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MODELING 30% ONLINE & 70%
FACE-TO-FACE LEARNING
BLENDED LEARNING
TRAINING WORKSHOP
Mokhtar BEN HENDA
Bordeaux Montaigne University, France
Second session: 23/07/2021
FLIPPED CLASSROOM WITH ACTIVE
PEDAGOGY
OUTCOMES OF 1ST WORKSHOP SESSION
Blending a syllabus (MACRO LEVEL):
 Identifying learning units,
 Using forms for collecting data,
 Defining ratios for Online and F2F,
 Using grids for describing learning units
distribution F2F & Online (scenario), UNIT Online F2F Content Pedagogical method Observation
Session
01
X General
introduction
Lecture Distribute resources for the next
session flipped class
Session
02
X Topic 01 Flipped class Reminding Flipped Class rules
Session
03
X Topic 02 Lecture Designate topics for students’
presentations for session 04
Session
04
X Topic 03 Students reports
Session
05
X Topic 04 Virtual class Group work
Session
06
X Assessment Exam in class Paper Quiz
Arranging online classes with
innovative learning activities
MICRO LEVEL (Pedagogy)
MACRO LEVEL (Organization)
BLENDING LEARNING MODELS
 These models are not the only way blended learning can be implemented,
 They are a helpful starting point in describing what blended learning really looks like
in classrooms.
Source: Christensen Institute
BLENDED LEARNING: ONLINE INNOVATIVE ASPECTS
The online side of blending is
making the difference:
 Learning is centered on learner
activities and self knowledge
acquisition,
 Learning can occur asynchronously,
 Students work at their own speed,
time, rhythm,
 Students can reach out to the teacher
(usually via email or phone) if they
need assistance,
 ICT introduce new pedagogical
methods: virtual and flipped classes
ONLINE COURSES: MOST COMMON FORMATS
 Virtual classrooms:
 Are ICT-based, and mean to replicate the
experience of physical classrooms, with the
added benefits of file sharing, instant feedback
and interaction and are ideal in distance learning
situations.
 Flipped classrooms:
 Are a category of virtual classroom,
 Describes a reversal of traditional teaching and
are based on 3 moments: before, during, after
the class:
– Before class time: Learners learn about the material,
– Class time is then devoted to a deeper work of
assimilating knowledge through active teaching methods,
– After class time is for remedy (teacher side) and deeper
understanding activities (learners side)
 Flipped classes can be fully F2F (no ICT), but
necessary use active pedagogy
TWO TYPES OF FLIPPED CLASS
TYPE 1 : standard model Type 2 : enriched model
 The resources are provided by the teacher to be
consulted outside the classroom,
 Knowledge is therefore externalized, in particular
through digital technology,
 Classwork is a coordination of learning practices
(individual and/or collaborative).
 Learners are invited to go and find the information
themselves online or in their original contexts (in the
field: survey, exploration, case study, etc.),
 They document individually on the theme that has been
proposed to them and prepare to discuss it in class,
 In class, they present their materials as an activity for
their colleagues (discussion, criticism, commentary,
synthesis, etc.),
 The emphasis is on changing roles between teacher and learner,
 The teacher becomes a guide and the learner becomes more participatory,
 The learner is placed at the center of the learning process.
FLIPPED CLASSROOM AS AN ACTIVE PEDAGOGY
 Active learning: moving from "what the teacher is
doing" To "what the learner is doing”,
 Give a primordial place to the learner who builds
his skills and knowledge in real or close to reality
situations,
 The learner must give meaning to his learning
through experience, discovery and manipulation,
 21st century skills:
 Become independent,
 Exercise critical thinking,
 Team working,
 Communicate,...
 Galileo said: “You cannot teach others anything.
We can only help him find out for himself. "
ACTIVE PEDAGOGY FORMS
ACTIONS COMPLEXITY IN A FLIPPED CLASSROOM?
"I see and I forget, I hear and I hold back, I do and I understand"
What you remember after 24 hours!
P
A
S
S
I
V
E
A
C
T
I
V
E
Source : Edgar Dale, « Cone of learning », 1969/
Edgar Dale
FLIPPED CLASSROOM USING BLOOM’S TAXONOMY
 Bloom's taxonomy (1956) is a hierarchical order of cognitive skills, used by
teachers to support student learning,
 They support teachers to define appropriate complexity levels for learners
activities
 Six hierarchical levels with typical action verbs,
Synthèse et création
Évaluation
Analyse
Application
Compréhension
Connaissance
Complexity
GENERAL ORGANIZING FEATURES OF A FLIPPED CLASSROOM
 Three moments:
Before During After
Source, Université de Genève
DETAILED SAMPLE OF A FLIPPED CLASS SCENARIO
BEFORE (Out of class)
Task
conception/Project
(Teacher)
Teacher Learner
Examples:
 Design / produce video podcasts.
 Suggest documents to read, to comment ...
 Carry out the roadmap for the video posdact.
 Create questionnaires.
 Publish the material (platform).
 View learners' responses.
 Etc.
Examples:
 Watch a video podcast.
 Read documents.
 Research on the internet.
 Answer roadmap questions / quizzes.
 Etc.
Task
conception
/
Project
(teacher)
DURING (class progress)
Teacher:
 Check the learners activities prepared upstream.
 Individual or collective checking of information.
 Train or help to form subgroups.
 Manage the subgroups.
 Define the objectives of each subgroup.
 Circulate between the subgroups.
 Remedy.
 Etc.
Learner:
 Discuss the prepared task outside the classroom (debate, poll, quiz, etc.)
 Work on the learning scenario.
 Summarize and create.
 Present orally.
 Etc.
PS: The activities carried out in class are done individually, in groups, in “subgroups”.
AFTER (remediation)
Teacher:
 Diagnostic assessment (remediation): assess the prior learning of learners, what they already know, their skills, etc.
 Immediate evaluation (remediation): constantly discussing via mail or forum in a structured or unstructured way with the learners.
 Formative assessment (remediation): provide information on achievements in construction. This makes it possible to locate the learner's progress in relation to a given objective.
 Formative assessment (certification assessment): allows to improve the learning in progress by detecting the learner's difficulties (diagnosis) in order to help him (remediation), by modifying the learning situation or the
pace of this progression, to make (if necessary) improvements or appropriate fixes.
 Summative assessment (certification): evaluate the knowledge and skills of a learner and give a grade.
ANNEXES
 Corrected exercises, transcriptions, illustrations.
Source : https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1EQUGEXWRuguY5iu8dd3FZIEriHM0DKud
BEFORE : PREPARING PEDAGOCIAL RESOURCES
Form title = Task title
 Target audience: Level, class, promotion, subject etc.
 Duration: indicative and to be modulated according to the context and the progress of teaching
 Level: according to the curriculum
Teaching objectives Learning objectives
 Overall objectives from the teacher's perspective:
- They allow the learner to have an overview of the
course/sequence/session … goals.
- They are neither quantifiable nor measurable, just
declared.
- The statement begins with: "The course aims to ..."
 Specific objectives from the learner's point of view:
- They allow the learner to "be able to" + action verbs (cf.
revised Bloom's taxonomy).
- They are quantifiable and measurable, including a
customized criterion of learner performance (observable
behaviors).
- The statement begins with: "The learner will be able to
..."
Resources and tools
 Offline applications / software (audio processing, presentations, mind maps, comparison tables, etc.)
 Online applications (educational platforms, online quiz, etc.).
 Additional documents (texts, drawings, videos, etc.)
BEFORE : PREPARING PEDAGOCIAL RESOURCES
 Tips:
 Choose, build, prepare resources,
 Use free resources (OER),
 Prefer teamwork organization,
 Use Webservice tools to produce and regulate teamworks,
 Tools: Video content creation and annotation
 Visme : Create animations, slides and infographics in a very intuitive way (free).
 EdPuzzle : Create video montages with interactive questions and answer tracking
 Aww : Collaborative online whiteboard.
 Educreations : Online whiteboard (also available as an app), with video recording,
image insertion, private mode sharing,
 Sophia : Create “tutorial” Web pages with the possibility of creating groups.
 Technotes: Free Tools to Create Educational Videos ()
FEATURES OF A GOOD PEDAGOGICAL VIDEO
 Shorter videos are more popular: learner
engagement decreases after 6 minutes.
 The presence of the teacher's face,
superimposed or, better, alternately,
throughout the presentation is more
appreciated than a presentation alone.
 An informal or contextualized recording
environment is preferred over studio
recording.
DURING A VIRTUAL F2F STARTING (CONTEXTUALIZATION)
 When starting the virtual classroom:
 Welcome of participants,
 Technical confirmation for each participant (if the
sound, video, and facilities of the Virtual Classroom
tool are working well: test them one by one if
necessary),
 Present the agenda (explain how the virtual class
works),
 Presentation of the participants (round table if
necessary depending on the number),
 Define the rules of conduct for the virtual classroom,
 Explain the communication tools,
 Validate the correct understanding of the objectives
of the session,
Objective Type of activity Used tools
 Welcome the participants (1 min) Conversation
(welcoming)
Chat
 Technical checks for participants (2
minutes)
Conversation
(check if all is OK)
Audio/video
Chat
 Presentation of the agenda (3 minutes) Presentation Screen sharing
(ppt)
 Get participants to introduce
themselves (3 nm)
Round table Audio/video
 Reminder of the rules of conduct in the
virtual classroom (2 min)
Presentation Screen sharing
(ppt)
 Explain the tools to communicate (2
min)
Manipulation Visual feedback
 Validate the correct understanding of
this first step (2 min)
Questionning Poll
A 60-minute session on Zoom for 10 learners (Starting section of scenario)
DURING: VIRTUAL F2F ACTIVE PEDAGOGY
Start the programmed activities of
the educational scenario:
 Use forms of active pedagogies
(Interactive presentation, Case study,
Brainstorming, Role playing, Reverse
class, serious game, Demo, Quiz, ...,
 Use CFTs (Classroom Feedback
Techniques): Teacher-learner, learner-
learner interactions,
 Use the features of a virtual classroom
tool:
– Whiteboard,
– Survey,
– Chat,
– Screen sharing,
– The visual feedback buttons (smileys, etc.),
Visual feedback buttons (Zoom)
Objective Type of activity Used tools
 Educational slide show (10 mn) Presentation Sccreen sharing
 Distribution of learners into 2 groups
(1 mn)
Team creation Function « Create
groups »
 Synthesis production by group (5 mn) Brain storming Screen Sharing of
a presentation
 Presentation of group summaries (10
mn)
Interactive
presentation
Audio/video
 Production of a general summary (10
mn)
Collaboration Audio
White board
 Checking of acquired knowledge (5
mn)
Self assessment Formative Quiz
 Check the satisfaction of the result (4
mn)
Questioning Poll
A 60-minute session on Zoom for 10 learners (Active section of scenario)
DURING: VIRTUAL F2F ACTIVE PEDAGOGY
 Use collaborative activities to punctuate the session:
 Make learners active,
 Maintain their interest,
 Promote peer-to-peer debate,
 Develop critical thinking and in-depth learning.
 Energize the audience with instant votes:
THINK-PAIR-SHARE
 ONE: learners individually think on
a question asked by the teacher
and write down their answer
 TWO: the learners compare their
answer with their neighbor (s) and
seek to find a solution that reaches
a consensus
 ALL: The teacher questions the
groups of learners, notes the
answers on the board and leads
the plenary discussion.
JIGSAW (OU PUZZLE)
 The teacher prepares a series of
questions or a series of resources to
use after putting learners into
groups.
 Expert group: each group receives a
question and resources for further
study
 Learning group: the groups are then
reorganized so as to be composed
of learners from each group of
expertise, with a view to sharing with
others.
MINI-QUIZ
 The teacher prepares multiple
choice questions in his slides.
 The question and the various
possible answers are
displayed.
 Learners vote (voting boxes,
web tools, cards or post its).
 Depending on the number of
correct answers, the teacher
can clarify the poorly
understood elements.
CONCEPT MAPS
 After having covered an important block of material in the
course (theme, unit, chapters, etc.) the teacher invites the
learners to build a representation of what they have
learned using a concept map
 In pairs, the learners brainstorm the important concepts
learned and the links between these concepts
 The teacher circulates between the teams to observe the
work in progress and answer questions.
PHILIPPS 6/6
 The teacher forms groups of 6
learners who have 6 minutes to find
a solution to a given problem.
 A reporter from each group then
presents the solution to the large
group.
 On the basis of the contributions of
all the groups, each group writes a
summary.
The visualization of responses is immediate, managed
by ad hoc software used on the teacher's computer.
Voting boxes / tablet / Smartphone / On
website / QR code signs /…
DURING: VIRTUAL F2F ACTIVE PEDAGOGY
 Face-to-face active pedagogy techniques:
 Case study analysis.
 Debates.
 Demonstrations.
 Games.
 Group collaborative project.
 In-class writing.
 Mini-lecture/interaction.
 Polling students.
 Interactive talk
 Quiz start-up / synthesis
 Pedagogical movie
 Brainstorming
 Critical analysis exercise
 Role play game (simulation exercises)
 Best practice exchange
 Co-coaching or co-development
 Testimony.
DURING: VIRTUAL F2F ACTIVE PEDAGOGY (CFT)
 Using classroom
feedback techniques
(CFT):
 Short interruptions to
check understanding;
 A multitude of possible
variants (around 50),
 Duration between 5 and
20 minutes for the most
part,
 Formative: without
grades,
 Context specific,
CFT Examples
KNOWLEDGE SURVEY
 Objective: to briefly identify the prior
knowledge of the learners
 Method: individually, vote online or a short
survey (Woodclap)
 Duration: 10 minutes
 Example: "Define the following term in your
own words"
GRID of ‘For’ Or ‘Against’
 Objective: quickly list the pros and cons of a
given situation
 Method: as a team, after posting a question,
list the pros and cons,
 Duration: 5 minutes
 Example: "Briefly, list three to five advantages
and disadvantages of a concept or a fact"
CITE PRACTICAL CASES
 Objective: to make the link between the
theories exposed and their practical
applications
 Method: in a group, "propose at least two
examples of concrete application of the
principles exposed (Wooclap, forum / chat /
database)“
 Duration: 5 minutes
INTERACTIVE VIDEOS
 Objective: reformulate the messages of a
video
 Method: invite learners to take notes during
the broadcast of a short video, then suggest
an activity of your choice
 Duration: 5 to 15 minutes
 Example:
a) Everyone notes the key ideas then a few
volunteers respond to each point by Chat,
forum, Zoom)
B) Ask each group to focus on a point then
compare the answers via forum) then
collective feedback
RÉSUMÉ ON THE FLY
 Objective: actively and collectively summarize
 Modality:
1. in 3 minutes, individually, write down 5
keywords retained following a presentation
(etherpad),
2. in 4 minutes, in a team, select 10 key
words,
3. in 8 minutes, the team makes a summary
comprising these 10 key words in a text of 7
lines maximum (etherpad),
4. read some summaries,
 Duration: 20 minutes
THE LESS LIGHT APPEARANCE
 Objective: to highlight a point that remains
confused in relation to the learning offered
 Modality: individually, on post-it (framemo):
"Regarding the presentation, the reading you
did, the discussion that took place or the video
that you saw, what is left? the least clear? “
 Duration: 1 minute
DURING: VIRTUAL F2F ACTIVE PEDAGOGY (ASSESSMENT)
 Essentially formative assessment:
 Carried out in a short cycle,
 Focuses on the process and not just on
the product,
 Extended to all contributors:
– Self-assessment (learner),
– The learner-teacher (co-assessment),
– Peers (peer review),
FORMATIVE FEED-BACK
 Interaction between the teacher and the learner is the tool for the co-
construction of knowledge,
 Role of the teacher: answer questions, reframe, offer different insights, etc.
 He is in a position to give a certain number of formative feedbacks aimed at
orienting, guiding, rectifying ...
The « JUST-IN-TIME TEACHING »
 A variation of formative feedback.
 Before the course: Survey the learners to recalibrate the educational
intervention according to needs,
 Allows the teacher during the lesson to assess the understanding of the
lesson and react quickly.
ASSESSMENT
CHOSEN OR SELF-MANAGED
Give the learner a lot of
autonomy in the choice of
questions as well as in the
choice of the moment of the
evaluation.
PEER REVIEWING
Engage learners in the process
of mutual evaluation (by peers)
according to a criteria grid.
REALIZATION OF A
PORTFOLIO
Show the learner's progress and
performance in one or more
areas.
AUTHENTIC SITUATION
ASSESSMENT
Original assessment through
scenarios: conference, role-
playing and simulations, creation
of a work, case study, writing of
a scientific article, etc..
Source : Les carnets du LLL
Four assessment methods for the flipped classroom
AFTER: CONSOLIDATION, REMEDIATION, EVALUATION
Need to deepen learning through additional practices after class using
individual or group exercises:
 Recommend further reading on the subject,
 Use LMS forums or social media to synthesize ideas developed in class,
 Put additional problems on the teaching platform so that learners can practice
individually,
 Create exercises that allow learners to apply the content in different contexts or
new situations,
 Encourage learners to create informal learning groups,
 Develop peer-led groups to work on additional problems,
 Etc.
BUILDING SCENARIOS OF FLIPPED CLASSROOMS
BEFORE
TRƯỚC
Duration / Thời lượng Contents / Nội dung
Activités d’enseignement-apprentissage
Hoạt động dạy - học Assessment activities
Hoạt động đánh giá
Required tools
Vật liệu thiết yếu
Teacher / Giáo viên Learner / Sinh viên
(Indicate what the teacher must do
BEFORE the session)
(Cho biết giáo viên phải làm gì TRƯỚC
buổi học)
(Indicate what the learner
must do BEFORE the session)
(Cho biết học sinh phải làm gì
TRƯỚC buổi học)
Duration / Thời lượng Contents / Nội dung Activités d’enseignement-apprentissage Assessment activities
Hoạt động đánh giá
Required tools
Vật liệu thiết yếu
Teacher / Giáo viên Learner / Sinh viên
(Indicate what the teacher must do
DURING the session)
(Cho biết giáo viên làm gì TRONG buổi
học)
(Indicate what the learner
must do DURING the session)
(Cho biết học sinh làm gì
TRONG buổi học)
Duration / Thời lượng Contents / Nội dung Activités d’enseignement-apprentissage Assessment activities
Hoạt động đánh giá
Required tools
Vật liệu thiết yếu
Teacher / Giáo viên Learner / Sinh viên
(Indicate what the teacher must do
AFTER the session)
(Cho biết giáo viên làm gì SAU buổi học)
(Indicate what the learner
must do AFTER the session)
(Cho biết học sinh làm gì SAU
buổi học)
DURING
SUỐT
TRONG
AFTER
SAU
Example of a flipped class scenario structure
BUILDING SCENARIOS OF FLIPPED CLASSROOMS
 The educational scenario can take different
forms, as long as it is detailed and clearly
explains the order of events;
 It is often presented in the form of a table or in
a free format;
 It contains several sections:
 Specify the sequences one by one;
 Estimate the duration in a summary way;
 Indicate the contents (supports);
 Define the actions of the teacher and the learner;
 Indicate the means and tools to be used for each
sequence;
 Indicate the methods of assessment of prior
learning.
The 5 criteria of a successful and
complete pedagogical scenario:
1. Well-defined, realistic and
achievable goals;
2. Short sequences;
3. Various teaching methods (active
methods);
4. Feedback techniques to motivate
learners;
5. A time for evaluations: between
the sequences and at the end of
the session.
BUILDING SCENARIOS OF FLIPPED CLASSROOMS (SAMPLE)
Session « n »
Global warming
Objectives Skills
Activities
Tools Observations
Teacher Learners
Global warming
30 mn
Identifying causes and
origins of global
warming
To be able to diagnose
the real causes of
global warming and
their indicators
(characteristics)
The teacher provides
guidance resources
(readings) to identify
the causes of global
warming.
He provides a matrix
to identify the causes
and their indicators
(characteristics)
Learners read the
resources and
identify the causes of
global warming and
their indicators
They refill the
indicator grid and
place it on the LMS
YouTube videos
Text editor (Word) to
fill the grid
LMS Moodle of the
establishment
This sequence
completes, in the form
of a virtual classroom,
other face-to-face
sessions on the
environment.
Texts and conventions
on global warming
30 mn
List the texts and
conventions produced
about global warming
Be able to do
advanced research
on the internet
Be able to create a
database of
structured objects
The teacher provides
in a document the
work procedure to
be followed
He indicates the
choice of the tool to
use (a database)
Learners search the
Internet for
requested resources
They create a
database on the LMS
to describe the
resources found
Internet search
engines
Database activity on
Moodle
This sequence makes
it possible to produce
resources which will
serve as a basis for
later programming of a
flipped classroom
BUILDING SCENARIOS OF FLIPPED CLASSROOMS (SAMPLES)
 Welcoming
 Presentation of
objectives
 Introduction
 Oral presentation
of the course
content
 Q/A
 Activity: concept
map
 Self-assessment
quiz
 Comments on
responses
 Synthesis
 Poll
 Oral introduction
 Slideshow
 Reminder of the session objectives
 Unmuting micros
 Animate the Q/A
 Develop a sheet with the key points of the course
 Close all micros
 Present light slides (not too charged)
 Show short video clips if necessary
30 mn
(10 + 20)
30 mn
(20 + 10)
10 mn
20 mn
 Give instructions for the work to be done
 Access to the online concept map tool
 Summarize the course content in the form of a concept
map
 Answer a self-assessment quiz with immediate feedback (5
key questions)
 Presentation of statistics and possible questions / answers
on the feedbacks
 Reminder of a summary of the course content
 Conduct a course content comprehension survey (Yes / No
question)
Possibility of enriching this scenario with:
 A template form proposed upstream to develop the
key points of the course
 Recording of the session to make it available for
absentees
 Vary activities while maintaining a high degree of
collaboration and feedback (CRT)
Example of a 1h30 virtual flipped classroom
BUILDING SCENARIOS OF FLIPPED CLASSROOMS (SAMPLES)
BUILDING SCENARIOS OF FLIPPED CLASSROOMS (SAMPLES)
BUILDING SCENARIOS OF FLIPPED CLASSROOMS (SAMPLES)
VIRTUAL FLIPPED CLASSROOM TOOLS (VIDEO SYSTEMS)
The most used Visio systems that
integrate the essential tools and
services of a virtual classroom:
 Microsoft Teams
 Zoom
 WebRoom
 BigBlueButton
 Adobe Connect
 Meet jitsi
 Cisco Webex...
VIRTUAL FLIPPED CLASSROOM TOOLS (INTERNAL/EXTERNAL PLUGINS)
A virtual classroom
system is an aggregation
internal or/and external
tools and services used
for different educational
activities:...
VIRTUAL FLIPPED CLASSROOM TOOLS (INTERNAL/EXTERNAL PLUGINS)
Fonctions Fonctionnalities Tools
 Visio and
screen sharing
 Communicate by video in real time
and share the display of resources
and screens...
Zoom / MS Teams / Google Meet / Jitsi /
BigBlueButton (Moodle) / Livestorm / whereby.com /
 White board
 Collaboratively create and annotate
documents simultaneously...
Zoom / BigBlueButton (slides blanches et outils de
dessin) / AWW / Miro / Excalidraw / Klaxoon
 Concept maps
 Create a concept map with semantic
links to synthesize an idea, process
or document content...
FreeMind PC / FreeMind / Cacoo / Mind42 /
CmapTools / MindMeister / MindManager / Xmind
 Quiz
 Assessment by questions and
answers in several forms
iSpring QuizMaker / Eval&GO / Kahoot / Typeform /
SurveyMonkey / QuizZoodle / ExperQuiz / Quizity /
AhaSlides
 Serious games
 An educational game: problem
solving, reasoning, assembly of
objects (lego) ...
Des bases de données de jeux éducatifs : Trello / Agile
Games / Serious Games classification / Thot Cursus
 Vote and poll
 Have rapid feedback from learners to
gauge course progress
Moodle / Zoom / MS teams /Google Meet /
 Teamworks
 Divide and follow learners into sub-
groups
Moodle / Zoom / MS teams /Google Meet /
Examples of external services
TO SUMMARIZE THE BUILDING OF A VIRTUAL CLASSROOM
Upstream
Build a scenario
Prepare resources
Test equipment
Test Visio service
Have learners test the Visio
service
Create the virtual classroom
on the system
Inform learners
While starting
Welcoming learners
Remind the rules of use
Present the session
During
Plan interactive sequences
Answer questions
Propose polls and surveys
After
Analyze activity reports
Take remedial action
SUCCESS FACTORS OF A VIRTUAL FLIPPED CLASSROOM
 Checking that there is no technical problem joining
the CV
 To be resolved upstream,
 Ask learners to connect 10 to 15 minutes before the virtual class,
 Design of an educational scenario adapted to the
context (the scenario as a working document):
 Create and load the content resources to use in session,
 Define objectives to be reached during the session,
 Define the duration of each sequence of the session,
 Define the teaching methods for each sequence,
 Define the evaluation methods for each sequence,
 Keep learners attention and motivation aiming for a
maximum level of interactivity:
– The organization of work in sub-groups,
– Visual feedback (absence status, presence, smileys, raised hands, etc.)
– Chat,
– The polling,
– The White board,
– Application sharing
Classe : La classe virtuelle a-t-elle des vertus ? Nathan 2020
RISKS OF A VIRTUAL FLIPPED CLASSROOM
On the teachers' side:
 A common mistake: focusing too much on creating lectures in
video mode at the expense of classroom activities,
 Stick to a single flipped class model and one or a few CFT models
(Class Feedback Techniques),
On the learners’ side:
 A complete change in the rules that many will reject,
 The transition from a passive (receptive) status to an active status
creates lack of enthusiasm,
 The transition from procedural cognitive skills or even
memorization to more complex or transversal cognitive skills (3
upper Bloom levels) could create resistance to change,
The flipped classroom is a state of mind for the teacher and the learner

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Modeling 30% online & 70% face-to-face learning

  • 1. MODELING 30% ONLINE & 70% FACE-TO-FACE LEARNING BLENDED LEARNING TRAINING WORKSHOP Mokhtar BEN HENDA Bordeaux Montaigne University, France Second session: 23/07/2021 FLIPPED CLASSROOM WITH ACTIVE PEDAGOGY
  • 2. OUTCOMES OF 1ST WORKSHOP SESSION Blending a syllabus (MACRO LEVEL):  Identifying learning units,  Using forms for collecting data,  Defining ratios for Online and F2F,  Using grids for describing learning units distribution F2F & Online (scenario), UNIT Online F2F Content Pedagogical method Observation Session 01 X General introduction Lecture Distribute resources for the next session flipped class Session 02 X Topic 01 Flipped class Reminding Flipped Class rules Session 03 X Topic 02 Lecture Designate topics for students’ presentations for session 04 Session 04 X Topic 03 Students reports Session 05 X Topic 04 Virtual class Group work Session 06 X Assessment Exam in class Paper Quiz Arranging online classes with innovative learning activities MICRO LEVEL (Pedagogy) MACRO LEVEL (Organization)
  • 3. BLENDING LEARNING MODELS  These models are not the only way blended learning can be implemented,  They are a helpful starting point in describing what blended learning really looks like in classrooms. Source: Christensen Institute
  • 4. BLENDED LEARNING: ONLINE INNOVATIVE ASPECTS The online side of blending is making the difference:  Learning is centered on learner activities and self knowledge acquisition,  Learning can occur asynchronously,  Students work at their own speed, time, rhythm,  Students can reach out to the teacher (usually via email or phone) if they need assistance,  ICT introduce new pedagogical methods: virtual and flipped classes
  • 5. ONLINE COURSES: MOST COMMON FORMATS  Virtual classrooms:  Are ICT-based, and mean to replicate the experience of physical classrooms, with the added benefits of file sharing, instant feedback and interaction and are ideal in distance learning situations.  Flipped classrooms:  Are a category of virtual classroom,  Describes a reversal of traditional teaching and are based on 3 moments: before, during, after the class: – Before class time: Learners learn about the material, – Class time is then devoted to a deeper work of assimilating knowledge through active teaching methods, – After class time is for remedy (teacher side) and deeper understanding activities (learners side)  Flipped classes can be fully F2F (no ICT), but necessary use active pedagogy
  • 6. TWO TYPES OF FLIPPED CLASS TYPE 1 : standard model Type 2 : enriched model  The resources are provided by the teacher to be consulted outside the classroom,  Knowledge is therefore externalized, in particular through digital technology,  Classwork is a coordination of learning practices (individual and/or collaborative).  Learners are invited to go and find the information themselves online or in their original contexts (in the field: survey, exploration, case study, etc.),  They document individually on the theme that has been proposed to them and prepare to discuss it in class,  In class, they present their materials as an activity for their colleagues (discussion, criticism, commentary, synthesis, etc.),  The emphasis is on changing roles between teacher and learner,  The teacher becomes a guide and the learner becomes more participatory,  The learner is placed at the center of the learning process.
  • 7. FLIPPED CLASSROOM AS AN ACTIVE PEDAGOGY  Active learning: moving from "what the teacher is doing" To "what the learner is doing”,  Give a primordial place to the learner who builds his skills and knowledge in real or close to reality situations,  The learner must give meaning to his learning through experience, discovery and manipulation,  21st century skills:  Become independent,  Exercise critical thinking,  Team working,  Communicate,...  Galileo said: “You cannot teach others anything. We can only help him find out for himself. "
  • 9. ACTIONS COMPLEXITY IN A FLIPPED CLASSROOM? "I see and I forget, I hear and I hold back, I do and I understand" What you remember after 24 hours! P A S S I V E A C T I V E Source : Edgar Dale, « Cone of learning », 1969/ Edgar Dale
  • 10. FLIPPED CLASSROOM USING BLOOM’S TAXONOMY  Bloom's taxonomy (1956) is a hierarchical order of cognitive skills, used by teachers to support student learning,  They support teachers to define appropriate complexity levels for learners activities  Six hierarchical levels with typical action verbs, Synthèse et création Évaluation Analyse Application Compréhension Connaissance Complexity
  • 11. GENERAL ORGANIZING FEATURES OF A FLIPPED CLASSROOM  Three moments: Before During After Source, Université de Genève
  • 12. DETAILED SAMPLE OF A FLIPPED CLASS SCENARIO BEFORE (Out of class) Task conception/Project (Teacher) Teacher Learner Examples:  Design / produce video podcasts.  Suggest documents to read, to comment ...  Carry out the roadmap for the video posdact.  Create questionnaires.  Publish the material (platform).  View learners' responses.  Etc. Examples:  Watch a video podcast.  Read documents.  Research on the internet.  Answer roadmap questions / quizzes.  Etc. Task conception / Project (teacher) DURING (class progress) Teacher:  Check the learners activities prepared upstream.  Individual or collective checking of information.  Train or help to form subgroups.  Manage the subgroups.  Define the objectives of each subgroup.  Circulate between the subgroups.  Remedy.  Etc. Learner:  Discuss the prepared task outside the classroom (debate, poll, quiz, etc.)  Work on the learning scenario.  Summarize and create.  Present orally.  Etc. PS: The activities carried out in class are done individually, in groups, in “subgroups”. AFTER (remediation) Teacher:  Diagnostic assessment (remediation): assess the prior learning of learners, what they already know, their skills, etc.  Immediate evaluation (remediation): constantly discussing via mail or forum in a structured or unstructured way with the learners.  Formative assessment (remediation): provide information on achievements in construction. This makes it possible to locate the learner's progress in relation to a given objective.  Formative assessment (certification assessment): allows to improve the learning in progress by detecting the learner's difficulties (diagnosis) in order to help him (remediation), by modifying the learning situation or the pace of this progression, to make (if necessary) improvements or appropriate fixes.  Summative assessment (certification): evaluate the knowledge and skills of a learner and give a grade. ANNEXES  Corrected exercises, transcriptions, illustrations. Source : https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1EQUGEXWRuguY5iu8dd3FZIEriHM0DKud
  • 13. BEFORE : PREPARING PEDAGOCIAL RESOURCES Form title = Task title  Target audience: Level, class, promotion, subject etc.  Duration: indicative and to be modulated according to the context and the progress of teaching  Level: according to the curriculum Teaching objectives Learning objectives  Overall objectives from the teacher's perspective: - They allow the learner to have an overview of the course/sequence/session … goals. - They are neither quantifiable nor measurable, just declared. - The statement begins with: "The course aims to ..."  Specific objectives from the learner's point of view: - They allow the learner to "be able to" + action verbs (cf. revised Bloom's taxonomy). - They are quantifiable and measurable, including a customized criterion of learner performance (observable behaviors). - The statement begins with: "The learner will be able to ..." Resources and tools  Offline applications / software (audio processing, presentations, mind maps, comparison tables, etc.)  Online applications (educational platforms, online quiz, etc.).  Additional documents (texts, drawings, videos, etc.)
  • 14. BEFORE : PREPARING PEDAGOCIAL RESOURCES  Tips:  Choose, build, prepare resources,  Use free resources (OER),  Prefer teamwork organization,  Use Webservice tools to produce and regulate teamworks,  Tools: Video content creation and annotation  Visme : Create animations, slides and infographics in a very intuitive way (free).  EdPuzzle : Create video montages with interactive questions and answer tracking  Aww : Collaborative online whiteboard.  Educreations : Online whiteboard (also available as an app), with video recording, image insertion, private mode sharing,  Sophia : Create “tutorial” Web pages with the possibility of creating groups.  Technotes: Free Tools to Create Educational Videos () FEATURES OF A GOOD PEDAGOGICAL VIDEO  Shorter videos are more popular: learner engagement decreases after 6 minutes.  The presence of the teacher's face, superimposed or, better, alternately, throughout the presentation is more appreciated than a presentation alone.  An informal or contextualized recording environment is preferred over studio recording.
  • 15. DURING A VIRTUAL F2F STARTING (CONTEXTUALIZATION)  When starting the virtual classroom:  Welcome of participants,  Technical confirmation for each participant (if the sound, video, and facilities of the Virtual Classroom tool are working well: test them one by one if necessary),  Present the agenda (explain how the virtual class works),  Presentation of the participants (round table if necessary depending on the number),  Define the rules of conduct for the virtual classroom,  Explain the communication tools,  Validate the correct understanding of the objectives of the session, Objective Type of activity Used tools  Welcome the participants (1 min) Conversation (welcoming) Chat  Technical checks for participants (2 minutes) Conversation (check if all is OK) Audio/video Chat  Presentation of the agenda (3 minutes) Presentation Screen sharing (ppt)  Get participants to introduce themselves (3 nm) Round table Audio/video  Reminder of the rules of conduct in the virtual classroom (2 min) Presentation Screen sharing (ppt)  Explain the tools to communicate (2 min) Manipulation Visual feedback  Validate the correct understanding of this first step (2 min) Questionning Poll A 60-minute session on Zoom for 10 learners (Starting section of scenario)
  • 16. DURING: VIRTUAL F2F ACTIVE PEDAGOGY Start the programmed activities of the educational scenario:  Use forms of active pedagogies (Interactive presentation, Case study, Brainstorming, Role playing, Reverse class, serious game, Demo, Quiz, ...,  Use CFTs (Classroom Feedback Techniques): Teacher-learner, learner- learner interactions,  Use the features of a virtual classroom tool: – Whiteboard, – Survey, – Chat, – Screen sharing, – The visual feedback buttons (smileys, etc.), Visual feedback buttons (Zoom) Objective Type of activity Used tools  Educational slide show (10 mn) Presentation Sccreen sharing  Distribution of learners into 2 groups (1 mn) Team creation Function « Create groups »  Synthesis production by group (5 mn) Brain storming Screen Sharing of a presentation  Presentation of group summaries (10 mn) Interactive presentation Audio/video  Production of a general summary (10 mn) Collaboration Audio White board  Checking of acquired knowledge (5 mn) Self assessment Formative Quiz  Check the satisfaction of the result (4 mn) Questioning Poll A 60-minute session on Zoom for 10 learners (Active section of scenario)
  • 17. DURING: VIRTUAL F2F ACTIVE PEDAGOGY  Use collaborative activities to punctuate the session:  Make learners active,  Maintain their interest,  Promote peer-to-peer debate,  Develop critical thinking and in-depth learning.  Energize the audience with instant votes: THINK-PAIR-SHARE  ONE: learners individually think on a question asked by the teacher and write down their answer  TWO: the learners compare their answer with their neighbor (s) and seek to find a solution that reaches a consensus  ALL: The teacher questions the groups of learners, notes the answers on the board and leads the plenary discussion. JIGSAW (OU PUZZLE)  The teacher prepares a series of questions or a series of resources to use after putting learners into groups.  Expert group: each group receives a question and resources for further study  Learning group: the groups are then reorganized so as to be composed of learners from each group of expertise, with a view to sharing with others. MINI-QUIZ  The teacher prepares multiple choice questions in his slides.  The question and the various possible answers are displayed.  Learners vote (voting boxes, web tools, cards or post its).  Depending on the number of correct answers, the teacher can clarify the poorly understood elements. CONCEPT MAPS  After having covered an important block of material in the course (theme, unit, chapters, etc.) the teacher invites the learners to build a representation of what they have learned using a concept map  In pairs, the learners brainstorm the important concepts learned and the links between these concepts  The teacher circulates between the teams to observe the work in progress and answer questions. PHILIPPS 6/6  The teacher forms groups of 6 learners who have 6 minutes to find a solution to a given problem.  A reporter from each group then presents the solution to the large group.  On the basis of the contributions of all the groups, each group writes a summary. The visualization of responses is immediate, managed by ad hoc software used on the teacher's computer. Voting boxes / tablet / Smartphone / On website / QR code signs /…
  • 18. DURING: VIRTUAL F2F ACTIVE PEDAGOGY  Face-to-face active pedagogy techniques:  Case study analysis.  Debates.  Demonstrations.  Games.  Group collaborative project.  In-class writing.  Mini-lecture/interaction.  Polling students.  Interactive talk  Quiz start-up / synthesis  Pedagogical movie  Brainstorming  Critical analysis exercise  Role play game (simulation exercises)  Best practice exchange  Co-coaching or co-development  Testimony.
  • 19. DURING: VIRTUAL F2F ACTIVE PEDAGOGY (CFT)  Using classroom feedback techniques (CFT):  Short interruptions to check understanding;  A multitude of possible variants (around 50),  Duration between 5 and 20 minutes for the most part,  Formative: without grades,  Context specific, CFT Examples KNOWLEDGE SURVEY  Objective: to briefly identify the prior knowledge of the learners  Method: individually, vote online or a short survey (Woodclap)  Duration: 10 minutes  Example: "Define the following term in your own words" GRID of ‘For’ Or ‘Against’  Objective: quickly list the pros and cons of a given situation  Method: as a team, after posting a question, list the pros and cons,  Duration: 5 minutes  Example: "Briefly, list three to five advantages and disadvantages of a concept or a fact" CITE PRACTICAL CASES  Objective: to make the link between the theories exposed and their practical applications  Method: in a group, "propose at least two examples of concrete application of the principles exposed (Wooclap, forum / chat / database)“  Duration: 5 minutes INTERACTIVE VIDEOS  Objective: reformulate the messages of a video  Method: invite learners to take notes during the broadcast of a short video, then suggest an activity of your choice  Duration: 5 to 15 minutes  Example: a) Everyone notes the key ideas then a few volunteers respond to each point by Chat, forum, Zoom) B) Ask each group to focus on a point then compare the answers via forum) then collective feedback RÉSUMÉ ON THE FLY  Objective: actively and collectively summarize  Modality: 1. in 3 minutes, individually, write down 5 keywords retained following a presentation (etherpad), 2. in 4 minutes, in a team, select 10 key words, 3. in 8 minutes, the team makes a summary comprising these 10 key words in a text of 7 lines maximum (etherpad), 4. read some summaries,  Duration: 20 minutes THE LESS LIGHT APPEARANCE  Objective: to highlight a point that remains confused in relation to the learning offered  Modality: individually, on post-it (framemo): "Regarding the presentation, the reading you did, the discussion that took place or the video that you saw, what is left? the least clear? “  Duration: 1 minute
  • 20. DURING: VIRTUAL F2F ACTIVE PEDAGOGY (ASSESSMENT)  Essentially formative assessment:  Carried out in a short cycle,  Focuses on the process and not just on the product,  Extended to all contributors: – Self-assessment (learner), – The learner-teacher (co-assessment), – Peers (peer review), FORMATIVE FEED-BACK  Interaction between the teacher and the learner is the tool for the co- construction of knowledge,  Role of the teacher: answer questions, reframe, offer different insights, etc.  He is in a position to give a certain number of formative feedbacks aimed at orienting, guiding, rectifying ... The « JUST-IN-TIME TEACHING »  A variation of formative feedback.  Before the course: Survey the learners to recalibrate the educational intervention according to needs,  Allows the teacher during the lesson to assess the understanding of the lesson and react quickly. ASSESSMENT CHOSEN OR SELF-MANAGED Give the learner a lot of autonomy in the choice of questions as well as in the choice of the moment of the evaluation. PEER REVIEWING Engage learners in the process of mutual evaluation (by peers) according to a criteria grid. REALIZATION OF A PORTFOLIO Show the learner's progress and performance in one or more areas. AUTHENTIC SITUATION ASSESSMENT Original assessment through scenarios: conference, role- playing and simulations, creation of a work, case study, writing of a scientific article, etc.. Source : Les carnets du LLL Four assessment methods for the flipped classroom
  • 21. AFTER: CONSOLIDATION, REMEDIATION, EVALUATION Need to deepen learning through additional practices after class using individual or group exercises:  Recommend further reading on the subject,  Use LMS forums or social media to synthesize ideas developed in class,  Put additional problems on the teaching platform so that learners can practice individually,  Create exercises that allow learners to apply the content in different contexts or new situations,  Encourage learners to create informal learning groups,  Develop peer-led groups to work on additional problems,  Etc.
  • 22. BUILDING SCENARIOS OF FLIPPED CLASSROOMS BEFORE TRƯỚC Duration / Thời lượng Contents / Nội dung Activités d’enseignement-apprentissage Hoạt động dạy - học Assessment activities Hoạt động đánh giá Required tools Vật liệu thiết yếu Teacher / Giáo viên Learner / Sinh viên (Indicate what the teacher must do BEFORE the session) (Cho biết giáo viên phải làm gì TRƯỚC buổi học) (Indicate what the learner must do BEFORE the session) (Cho biết học sinh phải làm gì TRƯỚC buổi học) Duration / Thời lượng Contents / Nội dung Activités d’enseignement-apprentissage Assessment activities Hoạt động đánh giá Required tools Vật liệu thiết yếu Teacher / Giáo viên Learner / Sinh viên (Indicate what the teacher must do DURING the session) (Cho biết giáo viên làm gì TRONG buổi học) (Indicate what the learner must do DURING the session) (Cho biết học sinh làm gì TRONG buổi học) Duration / Thời lượng Contents / Nội dung Activités d’enseignement-apprentissage Assessment activities Hoạt động đánh giá Required tools Vật liệu thiết yếu Teacher / Giáo viên Learner / Sinh viên (Indicate what the teacher must do AFTER the session) (Cho biết giáo viên làm gì SAU buổi học) (Indicate what the learner must do AFTER the session) (Cho biết học sinh làm gì SAU buổi học) DURING SUỐT TRONG AFTER SAU Example of a flipped class scenario structure
  • 23. BUILDING SCENARIOS OF FLIPPED CLASSROOMS  The educational scenario can take different forms, as long as it is detailed and clearly explains the order of events;  It is often presented in the form of a table or in a free format;  It contains several sections:  Specify the sequences one by one;  Estimate the duration in a summary way;  Indicate the contents (supports);  Define the actions of the teacher and the learner;  Indicate the means and tools to be used for each sequence;  Indicate the methods of assessment of prior learning. The 5 criteria of a successful and complete pedagogical scenario: 1. Well-defined, realistic and achievable goals; 2. Short sequences; 3. Various teaching methods (active methods); 4. Feedback techniques to motivate learners; 5. A time for evaluations: between the sequences and at the end of the session.
  • 24. BUILDING SCENARIOS OF FLIPPED CLASSROOMS (SAMPLE) Session « n » Global warming Objectives Skills Activities Tools Observations Teacher Learners Global warming 30 mn Identifying causes and origins of global warming To be able to diagnose the real causes of global warming and their indicators (characteristics) The teacher provides guidance resources (readings) to identify the causes of global warming. He provides a matrix to identify the causes and their indicators (characteristics) Learners read the resources and identify the causes of global warming and their indicators They refill the indicator grid and place it on the LMS YouTube videos Text editor (Word) to fill the grid LMS Moodle of the establishment This sequence completes, in the form of a virtual classroom, other face-to-face sessions on the environment. Texts and conventions on global warming 30 mn List the texts and conventions produced about global warming Be able to do advanced research on the internet Be able to create a database of structured objects The teacher provides in a document the work procedure to be followed He indicates the choice of the tool to use (a database) Learners search the Internet for requested resources They create a database on the LMS to describe the resources found Internet search engines Database activity on Moodle This sequence makes it possible to produce resources which will serve as a basis for later programming of a flipped classroom
  • 25. BUILDING SCENARIOS OF FLIPPED CLASSROOMS (SAMPLES)  Welcoming  Presentation of objectives  Introduction  Oral presentation of the course content  Q/A  Activity: concept map  Self-assessment quiz  Comments on responses  Synthesis  Poll  Oral introduction  Slideshow  Reminder of the session objectives  Unmuting micros  Animate the Q/A  Develop a sheet with the key points of the course  Close all micros  Present light slides (not too charged)  Show short video clips if necessary 30 mn (10 + 20) 30 mn (20 + 10) 10 mn 20 mn  Give instructions for the work to be done  Access to the online concept map tool  Summarize the course content in the form of a concept map  Answer a self-assessment quiz with immediate feedback (5 key questions)  Presentation of statistics and possible questions / answers on the feedbacks  Reminder of a summary of the course content  Conduct a course content comprehension survey (Yes / No question) Possibility of enriching this scenario with:  A template form proposed upstream to develop the key points of the course  Recording of the session to make it available for absentees  Vary activities while maintaining a high degree of collaboration and feedback (CRT) Example of a 1h30 virtual flipped classroom
  • 26. BUILDING SCENARIOS OF FLIPPED CLASSROOMS (SAMPLES)
  • 27. BUILDING SCENARIOS OF FLIPPED CLASSROOMS (SAMPLES)
  • 28. BUILDING SCENARIOS OF FLIPPED CLASSROOMS (SAMPLES)
  • 29. VIRTUAL FLIPPED CLASSROOM TOOLS (VIDEO SYSTEMS) The most used Visio systems that integrate the essential tools and services of a virtual classroom:  Microsoft Teams  Zoom  WebRoom  BigBlueButton  Adobe Connect  Meet jitsi  Cisco Webex...
  • 30. VIRTUAL FLIPPED CLASSROOM TOOLS (INTERNAL/EXTERNAL PLUGINS) A virtual classroom system is an aggregation internal or/and external tools and services used for different educational activities:...
  • 31. VIRTUAL FLIPPED CLASSROOM TOOLS (INTERNAL/EXTERNAL PLUGINS) Fonctions Fonctionnalities Tools  Visio and screen sharing  Communicate by video in real time and share the display of resources and screens... Zoom / MS Teams / Google Meet / Jitsi / BigBlueButton (Moodle) / Livestorm / whereby.com /  White board  Collaboratively create and annotate documents simultaneously... Zoom / BigBlueButton (slides blanches et outils de dessin) / AWW / Miro / Excalidraw / Klaxoon  Concept maps  Create a concept map with semantic links to synthesize an idea, process or document content... FreeMind PC / FreeMind / Cacoo / Mind42 / CmapTools / MindMeister / MindManager / Xmind  Quiz  Assessment by questions and answers in several forms iSpring QuizMaker / Eval&GO / Kahoot / Typeform / SurveyMonkey / QuizZoodle / ExperQuiz / Quizity / AhaSlides  Serious games  An educational game: problem solving, reasoning, assembly of objects (lego) ... Des bases de données de jeux éducatifs : Trello / Agile Games / Serious Games classification / Thot Cursus  Vote and poll  Have rapid feedback from learners to gauge course progress Moodle / Zoom / MS teams /Google Meet /  Teamworks  Divide and follow learners into sub- groups Moodle / Zoom / MS teams /Google Meet / Examples of external services
  • 32. TO SUMMARIZE THE BUILDING OF A VIRTUAL CLASSROOM Upstream Build a scenario Prepare resources Test equipment Test Visio service Have learners test the Visio service Create the virtual classroom on the system Inform learners While starting Welcoming learners Remind the rules of use Present the session During Plan interactive sequences Answer questions Propose polls and surveys After Analyze activity reports Take remedial action
  • 33. SUCCESS FACTORS OF A VIRTUAL FLIPPED CLASSROOM  Checking that there is no technical problem joining the CV  To be resolved upstream,  Ask learners to connect 10 to 15 minutes before the virtual class,  Design of an educational scenario adapted to the context (the scenario as a working document):  Create and load the content resources to use in session,  Define objectives to be reached during the session,  Define the duration of each sequence of the session,  Define the teaching methods for each sequence,  Define the evaluation methods for each sequence,  Keep learners attention and motivation aiming for a maximum level of interactivity: – The organization of work in sub-groups, – Visual feedback (absence status, presence, smileys, raised hands, etc.) – Chat, – The polling, – The White board, – Application sharing Classe : La classe virtuelle a-t-elle des vertus ? Nathan 2020
  • 34. RISKS OF A VIRTUAL FLIPPED CLASSROOM On the teachers' side:  A common mistake: focusing too much on creating lectures in video mode at the expense of classroom activities,  Stick to a single flipped class model and one or a few CFT models (Class Feedback Techniques), On the learners’ side:  A complete change in the rules that many will reject,  The transition from a passive (receptive) status to an active status creates lack of enthusiasm,  The transition from procedural cognitive skills or even memorization to more complex or transversal cognitive skills (3 upper Bloom levels) could create resistance to change, The flipped classroom is a state of mind for the teacher and the learner