel L adalah saling berkaitan dari segi fungsi mereka. …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… [2 marks] 
Diagram 1 Rajah 1 
Note Catatan
PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 
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(b) 
(i) 
Name one chemical substance in the structure R which is involved in the synthesis of protein in a cell. Namakan satu bahan kimia dalam struktur R yang terlibat dalam sintesis protein dalam suatu sel. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. [1 marks] 
(ii) 
Draw the structure of the chemical compound in (b)(i) in the blank space below. Lukis struktur bahan kimia dalam (b)(i) dalam ruang kosong di bawah. [2 marks] 
(c) 
(i) 
Based on the diagram, describe the synthesis of a specific pancreatic hormone in the cell. Berdasarkan gambarajah itu, huraikan bagaimana suatu hormon tertentu disintesiskan dalam sel itu. ………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………….. [3 marks] 
(ii) 
The structure R in Diagram 1 undergoes some changes due to exposure to radioactive rays. Explain the possible effect to the synthesis of the hormone. Struktur R dalam Rajah 1 mengalami perubahan akibat pendedahan kepada sinaran radioaktif. Terangkan kemungkinan kesannya ke atas sintesis hormon itu. ………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………… [2 marks]
PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 
BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 | 3 
2. Diagram 2.1 shows two individual, P and Q in two different situations. P is in a vigorous 
activity while Q is at rest. Processes of R and S occur in a human muscle cell. 
Rajah 2.1 menunjukkan dua individu, P dan Q dalam dua situasi yang berbeza. P sedang 
melakukan satu aktiviti cergas manakala Q berada dalam keadaan rehat. Proses R dan S 
berlaku dalam satu sel otot manusia. 
Diagram 2.1 / Rajah 2.1 
(a) Based on Diagram 2.1, name the processes R and S. 
Berdasarkan Rajah 2.1, namakan proses R dan S. 
Process R/ Proses R : ……………………………………………….……………………… 
Process S/ Proses S : ……………………………………………………………………… 
[2 marks] 
(b) Write the equation of process S. 
Tuliskan persamaan bagi proses S. 
…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 
[1 marks] 
(c) 
State two differences between process R and process S. 
Nyatakan dua perbezaan di antara proses R dan proses S. 
Process R Process S 
[2 marks]
PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 
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(d) 
Diagram 2.2(a) shows fish respiratory structure and Diagram 2.2(b) shows human respiratory structure. 
Rajah 2.2(a) menunjukkan struktur respirasi ikan dan Rajah 2.2(b) menunjukkan struktur respirasi manusia. 
(i) 
What is X? / Apakah X? …………………………………………………………………………………………….. [1 mark] 
(ii) 
Structure X has adaptation for efficiency gases exchange in fish. Explain one adaptation of X. Struktur X mempunyai penyesuaian untuk pertukaran gas yang cekap pada ikan. Terangkan satu penyesuaian pada X. …………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………….. [2 marks] 
(e) A man is a heavy smoker. Explain how this habit affect the efficiency of gases exchange on the respiratory structure in Diagram 2.2(b). Seorang lelaki adalah seorang perokok tegar. Terangkan bagaimana tabiat ini mempengaruhi kecekapan pertukaran gas pada struktur respirasi dalam Diagram 2.2(b). ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………[4 marks] 
Diagram 2.2(a) Rajah 2.2(a) 
Diagram 2.2(b) Rajah 2.2(b) 
X
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3. 
Diagram 3.1 shows the sequence of hydrolysis of starch to molecules P and molecule Q by enzymes. Rajah 3.1 menunjukkan urutan hidrolisis kanji kepada molekul P dan molekul Q oleh enzim. 
(a) 
(i) 
Complete Table 3.1. Lengkapkan Jadual 3.1 
Molecule Molekul 
Name of molecule Nama molekul 
Name the enzyme involved in hydrolysis Namakan enzim yang terlibat dalam hidrolisis 
P 
Q 
[4 marks] 
(ii) 
Based on your biological knowledge, explain the effect of consuming food that contain excessive of starch on health. Berdasarkan pengetahuan biologi anda, terangkan kesan pengambilan makanan yang mengandungi kanji berlebihan ke atas kesihatan. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. [2 marks] 
Enzyme Enzim 
Starch Kanji 
+ water air 
+ water air 
Molecule P Molekul P 
Enzyme Enzim 
Molecule Q Molekul Q 
Diagram 3 /Rajah 3 
Table 3.1/Jadual 3.1
PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 
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(b) 
Table 3.2 shows the energy value and nutrient content in a few types of food taken by student. Jadual 3.2 menunjukkan nilai tenaga dan kandungan nutrien di dalam beberapa jenis makanan yang diambil oleh seorang pelajar. 
Food Makanan (/100g) 
Energy Tenaga (kJ) 
Carbohydrate Karbohidrat (g) 
Fats Lemak (g) 
Protein Protein (g) 
Vitamin C Vitamin C (μg) 
Rice Nasi 
1530 
86.8 
1.0 
6.4 
0.0 
Fish Ikan 
320 
0.0 
0.5 
17.5 
0.0 
Egg Telur 
612 
0.0 
10.9 
12.4 
0.0 
Orange Oren 
150 
8.5 
0.0 
0.8 
50 
(i) 
Based on Table 3.2, which type of food supplies the most energy? Berdasarkan Jadual 3.2, jenis makanan manakah yang membekalkan paling banyak tenaga? …………………………………………………………………………………………….. [1 mark] 
(ii) 
Which type of food should be taken regularly to prevent scurvy? Jenis makanan manakah yang perlu kerap diambil untuk mengelakkan penyakit skurvi? …………………………………………………………………………………………… [1 mark] 
(iii) 
Calculate the amount of energy obtained by the student if he eats a meal which contain 200g rice and 150g fish. Kirakan jumlah tenaga yang diperolehi oleh pelajar tersebut jika dia mengambil 200 g nasi dan 150 g ikan. [3 marks] 
(c) 
Why does an egg produces double amount of energy compared to a fish? Mengapakah sebiji telur menghasilkan jumlah tenaga dua kali ganda berbanding seekor ikan? 
…………………………………………………………………………………………………… [1 mark] 
Table 3.2 /Jadual 3.2
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4. 
Diagram 4.1 shows a longitudinal section of the reproductive parts of a flower during fertilization. 
Rajah 4.1 menunjukkan keratan memanjang bahagian pembiakan bunga semasa persenyawaan. 
(a) 
(i) 
In Diagram 4.1, label P,Q, R and S Pada Rajah 4.1, labelkan P, Q, R dan S [2 marks] 
(ii) 
In the space below, draw a section through the ovule showing all the cells in S. Label the cells involved in fertilization. Dalam ruang di bawah , lukiskan keratan melalui ovul menunjukkan semua sel- sel dalam S. Labelkan sel-sel yang terlibat dalam persenyawaan [2 marks] 
Diagram 4.1 Rajah 4.1
PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 
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(iii) 
Describe the fertilization process that occurs. Huraikan proses persenyawaan yang berlaku . ………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………….. [2marks] 
(b) 
(i) 
In Diagram 4.1, the structure Y has to be kept dormant for future research purposes. Explain how Y can be prevented from germinating. Dalam Rajah 4.1, struktur Y perlu disimpan tidak aktif untuk tujuan penyelidikan pada masa hadapan. Terangkan bagaimana Y boleh dihalang daripada bercambah. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………… [2 marks] 
(ii) 
Suggest one method to stimulate the germination of Y Cadangkan satu kaedah untuk merangsang percambahan Y. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. [1mark] 
(e) 
Diagram 4.2 shows a watermelon with seed and watermelon without seed. Rajah 4.2 menunjukkan buah tembikai dengan biji dan buah tembikai tanpa biji. 
Nowadays, it is more easier to find seedless watermelon in market. Shoppers also can find varieties of seedless oranges, grapes, and cucumbers. Explain how to produce varieties of fruits without seed. Pada masa kini, adalah lebih mudah untuk mencari tembikai tanpa biji di pasaran. Pembeli juga boleh mendapatkan buah limau , anggur dan timun tanpa biji. Terangkan bagaimana untuk menghasilkan buah tanpa biji . ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 
[3marks] 
Diagram 4.2/ Rajah 4.2
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5 
Diagram 5.1 shows a uriniferous tubule and its associated blood vessels. Diagram 5.2 shows cells from structure P as seen through an electron microscope. Gambarajah 5.1 menunjukkan tubul uriniferus dan salur darah yang berkaitan. 
Gambarajah 5.2 menunjukkan sel dari struktur P seperti yang dilihat di bawah mikroskop elektron. 
(a) 
State the difference in the urea composition between the blood vessel X and Y. Nyatakan perbezaan kandungan urea antara salur darah X dan Y. .......................................................................................................................................... [1 mark] 
Diagram 5.2 / Rajah 5.2 
Diagram 5.1 Rajah 5.1 
Y 
P 
X 
Q 
Blood Darah 
Blood Darah 
Blood vessel Salur darah
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(b) 
Based on the Diagram 5.2 explain how the cells are structured for reabsorption of substances. Berdasarkan Rajah 5.2, terangkan bagaimana sel distrukturkan untuk penyerapan semula bahan. .......................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... [2 marks] 
(c) 
Table 5.1 shows the concentration of certain substances found in structure Q. Jadual 5.1 menunjukkan kepekatan beberapa bahan yang terdapat di dalam struktur Q. 
Substances Bahan 
Water Air 
Protein Protein 
Glucose Glukosa 
Urea Urea 
Salts Garam 
Concentration Kepekatan (%) 
95.0 
0.00 
0.00 
2.00 
1.50 
Explain how the concentration of the substances present in Q would change after eating meat and eggs. Terangkan bagaimana kepekatan bahan-bahan yang terdapat dalam Q akan berubah selepas memakan daging dan telur. ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... [3 marks] 
Table 5.1 / Jadual 5.1
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(d) 
Diagram 5.2 shows the flow of blood and dialysis fluid through a dialysis machine. Rajah 5.2 menunjukkan aliran darah dan bendalir dialisis melalui suatu mesin dialisis. 
DIAGRAM 5.2/ RAJAH 5.2 Tube P contain more nitrogenous waste compared to tube Q. Explain why. Tiub P mengandungi banyak bahan kumuh bernitrogen berbanding tiub Q. Terangkan mengapa. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………….................... ……………………………………………………………………………........................ ……………………………………………………………………………....................... ……………………………………………………………………………........................ [3 marks] 
(e) 
Explain the importance of kidney in maintaining human health. Terangkan kepentingan ginjal dalam mengekalkan kesihatan manusia. ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... [3 marks]
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Section B Bahagian B [40 markah] Answer all question from this section Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini. 6(a) Diagram 6.1 shows a forearm of humans. Rajah 6.1 menunjukkan lengan atas manusia. 
A joint is the location at which bones connect. They are constructed to allow movement and provide mechanical support. Explain the similarity and difference between joint S and T? Sendi adalah tempat di mana tulang-tulang bertemu. Sendi dibina untuk membolehkan pergerakan dan memberikan sokongan mekanikal. Terangkan persamaan dan perbezaan antara sendi S dan T? [6 marks/6 markah] 
Joint T Sendi T 
Diagram 6.1 Rajah 6.1 
Joint S Sendi S
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(b) Based on your biological knowledge, discuss the statement above. Dengan menggunakan pengetahuan biologi anda, bincangkan pernyataan di atas. [6 marks/6 markah] (c) Diagram 6.2 show an earthworm and structure in its body. Rajah 6.2 menunjukkan seekor cacing tanah dan struktur pada badannya. 
Explain how the structure in the earthworm involve in their movement . Terangkan bagaimana struktur pada cacing tanah terlibat dengan pergerakannya. [4 marks/4 markah] (d) Diagram 6.3 shows flight muscle of a bird. Rajah 6.3 menunjukkan otot penerbangan seekor burung. 
Explain the effect to locomotion of bird if structure W is torn. Terangkan kesan terhadap pergerakan burung jika stuktur W terkoyak. [4 marks/4 mark] 
A man has swollen ankle and is painful during movement after having a habit of taking high protein diet and practicing unhealthy lifestyle. 
Seorang lelaki mengalami bengkak pada buku lali dan berasa sakit ketika bergerak setelah mengamalkan pengambilan diet yang tinggi kandungan yang protein dan tidak mengamalkan gaya hidup sihat. 
Diagram 6.2/ Rajah 6.2 
W 
Pectoralis minor muscle Otot pektoralis minor 
Humerus /Humerus
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7. Diagram 7.1 shows part of the blood circulatory system and the lymphatic system in the human body. Rajah 7.1 menunjukkan sebahagian sistem peredaran darah dan sistem limfa dalam badan manusia. Diagram 7.1 /Rajah 7.1 (i) Explain the differences between the composition of fluid P and fluid Q Terangkan perbezaan antara komposisi bendalir P dan bendalir Q. [4 marks]/[4 markah] (ii) Describe how the fluid Q is formed from blood until it is incorporated back into the blood circulatory system. Huraikan bagaimana bendalir Q terbentuk daripada darah sehingga bendalir tersebut masuk semula ke dalam sistem peredaran darah. [6 marks]/[6 markah] 
(c) (i) Describe how are lacteals in the villi related with the lymphatic system? 
Huraikan bagaimana lakteal di dalam vilus dapat dikaitkan dengan sistem limfa? 
[4 marks]/[4 markah] 
(ii) Helmie takes fried chicken at lunch. Explain the absorption and assimilation process of lipid content in the fried chicken. Helmie mengambil ayam goreng semasa makan tengah hari. Huraikan proses penyerapan dan asimilasi lemak yang terkandung dalam ayam goreng tersebut. [6 marks]
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8.(a) Diagram 8.1 shows the process of colonisation and succession in a habitat. Rajah 8.1 menunjukkan proses pengkolonian dan penyesaran dalam suatu habitat. 
Diagram 8.1 What is meant by "colonisation and succession in a habitat”? Based on Diagram 8.1 .explain how colonisation and succession bring about the formation of the primary forest. [10 marks] Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan "pengkolonian dan penyesaran dalam suatu habitat"? Berdasarkan Rajah 8.1, terangkan bagaimana pengkolonian dan penyesaran membawa kepada pembentukan hutan primer dalam suatu habitat. [ 10 markah] 
Rhizophora sp 
Sonneratia sp 
Bruguiera sp 
Low tidal 
High tidal
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(b) Diagram 8.2 shows sources of greenhouse gases arising from human activities and natural processes. Rajah 8.2 menunjukkan sumber-sumber gas rumah hijau yang dihasilkan daripada aktiviti manusia dan proses-proses semula jadi. Diagram 8.2 Rajah 8.2 Based on Diagram 8.2, explain the green house effect and global warming as a result of human activities. Berdasarkan Rajah 8.2, terangkan kesan rumah hijau dan pemanasan global akibat aktiviti- aktiviti manusia. [5 marks]. 
(c) Diagram 8.3 shows the emission of gases from factories. 
Rajah 8.3 menunjukkan pelepasan gas daripada kilang. 
Explain the effects of the emission of the gases to the ecosystem. Terangkan kesan pembebasan gas tersebut kepada ekosistem. [5 marks] 
Diagram 8.3 /Rajah 8.3 
Nitrogen oxide (NO) ,sulphur dioxide (SO2) Nitrogen oksida(NO), sulfur dioksida (SO2) 
Pond Kolam 
Forest Hutan
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9.(a) Diabetics do not correctly produce or use their insulin hormone. The insulin hormone helps control how much sugar is in your bloodstream. Millions of diabetics need to take insulin. Insulin from cows and pigs has been used since the early 1900s to treat diabetes. Now human insulin hormone can be mass-produced through genetic engineering processes. Pesakit kencing manis tidak dapat menghasilkan atau menggunakan insulin dengan betul. Hormon insulin membantu mengawal kandungan gula dalam aliran darah . Berjuta-juta pesakit kencing manis perlu mengambil insulin. Insulin daripada lembu dan babi telah digunakan sejak awal 1900-an untuk merawat penyakit kencing manis. Sekarang hormon insulin manusia boleh dihasilkan secara besar-besaran melalui proses kejuruteraan genetik. Diagram 9.1 shows a few stage that involves in the production of insulin hormone through genetic engineering technology. Rajah 9.1 menunjukkan sebahagian daripada peringkat yang terlibat dalam proses penghasilan hormon insulin melalui teknologi kejuruteraan genetik. By using your knowledge, explain how this technology can be used in insulin hormone production. Berdasarkan pengetahuan biologi anda huraikan bagaimana teknologi ini dijalankan bagi menghasilkan hormon insulin. [6 marks/ 6 markah] 
Diagram 9.1 /Rajah 9.1 
Insulin
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(b) Genetic engineering (GE) is the manipulation of genetic material (DNA or genes) in a 
cell or an organism in order to produce desired characteristics and to eliminate 
unwanted ones. GE includes a range of different techniques with many different uses, 
and can be applied to plants, animals and humans. 
For example, the genetic modification of food is a form of GE that involves manipulating 
the cells of plants. 
Kejuruteraan genetik (GE) adalah manipulasi bahan genetik (DNA atau gen) di dalam 
sel atau organisma untuk menghasilkan ciri-ciri yang dikehendaki dan untuk 
menghapuskan organisma yang tidak diingini. GE termasuk pelbagai teknik yang 
berbeza dengan kegunaan yang berbeza, dan boleh digunakan untuk tumbuh-tumbuhan, 
haiwan dan manusia. Sebagai contoh, pengubah suaian genetik makanan 
adalah satu bentuk GE yang melibatkan memanipulasi sel-sel tumbuh-tumbuhan. 
Diagram 9.2 shows two tomato leaves which have been exposed to a bacterial 
pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae. Leaf A is the normal leaf show disease when 
infected with the bacteria while Leaf B, the genetically engineered leaf shows 
practically no signs of damage. 
Rajah 9.2 menunjukkan dua helai daun tomato yang telah didedahkan kepada sejenis 
patogen bakteria ,Pseudomonas syringae. Daun A adalah daun normal yang 
menunjukkan tanda-tanda penyakit setelah dijangkiti oleh bakteria tersebut, 
manakala daun B yang telah mengalami pengubah suaian kandungan genetiknya tidak 
menunjukkan tanda-tanda kerosakan. 
Discuss the benefits and the risks of using the genetically engineered organisms 
in agriculture and food production. 
Bincangkan faedah dan risiko menggunakan organism yang terubah suai kandungan 
genetiknya dalam pertanian dan penghasilan makanan. 
[10 marks/10 markah] 
Diagram 9.2 / Rajah 9.2 
Leaf A/ Daun A Leaf B/ Daun B
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(c) 
a. 
b. Diagram 9.3 shows a cloning process of a plant. 
c. Rajah 9.3 menunjukkan proses pengklonan satu tumbuhan. 
Explain the characteristic of cloned plant. Terangkan ciri-ciri tumbuhan yang diklon. [4 marks] 
END OF QUESTION PAPER 
KERTAS SOALAN TAMAT 
Leaf cells form calluses in culture medium Sel daun membentuk kalus di dalam medium kultur 
Calluses develop into tiny plantlets Kalus berkembang menjadi anak pokok kecil 
Cloned plants Tumbuhan klon 
Leaf cells are taken from the parent plant Sel daun diambil dari tumbuhan induk 
Diagram 9.3 Rajah 9.3
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Question 1 Soalan 1 
1. A group of students carried out an experiment to study the effect of intraspecific competition on the growth of maize seedlings. 
Sekumpulan pelajar menjalankan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji kesan persaingan intraspesifik ke atas pertumbuhan biji benih jagung. Diagram 1 shows the apparatus set-up of the experiment Rajah 1 menunjukkan susunan radas untuk eksperimen tersebut 
Step 1 : Three seedling trays are filled with 4 kg of garden soil. Langkah 1 : Tiga kotak semaian diisikan dengan 4 kg tanah kebun. Step 2 : The trays are labeled as P, Q and R. Langkah 2 : Kotak-kotak semaian dilabelkan P, Q dan R. Step 3 : In tray P, 50 maize seedlings are seedlinged at a distance of 15 cm intervals. In tray Q, 50 maize seedlings are seedlinged at a distance of 10 cm intervals. In tray R, 50 maize seedlings are seedlinged at a distance of 5 cm intervals. Langkah 3 : Dalam kotak P, 50 anak benih jagung ditanam pada jarak 15 cm berselang seli. Dalam kotak Q, 50 anak benih jagung ditanam pada jarak 10 cm berselang seli. Dalam kotak R, 50 anak benih jagung ditanam pada jarak 5 cm berselang seli. Step 4 : Each tray is watered daily with the same amount of water for 30 days. Langkah 4 : Setiap kotak semaian disiram tiap-tiap hari dengan jumlah air yang sama banyak untuk 30 hari. Step 5 : After 30 days, remove 30 maize seedlings randomly from tray P, tray Q and tray R. The root of seedlings are washed and wipedry. Langkah 5 : Selepas 30 hari, 30 anak benih jagung secara rawak dari kotak P, kotak Q dan kotak R. Akar anak benih dibersihkan dan dilapkan sehingga kering. 
O 0 0 
O 0 0 
0 0 0 
0 0 0 
0 0 0 
0 0 0 0 
0 0 0 0 
0 0 0 0 
0 0 0 0 
0 0 0 0 
0 0 0 0 0 0 
0 0 0 0 0 0 
0 0 0 0 0 0 
0 0 0 0 0 0 
0 0 0 0 0 0 
Tray P/kotak P 
Tray Q /kotak Q 
Tray R/kotak R 
Diagram 1/rajah 1
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Step 6 : The dry weight of the maize seedlings is recorded in Table 1. Langkah 6 : Berat kering anak benih jagung dicatatkan dalam Jadual 1. 
Distance between maize seedlings / jarak antara anak benih jagung (cm) 
Dry weight of 30 maize seedlings (g) / berat kering 30 anak benih jagung (g) 
15 
10
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5 
Table 1/Jadual 1 (a) Record the dry weight of the maize seedlings in the boxes provided in Table 1 Rekodkan berat kering anak benih jagung di dalam kotak yang disediakan dalam Jadual 1. (b) (i) Based on the results in Table 1 , state two observations that can be made from this experiment. Berdasarkan keputusan di dalam Jadual 1, nyatakan dua pemerhatian yang dapat dibuat daripada eksperimen ini Observation 1/pemerhatian 1: ……..…….…………………..……………………………………….…………………… ……………..………………………..…………………………………………..………… ……..…….…………………..……………………………………….…………………… Observation 2/pemerhatian 2: ……..…….…………………..……………………………………….…………………… ……………..………………………..…………………………………………..………… ……..…….…………………..……………………………………….…………………… [3 marks]
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(ii) State the inference from the observations in (b) (i). Nyatakan inferens berdasarkan pemerhatian di (b) (i) Inference from observation 1/inferen dari pemerhatian 1: ……..…….…………………..……………………………………….…………………… ……………..………………………..…………………………………………..………… ……..…….…………………..……………………………………….…………………… Inference from observation 2/inferen dari pemerhatian 2: ……..…….…………………..……………………………………….…………………… ……………..………………………..…………………………………………..………… ……..…….…………………..……………………………………….…………………… [3 marks] (c) Complete Table 2 based on the experiment. Berdasarkan eksperimen, lengkapkan Jadual 2 di bawah 
[3 marks] 
Variable Pembolehubah 
Particulars to be implemented Cara mengendalikan pembolehubah 
Manipulated/ manipulasi: ……………………… ……………………… 
…………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… 
Responding / bergerakbalas: ……………………… ……………………… 
…………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… 
Controlled/ dimalarkan …………………………. ……………………… 
…………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… 
Table 2// Jadual 2
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(d) State the hypothesis for this experiment. Nyatakan hipotesis bagi eksperimen ini ……..…….…………………..……………………………………….…………………… ……………..………………………..…………………………………………..………… ……..…….…………………..……………………………………….…………………… [3 marks] (e) Construct a table and record all your data collected in the experiment which include the following aspects : Bina satu jadual untuk merekodkan semua keputusan eksperimen meliputi aspek berikut : 
 Distance between maize seedlings/jarak antara anak benih jagung 
 Dry weight of 30 maize seedlings/berat kering 30 anak benih jagung 
 Growth rate of maize seedling/kadar pertumbuhan anak benih jagung 
Growth rate = Dry weight of maize seedlings Number of days Kadar pertumbuhan = Berat kering anak benih jagung Bilangan hari [3 marks] (f) Use the graph paper provided on page 55 to answer this question. Using the data in 1 (e) draw a graph of the growth rate of maize seedlings against the distance between the maize seedlings. Dengan menggunakan kertas graf yang dibekalkan pada muka surat 55 untuk menjawab soalan ini. Dengan menggunakan data di dalam 1 (e), lukiskan graf kadar pertumbuhan anak benih jagung melawan jarak di antara anak benih jagung [3 marks]
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(g) Based on graph in 1 (f), explain the relationship between the growth rate of maize seedlings and distance between seedling Berdasarkan graf di 1 (f), terangkan hubungan di antara kadar pertumbuhan anak benih jagung dan jarak antara anak benih. ……..…….…………………..……………………………………….……………………………… ……………..………………………..…………………………………………..……………………. ……..…….…………………..……………………………………….………………………………. [3 marks] (h) If the experiment is repeated by increasing the distance between the maize seedlings to 20 cm, predict the observation . Explain your prediction.. Jika eksperimen diulang dengan meningkatkan jarak di antara anak benih jagung pada 20 cm,ramalkanpemerhatian. Terangkan ramalan anda. ……..…….…………………..……………………………………….……………………………… ……………..………………………..…………………………………………..……………………. ……..…….…………………..……………………………………….………………………………. [3 marks] (i) Based on this experiment, what can you deduce about intraspecific competition? Berdasarkan eksperimen ini, apakah yang dapat anda rumuskan tentang persaingan intraspesifik? ……..…….…………………..……………………………………….……………………………… ……………..………………………..…………………………………………..…………………… ……..…….…………………..……………………………………….……………………………… [3 marks] (j) When resources are limited supply, organisms living in the same habitat will compete for the same resources. The following is a list of the resources. Apabila sumber-sumber menjadi terhad, organisma hidup di habitat yang sama akan bersaing untuk sumber yang sama. Berikut ialah senarai sumber-sumber tersebut. 
In Table 3, classify the resources given according to what are the resources competed by animals and resources compete by plants. Dalam Jadual 3, klasifikasikan sumber-sumber yang diberi mengikut apakah sumber- sumber yang dsaingi oleh haiwan dan sumber-sumber yang disaingi oleh tumbuhan. 
The resources competed by animals/ Sumber-sumber yang dsaingi oleh haiwan 
Resources compete by plants/ Sumber-sumber yang disaingi oleh tumbuhan 
Table 3 // Jadual 3 [3 marks] 
Food/makanan Space/ruang Breedingmate/pasangan mengawan 
Nutrient/nutrien Water/air Light/cahaya
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Question 2 Soalan 2 Ali is a farmer. He owns a plot of land in Cameron Highlands which is quite high above sea level and is quite cold as well. He plants vegetables and some temperate fruit trees. Ali adalah seorang petani. Dia mempunyai sebuah ladang di Cameron Highland yang terletak sangat tinggi dari aras laut dan terlalu sejuk. Beliau menanam sayur-sayuran dan sedikit tumbuhan buah-buahan iklim sederhana. In the afternoon, Ali used to notice his vegetable plants wilt, though the surrounding is not hot. This phenomenon does not happen early in the morning. Pada hari bercahaya dan bersinar, Ali sedia maklum tanaman sayurannya menjadi layu walaupun hari tidak panas. Fenomena ini tidak berlaku pada waktu awal pagi. Based on the above information, plan a laboratory experiment to determine the effects of light intensity on the rate of transpiration. The planning of your experiment must include the following aspects. Berdasarkan penyataan di atas, rancangkan satu eksperimen mengkaji untuk kesan keamatan cahaya ke atas kadar transpirasi. Perancangan eksperimen anda hendaklah meliputi aspek-aspek berikut: 
 Problem statement / Penyataanmasalah 
 Aim of investigation / Objektif kajian 
 Hypothesis / Hipotesis 
 Variables / Pembolehubah 
 List of apparatus and material / Senarai radas dan bahan 
 Experimental procedure or method / Kaedah atau prosedur eksperimen 
 Presentation of data / Cara data dipersembahkan
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[17 marks] 
END OF QUESTION PAPER 
KERTAS SOALAN TAMAT
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Answer all questions. Jawab semua soalan. Question 1 Soalan 1 
A group of students were provided with article above as guidance for them to conduct an experiment to investigate the percentage of Vitamin C in different types of vegetables. They believe that vegetables contain higher percentage of Vitamin C compared to fruits. Sekumpulan pelajar telah dibekalkan dengan artikel di atas sebagai panduan untuk mereka menjalankan sebuah eksperimen untuk menyiasat peratus Vitamin C dalam jenis sayuran yang berbeza. Mereka percaya bahawa sayur-sayura mempunyai peratusan Vitamin C yang lebih tinggi berbanding buah-buahan The following steps were carried out. Step 1: 20 grams of Cauliflower are blended with 20 ml of distilled water using a blender in 30 seconds Step 2 : Suspension is filtered and the filtrate is collected. Fill a syringe with needle with 5 ml of Cauliflower filtrate and leaf it a side. 
Step 3 : 1 ml of DCPIP solution is measured using measuring cylinder and pour it into a specimen tube 
Another name for Vitamin C, a nutrient found in fresh fruits and vegetable is called Ascorbic Acid. Among good sources of Vitamin C are citrus fruits like oranges, lemons, limes and grapefruits, berries, tomatoes, green peppers, cabbage, broccoli and spinach. Currently the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for vitamin C is 50-60 mg/day for adults; 35 mg/day for infants; 40-45 mg/day for children. 
Stein, Jay H. “Ascorbic Acid(Vitamin C) Deficiency.” In Internal Medicine. St Louis: Mosby 1998 
Nama lain bagi Vitamin C, nutrien yang dijumpai di dalam buah-buahan segar dan sayur- sayuran dipanggil Asid Askorbik. Antara sumber Vitamin C adalah buah-buahan sitrus seperti oren, limau, dan anggur, beri, tomato, cili hijau, kobis, brokoli dan bayam. Buat masa ini, jumlah pemakanan cadangan (RDA) untuk Vitamin C adalah 50-60 mg/hari untuk dewasa; 35mg/hari untuk bayi; 45mg/hari untuk kanak-kanak. 
Stein, Jay H. “Ascorbic Acid(Vitamin C) Deficiency.” In Internal Medicine. St Louis: Mosby 1998
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Step 4: By using the syringe prepared in Step 2, deep in the needle in to the solution and pour in the Cauliflower filtrate in to 1ml DCPIP solution in the specimen tube. Step 5: By using the needle, stir the solution slowly until it is decolorized. Step 6: Measure and record the final reading of the syringe. Step 7: Repeat Step 1-6 by using Broccoli and Lime. While repeat Step 2-6 by replacing filtrate with Ascorbic Acid.
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The results of the experiment are shown in Table 1 Keputusan eksperimen ditunjukkan dalam Jadual 7. 
Type of Filtrate Jenis Hasil Turasan 
Final Reading Bacaan Akhir 
Amount of filtrate used to decolorize 1ml DCPIP solution (ml) Jumlah hasil turasan yang digunakan untuk menyahwarna 1ml larutan DCPIP (ml) 
A (Cauliflower) 
B (Broccoli) 
C (Lime) 
5 
4 
5 
4 
4 
3
PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 
BIOLOGY 4551 MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 4 
D (Ascorbic Acid) 
(a) Record the amount of filtrate used to decolorize 1 ml DCPIP solution in Table 1. Rekod jumlah hasil turasan yang digunakan untuk mennyahwarna 1 ml larutan DCPIP dalam Jadual 1 
(b) i) State two different observations based on Table 1. Nyatakan pemerhatian yang berbeza berdasarkan Jadual 1 
Observation 1/ Pemerhatian 1 __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Observation 2/ Pemerhatian 2 __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 
5 
4
PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 
BIOLOGY 4551 MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 5 
ii) State two inferences based on observations made in 1(b). Inference 1/ Inferens 1 __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Inference 2/ Inferens 2 __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 
(c) Complete Table 2 based on the experiment. 
Lengkapkan Jadual 2 berdasarkan eksperimen. 
Variable Pembolehubah 
Method to handle the variables Cara mengendali pembolehubah 
Manipulated variable Pembolehubah dimanipulasikan ……………………………….......... ……………………………………. ……………………………………. 
…………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………. 
Responding variable Pembolehubah bergerak balas ……………………………………. ……………………………………. ……………………………………. 
………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………… 
Constant Variable Pembolehubah dimalarkan ……………………………………. …………………………………… ………………………………….. 
…………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………
PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 
BIOLOGY 4551 MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 6 
(d) State the hypothesis of this experiment 
Nyatakan hipotesis eksperimen ini ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 
(e) i) Construct a table and record all the data collected in this experiment. 
Your table should have following titles:- Bina satu jadual dan rekod semua data yang dikumpulkan dalam eksperimen Jadual anda hendaklah mengandungi tajuk-tajuk berikut:- 
 Types of fruit juices/ vegetables 
Jenis Jus buah/ sayuran 
 Amount of fruit juices/ vegetables filtrate needed to decolorize 1 ml DCPIP solution 
Jumlah jus buah/ hasil tapisan sayuran yang diperlukan untuk menyahwarna 1 ml larutan DCPIP 
 Percentage of Vitamin C in each specimen 
Peratusan Vitamin C dalam setiap specimen 
Percentage of Vitamin C 
= Amount of Ascorbic Acid needed to decolorize DCPIP solution x 0.1% 
Amount of Fruit Juice/ Vegetables Filtrate needed to 
decolorize DCPIP solution
PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 
BIOLOGY 4551 MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 7 
ii) Use data from 1 (e) i) draw a bar chart of Type of vegetable filtrate against percentage of Vitamin C. Dengan menggunakan data dari 1 (e) i), lukiskan carta bar jenis tapisan sayuran melawan peratusan Vitamin C. 
(f) Based on the bar chart in (e) ii), state the relationship between types of vegetable filtrate and percentage of Vitamin C. 
Berdasarkan carta bar di (e) ii), nyatakan hubungan di antara jenis hasil turasan sayur dan peratusan Vitamin C. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 
(g) State the operational definition for the percentage of Vitamin C. 
Nyatakan definisi secara operasi untuk peratusan Vitamin C. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 
(h) The experiment is repeated with Cauliflower filtrate which has been boiled. Predict the outcome of this experiment. 
Explain your answer. Eksperimen ini diulang dengan menggunakan hasil turasan Cauliflower yang telah dididihkan. Ramalkan hasil eksperimen ini. Terangkan jawapan anda. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 
_______________________________________________________________
PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 
BIOLOGY 4551 MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 8 
(i) Using the list below, classify the material and apparatus needed in this experiment. 
Menggunakan senarai di bawah, kelaskan bahan dan radas yang diperlukan dalam eksperimen ini. 
Materials Bahan 
Apparatus Radas 
Ascorbic Acid Fruit Juices Syringe with needle 
Specimen Tube Measuring Cylinder DCPIP Solution
PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 
BIOLOGY 4551 MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 9 
Question 2 Soalan 2 Diagram 2 is an illustration of Hulu Selangor, Selangor area where there is a palm oil farm near Gunung Nuang as well as few lots of bungalow 5 km down a stream which is known as Sungai Congkak. As shown in the diagram below, Sungai Congkak is a river that flows from up the stream towards the factory and bungalow lots. August, 24 - Statistics from Jabatan P dan Saliran, Selangor shows there were few reports from people leaving in the bungalow lots saying that the Sungai Congkak is badly polluted due to pollutants released from the palm oil factory. They believe that the disposable sewage enhance the growth of microorganism. Due to this contamination, the reports also mentioned about children who were swimming in the river were diagnosed with severe rashes. Rajah 2 merupakan illustrasi kawasan Hulu Selangor, Selangor di mana terdapat lading kelapa sawit berdekatan dengan Gunung Nuang serta beberapa lot banglo 5km menuruni susur sebuah sungai yang dikenali sebagai Sungai Congkak. Seperti yang ditunjukkan di dalam rajah di bawah, Sungai Congkak merupakan sungai yang mengalir dari atas menuju ke kilang dan lot banglo.
PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 
BIOLOGY 4551 MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 10 
As the representative of Jabatan Alam Sekitar, you are required to design a laboratory experiment to study the degree of water pollution at three different stations along the river. Sebagai wakil Jabatan Alam Sekitar, anda dikehendaki untuk merancang sebuah eksperimen makmal untuk mengetahui tahap pencemaran air di tiga stesen yang berbeza sepanjang sungai tersebut. Planning of your experiment must include following aspects:- Perancangan eksperimen anda hendaklah mengandungi aspek-aspek tersebut berikut:- 
 Problem statement/ Penyataan masalah 
 Hypothesis/ Hipotesis 
 Variables/ Pembolehubah 
 Materials and apparatus/ Bahan dan Radas 
 Procedures/ Prosedur 
 Presentation of data/ Persembahan data 
[17 marks] 
END OF QUESTION PAPER
PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 
BIOLOGY 4551 MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 11 
KERTAS SOALAN TAMAT

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Modul perfect score sbp biology spm 2014

  • 1. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 1 SECTION A [60 marks] Answer all the questions Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini 1. Diagram 1.1 shows the structure of animal cell Rajah 1.1 menunjukkan struktur sel haiwan Diagram 1.1 Rajah 1.1 (a) On Diagram 1.1, label X and Y. Pada Rajah 1.1, labelkan X dan Y [1marks] (b) Explain one characteristic of Y related to cell division. Terangkan satu ciri Y berkaitan dengan pembahagian sel. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... [2marks] Y : X :
  • 2. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 2 (c) Explain the function of X in cell division. Terangkan fungsi X dalam pembahagian sel. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... [2marks] (d) Diagram 1.2 shows stage of cell division in somatic cell of human. Draw another two stage in that cell division in the box given. Rajah 1.2 menunjukkan peringkat pembahagian sel dalam sel soma manusia. Lukiskan dua peringkat dalam pembahagian sel tersebut dalam petak yang diberi. [2marks] Diagram 1.2 Rajah 1.2 (a) (b) (c) (d)
  • 3. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 3 (e) If spindle fibre is not form in Diagram 1.2 (d), explain the effect on the number of chromosome in the daughter cell. Jika gentian gelendong tidak terbentuk dalam Rajah 1.2 (d), terangkan kesan ke atas bilangan kromosom dalam sel anak. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... [2 marks] (f) Explain how the cell division above can be used to increase the number of given example of the plant in the farm. Terangkan bagaimanakah pembahagian sel di atas dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan bilangan tumbuhan yang dinamakan dalam ladang. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... [3 marks]
  • 4. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 4 2.(a) Diagram 2.1 shows the shape of red blood cells after being immersed for 30 minutes in three solutions with different concentration. Rajah 2.1 menunjukkan bentuk sel darah merah selepas direndam selama 30 minit dalam tiga larutan yang berbeza kepekatannya. Based on the Diagram 2.1 Berdasarkan Rajah 2.1 (i) State the condition of the red blood cells after being immersed in solution : Nyatakan keadaan sel darah merah selepas direndam di dalam larutan : P : ............................................................................................................................ Q : .......................................................................................................................... [2 marks] Diagram 2.1 Red blood cells in Q solution Sel darah merah dalam larutan Q Red blood cells in P solution Sel darah merah dalam larutan P Red blood cells in R solution Sel darah merah dalam larutan R
  • 5. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 5 (ii) Name the type of solution R in which the red blood cells are immersed. Namakan jenis larutan R yang mana sel darah merah direndam. .................................................................................................................................. [1 mark] (iii) Explain your answers given in a(ii) Terangkan jawapan yang anda berikan di a(ii) .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. [3 marks] (b) Based on the statement, explain why vinegar is suitable to be used as the natural preservative for the preservation of garlic. Berdasarkan pernyataan di atas, terangkan mengapa cuka adalah sesuai digunakan sebagai pengawet semulajadi untuk bawang putih. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... [3 marks] Food such as mushrooms, fruits, vegetables and fish can be preserved longer by using natural preservatives such as salt, sugar and vinegar. Makanan seperti cendawan, buah-buahan, sayur-sayuran dan ikan boleh diawet untuk tahan lama menggunakan bahan-bahan pengawet semulajadi seperti garam,gula dan cuka.
  • 6. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 6 (c) Diagram 2.2 shows the condition of herbaceous plant due to water shortage in soil. Rajah 2.2 menunjukkan keadaan pokok herba disebabkan oleh kekurangan air dalam tanah. Explain the condition of the plant in Diagram 2.2 after one week. Terangkan keadaan pokok dalam Rajah 2.2 selepas satu minggu. .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... [3 marks] Water shortage after one week Kekurangan air selepas satu minggu Diagram 2.2 Rajah 2.2
  • 7. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 7 4. Diagram 4.1 shows the process of phagocytosis as second line of defence to destroy the bacteria. Rajah 4.1 menunjukkan proses fagositosis sebagai barisan pertahanan kedua untuk memusnahkan bakteria. Stage 1 Stage 2 Peringkat 1 Peringkat 2 Stage 4 Stage 3 Peringkat 4 Peringkat 3 Diagram 4.1 Rajah 4.1 (a) (i) Name cell M involved in mechanism above. Namakan sel M yang terlibat dalam mekanisma di atas. .......................................................................................................................... [1 mark] (ii) Draw a diagram in stage 3 Lukis rajah dalam peringkat 3. M
  • 8. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 8 (b) Explain the function of lisosome in mechanism above Terangkan peranan lisosom dalam mekanisma di atas ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ………………………………………………………………………………………………… [2 mark] (c) Explain what happen in stage 2. Terangkan apa yang berlaku dalam peringkat 2. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ………………………………………………………………………………………………… [2 mark] (d) How the action of M to pathogen is different to lymphocyte? Bagaimanakah tindakan M terhadap patogen adalah berbeza dengan limfosit? .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. …………………………………………………………………………………………….. [2 marks] (e) Diagram 4.2 show a type of immunity occurs in human. Rajah 4.2 menunjukkan satu jenis keimunan yang berlaku dalam manusia.
  • 9. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 9 Diagram 4.2 / Rajah 4.2 (i) Name the type of immunity shows in the Diagram 4.2. Namakan jenis keimunan yang ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 4.2. .................................................................................................................................. [1 mark] (ii) Name the second injection and why the person should take second injection? Namakan suntikan kedua dan mengapa individu ini perlu mengambil suntikan kedua? .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. [2 marks] (f) The above immunity is example of third line of defence. What make it different to the second line of defence? Keimunan di atas merupakan contoh barisan pertahanan ketiga. Apakah yang menjadikannya berbeza dengan barisan pertahanan ke dua? ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... [2 marks]
  • 10. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 10 Q 5. Diagram 5.1 shows the stages of the ovarian cycle in human ovary Diagram 5.2 shows the thickness of the endometrium of uterus before the fertilisation in the second menstrual cycle. Rajah 5.1 menunjukkan peringkat kitaran ovary dalam ovari manusia. Rajah 5.2 menunjukkan ketebalan endometrium dalam uterus sebelum berlaku persenyawaan dalam kitar haid yang kedua. Diagram 5.1 /Rajah 5.1 Diagram 5.2 Rajah 5.2 Y P Secondary follicle Folikel sekunder Secondary oocyte Oosit sekunder X Q
  • 11. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 11 a) (i) Describe the change in the structure of follicle P into a secondary follicle. Terangkan perubahan struktur folikel P sehingga pembentukan folikel sekunder. ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... [2 marks] (ii) Relate the change in (a)(i) to the thickness of the endometrium Hubungkan perubahan dalam (a) (i) dengan ketebalan endometrium .................................................................................................................................. [1 mark] b) Explain the process that occurs at X. Terangkan proses yang berlaku pada X. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... [2 marks] c) Explain the effect of the change of structure Q to the thickness of the endometrium. Terangkan kesan perubahan struktur Q ke atas ketebalan dinding endometrium. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... [2 marks] d) (i) Fertilisation takes place in the second menstrual cycle. Complete the graph in Diagram 5.2 to show the changes in the thickness of the endometrium after point Y Persenyawaan berlaku dalam kitar haid yang kedua. Lengkapkan graf dalam Rajah 5.2 untuk menunjukkan perubahan ketebalan endometrium selepas titik Y [1 mark]
  • 12. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 12 (ii) Explain your answer in (d)(i). Terangkan jawapan anda dalam (d)(i). .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. [2 marks] e) (i) State the changes in the thickness of the endometrium after point Y relating to the secretion of hormones secreted by the ovary. Terangkan hubungan perubahan ketebalan endometrium selepas titik Y dengan perembesan hormon oleh ovari. ................................................................................................................................... [1 mark] (ii) State the importance of thickened endometrium to the continuity of life Nyatakan kepentingan ketebalan endometrium dalam kesinambungan hidupan .................................................................................................................................. [1 mark]
  • 13. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 13 SECTION B [40 marks] Answer any two questions from this section. Jawab mana-mana dua soalan daripada bahagian ini. 6. Diagram 6.1 shows the growth and development process at the shoot tip. Rajah 6.1 menunjukkan proses pertumbuhan dan perkembangan pada hujung pucuk. Diagram 6.1/ Rajah 6.1 a) Explain the process of primary growth that shown in Diagram 6.1 Terangkan proses pertumbuhan primer yang ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 6.1 [8 marks] b) Explain the importance of primary growth to plant. Terangkan kepentingan pertumbuhan primer kepada tumbuhan [4 marks]
  • 14. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 14 c) Diagram 6.2 shown the tropism respond at shoot tip and root tip. Rajah 6.2 menunjukkan gerakbalas tropisme pada hujung pucuk dan hujung akar. Diagram 6.2 Based on diagram 6.2 explain how the tropism response occurred. Berdasarkan rajah 6.2 terangkan bagaimana gerakbalas tropisme berlaku. [8 marks] 7. (a) Explain the interaction based on Diagram 7.1 Terangkan interaksi berdasarkan Rajah 7.1 Diagram 7.1 Rajah 7.1 [4marks]
  • 15. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 15 (b) Diagram 7.2 shows mechanism of photosynthesis in plant. Explain why the product from light reaction need for dark reaction. Rajah 7.2 menunjukkan mekanisma fotosintesis dalam tumbuhan. Terangkan Mengapa produk dari tindak balas cahaya diperlukan untuk tindakbalas gelap. [6marks] (c) Diagram 7.3 shows the condition of the town. Rajah 7.3 menunjukkan sebuah bandar. Diagram 7.3 Rajah 7.3 Diagram 7.2 Rajah 7.2
  • 16. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 16 (i) Discuss the effect of air pollution may occur in the town. Bincangkan kesan pencemaran udara yang mungkin berlaku dalam bandar. [6 marks] (ii) If you are an environmental activist, suggest how you would explain to the government about the measures needed to overcome the pollution. Jika anda seorang aktivis alam sekitar, cadangkan bagaimana anda akan menjelaskan kepada kerajaan mengenai langkah-langkah yang diperlukan untuk mengatasi pencemaran. [4 marks] 8. (a) Diagram 8.1 shows three types of neurons. Rajah 8.1 menunjukkan tiga jenis neuron. Diagram 8.1 Rajah 8.1 Name types of neurone P, Q and R and state two differences between the structure of neurone P and neurone Q Namakan jenis neuron P, Q dan R dan nyatakan dua perbezaan di antara struktur bagi neuron P dan neuron Q [4 marks] Neurone P Neuron P Neurone Q Neuron Q Neurone R Neuron R
  • 17. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 17 (b) Diagram 8.2 shows the transmission of a nerve impulse from neurone P to neurone R. Rajah 8.2 menunjukkan pemindahan impuls saraf dari neuron P ke neuron R. Diagram 8.2 /Rajah 8.2 Explain the transmission of a nerve impulse from neurone P to neurone R Terangkan pemindahan impuls saraf dari neuron P ke neuron R [6 marks] (c) Diagram 8.3a shows example of voluntary action and Diagram 8.3b shows example of involuntary action. By using pathway of transmission of information from receptors to effectors, explain similarities and difference between voluntary action and involuntary action. Rajah 8.3a menunjukkan contoh tindakan terkawal dan Rajah 8.3b menunjukkan contoh tindakan luar kawal. Dengan menggunakan laluan pemindahan maklumat dari reseptor kepada efektor, terangkan persamaan dan perbezaan tindakan terkawal dan tindakan luar kawal. Diagram 8.3a Diagram 8.3b [10 mark]
  • 18. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 18 9. (a) Diagram 9.1 and 9.2 shows the histogram about distribution of genetic variation in human. Rajah 9.1 dan 9.2 menunjukkan histogram mengenai taburan variasi genetik dalam manusia. Diagram 9.1 Diagram 9.2 (i) With a suitable example, explain the differences of two kinds of variation. Dengan menggunakan contoh yang sesuai, terangkan perbezaan di antara kedua- dua variasi tersebut. [7 marks] (ii) What is the importance of variation to organism? Apakah kepentingan variasi kepada organisma? [3 marks]
  • 19. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 19 (b) Diagram 9.3a, 9.3b and 9.3c shows the genetic factors that affected on the variation of organism. Rajah 9.3a, 9.3b dan 9.3c menunjukkan faktor-faktor genetik yang memberi kesan ke atas variasi pada organisma. Diagram 9.3a Diagram 9.3b Diagram 9.3b Explain how these factors in the diagram above will cause the variation among the organism. Terangkan bagaimana faktor-faktor dalam rajah di atas akan menyebabkan variasi di kalangan organisma. [10 marks] END OF QUESTION PAPER KERTAS SOALAN TAMAT Combination 4 Gabungan4 Combination 1 Gabungan 1 Combination 2 Gabungan2 Combination 3 Gabungan3
  • 20. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 | 1 SECTION A [60 marks] Answer all questions in this section. Jawab semua soalan di bahagian ini 1. Diagram 1 shows a microscopic structure of a part of pancreatic cell. Rajah 1 menunjukan struktur mikroskopik sebahagian sel pancreas. (a) (i) Name the organelle K and organelle L Namakan organel K dan organel L. K : ….…………………………………………………………………………………. L : …………………………………………………………………………………….. [2 marks] (ii) Explain how the organelle K and organelle L are interrelated in their function Terangkan bagaimana organel K dan organel L adalah saling berkaitan dari segi fungsi mereka. …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… [2 marks] Diagram 1 Rajah 1 Note Catatan
  • 21. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 | 2 (b) (i) Name one chemical substance in the structure R which is involved in the synthesis of protein in a cell. Namakan satu bahan kimia dalam struktur R yang terlibat dalam sintesis protein dalam suatu sel. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. [1 marks] (ii) Draw the structure of the chemical compound in (b)(i) in the blank space below. Lukis struktur bahan kimia dalam (b)(i) dalam ruang kosong di bawah. [2 marks] (c) (i) Based on the diagram, describe the synthesis of a specific pancreatic hormone in the cell. Berdasarkan gambarajah itu, huraikan bagaimana suatu hormon tertentu disintesiskan dalam sel itu. ………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………….. [3 marks] (ii) The structure R in Diagram 1 undergoes some changes due to exposure to radioactive rays. Explain the possible effect to the synthesis of the hormone. Struktur R dalam Rajah 1 mengalami perubahan akibat pendedahan kepada sinaran radioaktif. Terangkan kemungkinan kesannya ke atas sintesis hormon itu. ………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………… [2 marks]
  • 22. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 | 3 2. Diagram 2.1 shows two individual, P and Q in two different situations. P is in a vigorous activity while Q is at rest. Processes of R and S occur in a human muscle cell. Rajah 2.1 menunjukkan dua individu, P dan Q dalam dua situasi yang berbeza. P sedang melakukan satu aktiviti cergas manakala Q berada dalam keadaan rehat. Proses R dan S berlaku dalam satu sel otot manusia. Diagram 2.1 / Rajah 2.1 (a) Based on Diagram 2.1, name the processes R and S. Berdasarkan Rajah 2.1, namakan proses R dan S. Process R/ Proses R : ……………………………………………….……………………… Process S/ Proses S : ……………………………………………………………………… [2 marks] (b) Write the equation of process S. Tuliskan persamaan bagi proses S. …………………………………………………………………………………………………… [1 marks] (c) State two differences between process R and process S. Nyatakan dua perbezaan di antara proses R dan proses S. Process R Process S [2 marks]
  • 23. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 | 4 (d) Diagram 2.2(a) shows fish respiratory structure and Diagram 2.2(b) shows human respiratory structure. Rajah 2.2(a) menunjukkan struktur respirasi ikan dan Rajah 2.2(b) menunjukkan struktur respirasi manusia. (i) What is X? / Apakah X? …………………………………………………………………………………………….. [1 mark] (ii) Structure X has adaptation for efficiency gases exchange in fish. Explain one adaptation of X. Struktur X mempunyai penyesuaian untuk pertukaran gas yang cekap pada ikan. Terangkan satu penyesuaian pada X. …………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………….. [2 marks] (e) A man is a heavy smoker. Explain how this habit affect the efficiency of gases exchange on the respiratory structure in Diagram 2.2(b). Seorang lelaki adalah seorang perokok tegar. Terangkan bagaimana tabiat ini mempengaruhi kecekapan pertukaran gas pada struktur respirasi dalam Diagram 2.2(b). ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………[4 marks] Diagram 2.2(a) Rajah 2.2(a) Diagram 2.2(b) Rajah 2.2(b) X
  • 24. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 | 5 3. Diagram 3.1 shows the sequence of hydrolysis of starch to molecules P and molecule Q by enzymes. Rajah 3.1 menunjukkan urutan hidrolisis kanji kepada molekul P dan molekul Q oleh enzim. (a) (i) Complete Table 3.1. Lengkapkan Jadual 3.1 Molecule Molekul Name of molecule Nama molekul Name the enzyme involved in hydrolysis Namakan enzim yang terlibat dalam hidrolisis P Q [4 marks] (ii) Based on your biological knowledge, explain the effect of consuming food that contain excessive of starch on health. Berdasarkan pengetahuan biologi anda, terangkan kesan pengambilan makanan yang mengandungi kanji berlebihan ke atas kesihatan. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. [2 marks] Enzyme Enzim Starch Kanji + water air + water air Molecule P Molekul P Enzyme Enzim Molecule Q Molekul Q Diagram 3 /Rajah 3 Table 3.1/Jadual 3.1
  • 25. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 | 6 (b) Table 3.2 shows the energy value and nutrient content in a few types of food taken by student. Jadual 3.2 menunjukkan nilai tenaga dan kandungan nutrien di dalam beberapa jenis makanan yang diambil oleh seorang pelajar. Food Makanan (/100g) Energy Tenaga (kJ) Carbohydrate Karbohidrat (g) Fats Lemak (g) Protein Protein (g) Vitamin C Vitamin C (μg) Rice Nasi 1530 86.8 1.0 6.4 0.0 Fish Ikan 320 0.0 0.5 17.5 0.0 Egg Telur 612 0.0 10.9 12.4 0.0 Orange Oren 150 8.5 0.0 0.8 50 (i) Based on Table 3.2, which type of food supplies the most energy? Berdasarkan Jadual 3.2, jenis makanan manakah yang membekalkan paling banyak tenaga? …………………………………………………………………………………………….. [1 mark] (ii) Which type of food should be taken regularly to prevent scurvy? Jenis makanan manakah yang perlu kerap diambil untuk mengelakkan penyakit skurvi? …………………………………………………………………………………………… [1 mark] (iii) Calculate the amount of energy obtained by the student if he eats a meal which contain 200g rice and 150g fish. Kirakan jumlah tenaga yang diperolehi oleh pelajar tersebut jika dia mengambil 200 g nasi dan 150 g ikan. [3 marks] (c) Why does an egg produces double amount of energy compared to a fish? Mengapakah sebiji telur menghasilkan jumlah tenaga dua kali ganda berbanding seekor ikan? …………………………………………………………………………………………………… [1 mark] Table 3.2 /Jadual 3.2
  • 26. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 | 7 4. Diagram 4.1 shows a longitudinal section of the reproductive parts of a flower during fertilization. Rajah 4.1 menunjukkan keratan memanjang bahagian pembiakan bunga semasa persenyawaan. (a) (i) In Diagram 4.1, label P,Q, R and S Pada Rajah 4.1, labelkan P, Q, R dan S [2 marks] (ii) In the space below, draw a section through the ovule showing all the cells in S. Label the cells involved in fertilization. Dalam ruang di bawah , lukiskan keratan melalui ovul menunjukkan semua sel- sel dalam S. Labelkan sel-sel yang terlibat dalam persenyawaan [2 marks] Diagram 4.1 Rajah 4.1
  • 27. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 | 8 (iii) Describe the fertilization process that occurs. Huraikan proses persenyawaan yang berlaku . ………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………….. [2marks] (b) (i) In Diagram 4.1, the structure Y has to be kept dormant for future research purposes. Explain how Y can be prevented from germinating. Dalam Rajah 4.1, struktur Y perlu disimpan tidak aktif untuk tujuan penyelidikan pada masa hadapan. Terangkan bagaimana Y boleh dihalang daripada bercambah. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………… [2 marks] (ii) Suggest one method to stimulate the germination of Y Cadangkan satu kaedah untuk merangsang percambahan Y. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. [1mark] (e) Diagram 4.2 shows a watermelon with seed and watermelon without seed. Rajah 4.2 menunjukkan buah tembikai dengan biji dan buah tembikai tanpa biji. Nowadays, it is more easier to find seedless watermelon in market. Shoppers also can find varieties of seedless oranges, grapes, and cucumbers. Explain how to produce varieties of fruits without seed. Pada masa kini, adalah lebih mudah untuk mencari tembikai tanpa biji di pasaran. Pembeli juga boleh mendapatkan buah limau , anggur dan timun tanpa biji. Terangkan bagaimana untuk menghasilkan buah tanpa biji . ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. [3marks] Diagram 4.2/ Rajah 4.2
  • 28. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 | 9 5 Diagram 5.1 shows a uriniferous tubule and its associated blood vessels. Diagram 5.2 shows cells from structure P as seen through an electron microscope. Gambarajah 5.1 menunjukkan tubul uriniferus dan salur darah yang berkaitan. Gambarajah 5.2 menunjukkan sel dari struktur P seperti yang dilihat di bawah mikroskop elektron. (a) State the difference in the urea composition between the blood vessel X and Y. Nyatakan perbezaan kandungan urea antara salur darah X dan Y. .......................................................................................................................................... [1 mark] Diagram 5.2 / Rajah 5.2 Diagram 5.1 Rajah 5.1 Y P X Q Blood Darah Blood Darah Blood vessel Salur darah
  • 29. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 | 10 (b) Based on the Diagram 5.2 explain how the cells are structured for reabsorption of substances. Berdasarkan Rajah 5.2, terangkan bagaimana sel distrukturkan untuk penyerapan semula bahan. .......................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... [2 marks] (c) Table 5.1 shows the concentration of certain substances found in structure Q. Jadual 5.1 menunjukkan kepekatan beberapa bahan yang terdapat di dalam struktur Q. Substances Bahan Water Air Protein Protein Glucose Glukosa Urea Urea Salts Garam Concentration Kepekatan (%) 95.0 0.00 0.00 2.00 1.50 Explain how the concentration of the substances present in Q would change after eating meat and eggs. Terangkan bagaimana kepekatan bahan-bahan yang terdapat dalam Q akan berubah selepas memakan daging dan telur. ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... [3 marks] Table 5.1 / Jadual 5.1
  • 30. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 | 11 (d) Diagram 5.2 shows the flow of blood and dialysis fluid through a dialysis machine. Rajah 5.2 menunjukkan aliran darah dan bendalir dialisis melalui suatu mesin dialisis. DIAGRAM 5.2/ RAJAH 5.2 Tube P contain more nitrogenous waste compared to tube Q. Explain why. Tiub P mengandungi banyak bahan kumuh bernitrogen berbanding tiub Q. Terangkan mengapa. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………….................... ……………………………………………………………………………........................ ……………………………………………………………………………....................... ……………………………………………………………………………........................ [3 marks] (e) Explain the importance of kidney in maintaining human health. Terangkan kepentingan ginjal dalam mengekalkan kesihatan manusia. ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... [3 marks]
  • 31. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 | 12 Section B Bahagian B [40 markah] Answer all question from this section Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini. 6(a) Diagram 6.1 shows a forearm of humans. Rajah 6.1 menunjukkan lengan atas manusia. A joint is the location at which bones connect. They are constructed to allow movement and provide mechanical support. Explain the similarity and difference between joint S and T? Sendi adalah tempat di mana tulang-tulang bertemu. Sendi dibina untuk membolehkan pergerakan dan memberikan sokongan mekanikal. Terangkan persamaan dan perbezaan antara sendi S dan T? [6 marks/6 markah] Joint T Sendi T Diagram 6.1 Rajah 6.1 Joint S Sendi S
  • 32. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 | 13 (b) Based on your biological knowledge, discuss the statement above. Dengan menggunakan pengetahuan biologi anda, bincangkan pernyataan di atas. [6 marks/6 markah] (c) Diagram 6.2 show an earthworm and structure in its body. Rajah 6.2 menunjukkan seekor cacing tanah dan struktur pada badannya. Explain how the structure in the earthworm involve in their movement . Terangkan bagaimana struktur pada cacing tanah terlibat dengan pergerakannya. [4 marks/4 markah] (d) Diagram 6.3 shows flight muscle of a bird. Rajah 6.3 menunjukkan otot penerbangan seekor burung. Explain the effect to locomotion of bird if structure W is torn. Terangkan kesan terhadap pergerakan burung jika stuktur W terkoyak. [4 marks/4 mark] A man has swollen ankle and is painful during movement after having a habit of taking high protein diet and practicing unhealthy lifestyle. Seorang lelaki mengalami bengkak pada buku lali dan berasa sakit ketika bergerak setelah mengamalkan pengambilan diet yang tinggi kandungan yang protein dan tidak mengamalkan gaya hidup sihat. Diagram 6.2/ Rajah 6.2 W Pectoralis minor muscle Otot pektoralis minor Humerus /Humerus
  • 33. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 | 14 7. Diagram 7.1 shows part of the blood circulatory system and the lymphatic system in the human body. Rajah 7.1 menunjukkan sebahagian sistem peredaran darah dan sistem limfa dalam badan manusia. Diagram 7.1 /Rajah 7.1 (i) Explain the differences between the composition of fluid P and fluid Q Terangkan perbezaan antara komposisi bendalir P dan bendalir Q. [4 marks]/[4 markah] (ii) Describe how the fluid Q is formed from blood until it is incorporated back into the blood circulatory system. Huraikan bagaimana bendalir Q terbentuk daripada darah sehingga bendalir tersebut masuk semula ke dalam sistem peredaran darah. [6 marks]/[6 markah] (c) (i) Describe how are lacteals in the villi related with the lymphatic system? Huraikan bagaimana lakteal di dalam vilus dapat dikaitkan dengan sistem limfa? [4 marks]/[4 markah] (ii) Helmie takes fried chicken at lunch. Explain the absorption and assimilation process of lipid content in the fried chicken. Helmie mengambil ayam goreng semasa makan tengah hari. Huraikan proses penyerapan dan asimilasi lemak yang terkandung dalam ayam goreng tersebut. [6 marks]
  • 34. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 | 15 8.(a) Diagram 8.1 shows the process of colonisation and succession in a habitat. Rajah 8.1 menunjukkan proses pengkolonian dan penyesaran dalam suatu habitat. Diagram 8.1 What is meant by "colonisation and succession in a habitat”? Based on Diagram 8.1 .explain how colonisation and succession bring about the formation of the primary forest. [10 marks] Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan "pengkolonian dan penyesaran dalam suatu habitat"? Berdasarkan Rajah 8.1, terangkan bagaimana pengkolonian dan penyesaran membawa kepada pembentukan hutan primer dalam suatu habitat. [ 10 markah] Rhizophora sp Sonneratia sp Bruguiera sp Low tidal High tidal
  • 35. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 | 16 (b) Diagram 8.2 shows sources of greenhouse gases arising from human activities and natural processes. Rajah 8.2 menunjukkan sumber-sumber gas rumah hijau yang dihasilkan daripada aktiviti manusia dan proses-proses semula jadi. Diagram 8.2 Rajah 8.2 Based on Diagram 8.2, explain the green house effect and global warming as a result of human activities. Berdasarkan Rajah 8.2, terangkan kesan rumah hijau dan pemanasan global akibat aktiviti- aktiviti manusia. [5 marks]. (c) Diagram 8.3 shows the emission of gases from factories. Rajah 8.3 menunjukkan pelepasan gas daripada kilang. Explain the effects of the emission of the gases to the ecosystem. Terangkan kesan pembebasan gas tersebut kepada ekosistem. [5 marks] Diagram 8.3 /Rajah 8.3 Nitrogen oxide (NO) ,sulphur dioxide (SO2) Nitrogen oksida(NO), sulfur dioksida (SO2) Pond Kolam Forest Hutan
  • 36. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 | 17 9.(a) Diabetics do not correctly produce or use their insulin hormone. The insulin hormone helps control how much sugar is in your bloodstream. Millions of diabetics need to take insulin. Insulin from cows and pigs has been used since the early 1900s to treat diabetes. Now human insulin hormone can be mass-produced through genetic engineering processes. Pesakit kencing manis tidak dapat menghasilkan atau menggunakan insulin dengan betul. Hormon insulin membantu mengawal kandungan gula dalam aliran darah . Berjuta-juta pesakit kencing manis perlu mengambil insulin. Insulin daripada lembu dan babi telah digunakan sejak awal 1900-an untuk merawat penyakit kencing manis. Sekarang hormon insulin manusia boleh dihasilkan secara besar-besaran melalui proses kejuruteraan genetik. Diagram 9.1 shows a few stage that involves in the production of insulin hormone through genetic engineering technology. Rajah 9.1 menunjukkan sebahagian daripada peringkat yang terlibat dalam proses penghasilan hormon insulin melalui teknologi kejuruteraan genetik. By using your knowledge, explain how this technology can be used in insulin hormone production. Berdasarkan pengetahuan biologi anda huraikan bagaimana teknologi ini dijalankan bagi menghasilkan hormon insulin. [6 marks/ 6 markah] Diagram 9.1 /Rajah 9.1 Insulin
  • 37. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 | 18 (b) Genetic engineering (GE) is the manipulation of genetic material (DNA or genes) in a cell or an organism in order to produce desired characteristics and to eliminate unwanted ones. GE includes a range of different techniques with many different uses, and can be applied to plants, animals and humans. For example, the genetic modification of food is a form of GE that involves manipulating the cells of plants. Kejuruteraan genetik (GE) adalah manipulasi bahan genetik (DNA atau gen) di dalam sel atau organisma untuk menghasilkan ciri-ciri yang dikehendaki dan untuk menghapuskan organisma yang tidak diingini. GE termasuk pelbagai teknik yang berbeza dengan kegunaan yang berbeza, dan boleh digunakan untuk tumbuh-tumbuhan, haiwan dan manusia. Sebagai contoh, pengubah suaian genetik makanan adalah satu bentuk GE yang melibatkan memanipulasi sel-sel tumbuh-tumbuhan. Diagram 9.2 shows two tomato leaves which have been exposed to a bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae. Leaf A is the normal leaf show disease when infected with the bacteria while Leaf B, the genetically engineered leaf shows practically no signs of damage. Rajah 9.2 menunjukkan dua helai daun tomato yang telah didedahkan kepada sejenis patogen bakteria ,Pseudomonas syringae. Daun A adalah daun normal yang menunjukkan tanda-tanda penyakit setelah dijangkiti oleh bakteria tersebut, manakala daun B yang telah mengalami pengubah suaian kandungan genetiknya tidak menunjukkan tanda-tanda kerosakan. Discuss the benefits and the risks of using the genetically engineered organisms in agriculture and food production. Bincangkan faedah dan risiko menggunakan organism yang terubah suai kandungan genetiknya dalam pertanian dan penghasilan makanan. [10 marks/10 markah] Diagram 9.2 / Rajah 9.2 Leaf A/ Daun A Leaf B/ Daun B
  • 38. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2014 | 19 (c) a. b. Diagram 9.3 shows a cloning process of a plant. c. Rajah 9.3 menunjukkan proses pengklonan satu tumbuhan. Explain the characteristic of cloned plant. Terangkan ciri-ciri tumbuhan yang diklon. [4 marks] END OF QUESTION PAPER KERTAS SOALAN TAMAT Leaf cells form calluses in culture medium Sel daun membentuk kalus di dalam medium kultur Calluses develop into tiny plantlets Kalus berkembang menjadi anak pokok kecil Cloned plants Tumbuhan klon Leaf cells are taken from the parent plant Sel daun diambil dari tumbuhan induk Diagram 9.3 Rajah 9.3
  • 39. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 1 Question 1 Soalan 1 1. A group of students carried out an experiment to study the effect of intraspecific competition on the growth of maize seedlings. Sekumpulan pelajar menjalankan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji kesan persaingan intraspesifik ke atas pertumbuhan biji benih jagung. Diagram 1 shows the apparatus set-up of the experiment Rajah 1 menunjukkan susunan radas untuk eksperimen tersebut Step 1 : Three seedling trays are filled with 4 kg of garden soil. Langkah 1 : Tiga kotak semaian diisikan dengan 4 kg tanah kebun. Step 2 : The trays are labeled as P, Q and R. Langkah 2 : Kotak-kotak semaian dilabelkan P, Q dan R. Step 3 : In tray P, 50 maize seedlings are seedlinged at a distance of 15 cm intervals. In tray Q, 50 maize seedlings are seedlinged at a distance of 10 cm intervals. In tray R, 50 maize seedlings are seedlinged at a distance of 5 cm intervals. Langkah 3 : Dalam kotak P, 50 anak benih jagung ditanam pada jarak 15 cm berselang seli. Dalam kotak Q, 50 anak benih jagung ditanam pada jarak 10 cm berselang seli. Dalam kotak R, 50 anak benih jagung ditanam pada jarak 5 cm berselang seli. Step 4 : Each tray is watered daily with the same amount of water for 30 days. Langkah 4 : Setiap kotak semaian disiram tiap-tiap hari dengan jumlah air yang sama banyak untuk 30 hari. Step 5 : After 30 days, remove 30 maize seedlings randomly from tray P, tray Q and tray R. The root of seedlings are washed and wipedry. Langkah 5 : Selepas 30 hari, 30 anak benih jagung secara rawak dari kotak P, kotak Q dan kotak R. Akar anak benih dibersihkan dan dilapkan sehingga kering. O 0 0 O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Tray P/kotak P Tray Q /kotak Q Tray R/kotak R Diagram 1/rajah 1
  • 40. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2 Step 6 : The dry weight of the maize seedlings is recorded in Table 1. Langkah 6 : Berat kering anak benih jagung dicatatkan dalam Jadual 1. Distance between maize seedlings / jarak antara anak benih jagung (cm) Dry weight of 30 maize seedlings (g) / berat kering 30 anak benih jagung (g) 15 10
  • 41. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 3 5 Table 1/Jadual 1 (a) Record the dry weight of the maize seedlings in the boxes provided in Table 1 Rekodkan berat kering anak benih jagung di dalam kotak yang disediakan dalam Jadual 1. (b) (i) Based on the results in Table 1 , state two observations that can be made from this experiment. Berdasarkan keputusan di dalam Jadual 1, nyatakan dua pemerhatian yang dapat dibuat daripada eksperimen ini Observation 1/pemerhatian 1: ……..…….…………………..……………………………………….…………………… ……………..………………………..…………………………………………..………… ……..…….…………………..……………………………………….…………………… Observation 2/pemerhatian 2: ……..…….…………………..……………………………………….…………………… ……………..………………………..…………………………………………..………… ……..…….…………………..……………………………………….…………………… [3 marks]
  • 42. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 4 (ii) State the inference from the observations in (b) (i). Nyatakan inferens berdasarkan pemerhatian di (b) (i) Inference from observation 1/inferen dari pemerhatian 1: ……..…….…………………..……………………………………….…………………… ……………..………………………..…………………………………………..………… ……..…….…………………..……………………………………….…………………… Inference from observation 2/inferen dari pemerhatian 2: ……..…….…………………..……………………………………….…………………… ……………..………………………..…………………………………………..………… ……..…….…………………..……………………………………….…………………… [3 marks] (c) Complete Table 2 based on the experiment. Berdasarkan eksperimen, lengkapkan Jadual 2 di bawah [3 marks] Variable Pembolehubah Particulars to be implemented Cara mengendalikan pembolehubah Manipulated/ manipulasi: ……………………… ……………………… …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… Responding / bergerakbalas: ……………………… ……………………… …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… Controlled/ dimalarkan …………………………. ……………………… …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… Table 2// Jadual 2
  • 43. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 5 (d) State the hypothesis for this experiment. Nyatakan hipotesis bagi eksperimen ini ……..…….…………………..……………………………………….…………………… ……………..………………………..…………………………………………..………… ……..…….…………………..……………………………………….…………………… [3 marks] (e) Construct a table and record all your data collected in the experiment which include the following aspects : Bina satu jadual untuk merekodkan semua keputusan eksperimen meliputi aspek berikut :  Distance between maize seedlings/jarak antara anak benih jagung  Dry weight of 30 maize seedlings/berat kering 30 anak benih jagung  Growth rate of maize seedling/kadar pertumbuhan anak benih jagung Growth rate = Dry weight of maize seedlings Number of days Kadar pertumbuhan = Berat kering anak benih jagung Bilangan hari [3 marks] (f) Use the graph paper provided on page 55 to answer this question. Using the data in 1 (e) draw a graph of the growth rate of maize seedlings against the distance between the maize seedlings. Dengan menggunakan kertas graf yang dibekalkan pada muka surat 55 untuk menjawab soalan ini. Dengan menggunakan data di dalam 1 (e), lukiskan graf kadar pertumbuhan anak benih jagung melawan jarak di antara anak benih jagung [3 marks]
  • 44. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 6 (g) Based on graph in 1 (f), explain the relationship between the growth rate of maize seedlings and distance between seedling Berdasarkan graf di 1 (f), terangkan hubungan di antara kadar pertumbuhan anak benih jagung dan jarak antara anak benih. ……..…….…………………..……………………………………….……………………………… ……………..………………………..…………………………………………..……………………. ……..…….…………………..……………………………………….………………………………. [3 marks] (h) If the experiment is repeated by increasing the distance between the maize seedlings to 20 cm, predict the observation . Explain your prediction.. Jika eksperimen diulang dengan meningkatkan jarak di antara anak benih jagung pada 20 cm,ramalkanpemerhatian. Terangkan ramalan anda. ……..…….…………………..……………………………………….……………………………… ……………..………………………..…………………………………………..……………………. ……..…….…………………..……………………………………….………………………………. [3 marks] (i) Based on this experiment, what can you deduce about intraspecific competition? Berdasarkan eksperimen ini, apakah yang dapat anda rumuskan tentang persaingan intraspesifik? ……..…….…………………..……………………………………….……………………………… ……………..………………………..…………………………………………..…………………… ……..…….…………………..……………………………………….……………………………… [3 marks] (j) When resources are limited supply, organisms living in the same habitat will compete for the same resources. The following is a list of the resources. Apabila sumber-sumber menjadi terhad, organisma hidup di habitat yang sama akan bersaing untuk sumber yang sama. Berikut ialah senarai sumber-sumber tersebut. In Table 3, classify the resources given according to what are the resources competed by animals and resources compete by plants. Dalam Jadual 3, klasifikasikan sumber-sumber yang diberi mengikut apakah sumber- sumber yang dsaingi oleh haiwan dan sumber-sumber yang disaingi oleh tumbuhan. The resources competed by animals/ Sumber-sumber yang dsaingi oleh haiwan Resources compete by plants/ Sumber-sumber yang disaingi oleh tumbuhan Table 3 // Jadual 3 [3 marks] Food/makanan Space/ruang Breedingmate/pasangan mengawan Nutrient/nutrien Water/air Light/cahaya
  • 45. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 7
  • 46. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 8 Question 2 Soalan 2 Ali is a farmer. He owns a plot of land in Cameron Highlands which is quite high above sea level and is quite cold as well. He plants vegetables and some temperate fruit trees. Ali adalah seorang petani. Dia mempunyai sebuah ladang di Cameron Highland yang terletak sangat tinggi dari aras laut dan terlalu sejuk. Beliau menanam sayur-sayuran dan sedikit tumbuhan buah-buahan iklim sederhana. In the afternoon, Ali used to notice his vegetable plants wilt, though the surrounding is not hot. This phenomenon does not happen early in the morning. Pada hari bercahaya dan bersinar, Ali sedia maklum tanaman sayurannya menjadi layu walaupun hari tidak panas. Fenomena ini tidak berlaku pada waktu awal pagi. Based on the above information, plan a laboratory experiment to determine the effects of light intensity on the rate of transpiration. The planning of your experiment must include the following aspects. Berdasarkan penyataan di atas, rancangkan satu eksperimen mengkaji untuk kesan keamatan cahaya ke atas kadar transpirasi. Perancangan eksperimen anda hendaklah meliputi aspek-aspek berikut:  Problem statement / Penyataanmasalah  Aim of investigation / Objektif kajian  Hypothesis / Hipotesis  Variables / Pembolehubah  List of apparatus and material / Senarai radas dan bahan  Experimental procedure or method / Kaedah atau prosedur eksperimen  Presentation of data / Cara data dipersembahkan
  • 47. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 | MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 9 [17 marks] END OF QUESTION PAPER KERTAS SOALAN TAMAT
  • 48. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 1 Answer all questions. Jawab semua soalan. Question 1 Soalan 1 A group of students were provided with article above as guidance for them to conduct an experiment to investigate the percentage of Vitamin C in different types of vegetables. They believe that vegetables contain higher percentage of Vitamin C compared to fruits. Sekumpulan pelajar telah dibekalkan dengan artikel di atas sebagai panduan untuk mereka menjalankan sebuah eksperimen untuk menyiasat peratus Vitamin C dalam jenis sayuran yang berbeza. Mereka percaya bahawa sayur-sayura mempunyai peratusan Vitamin C yang lebih tinggi berbanding buah-buahan The following steps were carried out. Step 1: 20 grams of Cauliflower are blended with 20 ml of distilled water using a blender in 30 seconds Step 2 : Suspension is filtered and the filtrate is collected. Fill a syringe with needle with 5 ml of Cauliflower filtrate and leaf it a side. Step 3 : 1 ml of DCPIP solution is measured using measuring cylinder and pour it into a specimen tube Another name for Vitamin C, a nutrient found in fresh fruits and vegetable is called Ascorbic Acid. Among good sources of Vitamin C are citrus fruits like oranges, lemons, limes and grapefruits, berries, tomatoes, green peppers, cabbage, broccoli and spinach. Currently the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for vitamin C is 50-60 mg/day for adults; 35 mg/day for infants; 40-45 mg/day for children. Stein, Jay H. “Ascorbic Acid(Vitamin C) Deficiency.” In Internal Medicine. St Louis: Mosby 1998 Nama lain bagi Vitamin C, nutrien yang dijumpai di dalam buah-buahan segar dan sayur- sayuran dipanggil Asid Askorbik. Antara sumber Vitamin C adalah buah-buahan sitrus seperti oren, limau, dan anggur, beri, tomato, cili hijau, kobis, brokoli dan bayam. Buat masa ini, jumlah pemakanan cadangan (RDA) untuk Vitamin C adalah 50-60 mg/hari untuk dewasa; 35mg/hari untuk bayi; 45mg/hari untuk kanak-kanak. Stein, Jay H. “Ascorbic Acid(Vitamin C) Deficiency.” In Internal Medicine. St Louis: Mosby 1998
  • 49. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 2 Step 4: By using the syringe prepared in Step 2, deep in the needle in to the solution and pour in the Cauliflower filtrate in to 1ml DCPIP solution in the specimen tube. Step 5: By using the needle, stir the solution slowly until it is decolorized. Step 6: Measure and record the final reading of the syringe. Step 7: Repeat Step 1-6 by using Broccoli and Lime. While repeat Step 2-6 by replacing filtrate with Ascorbic Acid.
  • 50. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 3 The results of the experiment are shown in Table 1 Keputusan eksperimen ditunjukkan dalam Jadual 7. Type of Filtrate Jenis Hasil Turasan Final Reading Bacaan Akhir Amount of filtrate used to decolorize 1ml DCPIP solution (ml) Jumlah hasil turasan yang digunakan untuk menyahwarna 1ml larutan DCPIP (ml) A (Cauliflower) B (Broccoli) C (Lime) 5 4 5 4 4 3
  • 51. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 4 D (Ascorbic Acid) (a) Record the amount of filtrate used to decolorize 1 ml DCPIP solution in Table 1. Rekod jumlah hasil turasan yang digunakan untuk mennyahwarna 1 ml larutan DCPIP dalam Jadual 1 (b) i) State two different observations based on Table 1. Nyatakan pemerhatian yang berbeza berdasarkan Jadual 1 Observation 1/ Pemerhatian 1 __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Observation 2/ Pemerhatian 2 __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 5 4
  • 52. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 5 ii) State two inferences based on observations made in 1(b). Inference 1/ Inferens 1 __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Inference 2/ Inferens 2 __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ (c) Complete Table 2 based on the experiment. Lengkapkan Jadual 2 berdasarkan eksperimen. Variable Pembolehubah Method to handle the variables Cara mengendali pembolehubah Manipulated variable Pembolehubah dimanipulasikan ……………………………….......... ……………………………………. ……………………………………. …………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………. Responding variable Pembolehubah bergerak balas ……………………………………. ……………………………………. ……………………………………. ………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………… Constant Variable Pembolehubah dimalarkan ……………………………………. …………………………………… ………………………………….. …………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………
  • 53. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 6 (d) State the hypothesis of this experiment Nyatakan hipotesis eksperimen ini ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ (e) i) Construct a table and record all the data collected in this experiment. Your table should have following titles:- Bina satu jadual dan rekod semua data yang dikumpulkan dalam eksperimen Jadual anda hendaklah mengandungi tajuk-tajuk berikut:-  Types of fruit juices/ vegetables Jenis Jus buah/ sayuran  Amount of fruit juices/ vegetables filtrate needed to decolorize 1 ml DCPIP solution Jumlah jus buah/ hasil tapisan sayuran yang diperlukan untuk menyahwarna 1 ml larutan DCPIP  Percentage of Vitamin C in each specimen Peratusan Vitamin C dalam setiap specimen Percentage of Vitamin C = Amount of Ascorbic Acid needed to decolorize DCPIP solution x 0.1% Amount of Fruit Juice/ Vegetables Filtrate needed to decolorize DCPIP solution
  • 54. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 7 ii) Use data from 1 (e) i) draw a bar chart of Type of vegetable filtrate against percentage of Vitamin C. Dengan menggunakan data dari 1 (e) i), lukiskan carta bar jenis tapisan sayuran melawan peratusan Vitamin C. (f) Based on the bar chart in (e) ii), state the relationship between types of vegetable filtrate and percentage of Vitamin C. Berdasarkan carta bar di (e) ii), nyatakan hubungan di antara jenis hasil turasan sayur dan peratusan Vitamin C. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ (g) State the operational definition for the percentage of Vitamin C. Nyatakan definisi secara operasi untuk peratusan Vitamin C. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ (h) The experiment is repeated with Cauliflower filtrate which has been boiled. Predict the outcome of this experiment. Explain your answer. Eksperimen ini diulang dengan menggunakan hasil turasan Cauliflower yang telah dididihkan. Ramalkan hasil eksperimen ini. Terangkan jawapan anda. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________
  • 55. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 8 (i) Using the list below, classify the material and apparatus needed in this experiment. Menggunakan senarai di bawah, kelaskan bahan dan radas yang diperlukan dalam eksperimen ini. Materials Bahan Apparatus Radas Ascorbic Acid Fruit Juices Syringe with needle Specimen Tube Measuring Cylinder DCPIP Solution
  • 56. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 9 Question 2 Soalan 2 Diagram 2 is an illustration of Hulu Selangor, Selangor area where there is a palm oil farm near Gunung Nuang as well as few lots of bungalow 5 km down a stream which is known as Sungai Congkak. As shown in the diagram below, Sungai Congkak is a river that flows from up the stream towards the factory and bungalow lots. August, 24 - Statistics from Jabatan P dan Saliran, Selangor shows there were few reports from people leaving in the bungalow lots saying that the Sungai Congkak is badly polluted due to pollutants released from the palm oil factory. They believe that the disposable sewage enhance the growth of microorganism. Due to this contamination, the reports also mentioned about children who were swimming in the river were diagnosed with severe rashes. Rajah 2 merupakan illustrasi kawasan Hulu Selangor, Selangor di mana terdapat lading kelapa sawit berdekatan dengan Gunung Nuang serta beberapa lot banglo 5km menuruni susur sebuah sungai yang dikenali sebagai Sungai Congkak. Seperti yang ditunjukkan di dalam rajah di bawah, Sungai Congkak merupakan sungai yang mengalir dari atas menuju ke kilang dan lot banglo.
  • 57. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 10 As the representative of Jabatan Alam Sekitar, you are required to design a laboratory experiment to study the degree of water pollution at three different stations along the river. Sebagai wakil Jabatan Alam Sekitar, anda dikehendaki untuk merancang sebuah eksperimen makmal untuk mengetahui tahap pencemaran air di tiga stesen yang berbeza sepanjang sungai tersebut. Planning of your experiment must include following aspects:- Perancangan eksperimen anda hendaklah mengandungi aspek-aspek tersebut berikut:-  Problem statement/ Penyataan masalah  Hypothesis/ Hipotesis  Variables/ Pembolehubah  Materials and apparatus/ Bahan dan Radas  Procedures/ Prosedur  Presentation of data/ Persembahan data [17 marks] END OF QUESTION PAPER
  • 58. PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN SPM SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH, KPM 2014 BIOLOGY 4551 MODUL PERFECT SCORE SBP 11 KERTAS SOALAN TAMAT