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DOPAMINE LOOPS
THE PSYCHOLOGY BEHIND WHY WE’RE
ADDICTED TO OUR PHONES
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THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych
1  INTRODUCTION
2  THE BIG PROBLEM
3  ADDICTION?
4  5 TRIGGERS OF DOPAMINE LOOPS
5  KEY TAKEAWAYS
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych
1  INTRODUCTION
2  THE BIG PROBLEM
3  ADDICTION?
4  5 TRIGGERS OF DOPAMINE LOOPS
5  KEY TAKEAWAYS
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych
1  INTRODUCTION
2  THE BIG PROBLEM
3  ADDICTION?
4  5 TRIGGERS OF DOPAMINE LOOPS
5  KEY TAKEAWAYS
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych
1  INTRODUCTION
2  THE BIG PROBLEM
3  ADDICTION?
4  5 TRIGGERS OF DOPAMINE LOOPS
5  KEY TAKEAWAYS
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych
1  INTRODUCTION
2  THE BIG PROBLEM
3  ADDICTION?
4  5 TRIGGERS OF DOPAMINE LOOPS
5  KEY TAKEAWAYS
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THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych
1
INTRODUCTION
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THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych
THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST
NATHALIE NAHAI
@TheWebPsych
The Web Psychologist .com
Institute Of Web Psychology .com
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THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych
WHO I’VE WORKED WITH
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WEBS OF INFLUENCE
Pearson, 2012
UK | EU | USA | KOREA | JAPAN | CHINA
THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ONLINE PERSUASION
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WEB PSYCHOLOGY
[ ]I coined the term ‘Web Psychology’
in 2011 and defined it as…
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WEB PSYCHOLOGY
The empirical study of how
online environments influence
our attitudes and behaviours
“ ”
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THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych
HOW IT HELPS YOU
[ ]Web Psychology is a psychological toolkit
that will help you design more persuasive
websites, apps, and user experiences
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THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych
WEBPSYCHOLOGY
HCI
neuro-
aesthetics
user
experience
social
psychology
cognitive
psychology
neuroscience
cross-cultural
psychology
behavioural
economics
persuasive
technology
personality
psychology
digital
humanities
marketing
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THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych
IT’S ABOUT CONTEXT
UNIVERSAL
CULTURAL
INDIVIDUAL
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THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych
UNIVERSAL
CULTURAL
INDIVIDUAL
IT’S ABOUT CONTEXT
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THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych
UNIVERSAL
CULTURAL
INDIVIDUAL
IT’S ABOUT CONTEXT
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THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych
3 SECRETS
TO ONLINE SUCCESS
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1  KNOW WHO YOU’RE TARGETING
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1  KNOW WHO YOU’RE TARGETING
2  COMMUNICATE PERSUASIVELY
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THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych
1  KNOW WHO YOU’RE TARGETING
2  COMMUNICATE PERSUASIVELY
3  SELL WITH INTEGRITY
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2
THE BIG PROBLEM
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EXPER MENT
1  WHAT’S THE FIRST THING YOU REACH FOR IN THE MORNING?
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EXPER MENT
1  WHAT’S THE FIRST THING YOU REACH FOR IN THE MORNING?
2  HOW MANY TIMES AN HOUR DO YOU CHECK YOUR PHONE?
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EXPER MENT
1  WHAT’S THE FIRST THING YOU REACH FOR IN THE MORNING?
2  HOW MANY TIMES AN HOUR DO YOU CHECK YOUR PHONE?
3  HOW LONG CAN YOU GO BEFORE YOU FEEL ANXIOUS AND HAVE
TO CHECK YOUR PHONE?
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THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych
EXPER MENT
1  WHAT’S THE FIRST THING YOU REACH FOR IN THE MORNING?
2  HOW MANY TIMES AN HOUR DO YOU CHECK YOUR PHONE?
3  HOW LONG CAN YOU GO BEFORE YOU FEEL ANXIOUS AND HAVE
TO CHECK YOUR PHONE?
4  IF YOU ACCIDENTALLY LEAVE YOUR PHONE AT HOME, DO YOU
PANIC?
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THE BIG PROBLEM
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TECH ANXIETY
Being disconnected from technology is
surprisingly stressful. There's often a feeling
of missing out, as we worry about what's
going on… without our knowledge.
“ ”Source: Leon Edwards, Managing Director, Versapack (2013)
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#FOMO
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TRENDS
62% of smartphone users
aged 18-44 reach for their smartphones
immediately on waking up
[ ]Source: IDC report sponsored by Facebook (2013)
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Source: Harvard Business School (2013)
28"
35" 37"
41"
51"
Stressed Not bothered Lack of control Not being included
amongst friends
Extreme tech
anxiety
Being separated from your device
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70"
56"
48" 51"
44"
Within an hour of
getting up
Within an hour of
going to sleep
Over the weekend Continuously during
vacation
A great deal of
anxiety if you lost
your phone and
couldn't replace it for
a week
How often do you check your phone?
Source: Harvard Business School (2013)
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THE HACK
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TECH HAPPY
Whatever people were doing,
whether it was having sex or reading or
shopping, they tended to be happier if they
focused on the activity instead of thinking
about something else
“ ”Source: John Tierney, New York Times (2010)
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7 DAY CHALLENGE
1  TURN ON YOUR PHONE AT 11AM
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7 DAY CHALLENGE
1  TURN ON YOUR PHONE AT 11AM
2  PRACTICE MINDFULNESS – 10 DEEP BREATHS
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7 DAY CHALLENGE
1  TURN ON YOUR PHONE AT 11AM
2  PRACTICE MINDFULNESS – 10 DEEP BREATHS
3  DESIGNATE PHONE-FREE ZONES
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7 DAY CHALLENGE
1  TURN ON YOUR PHONE AT 11AM
2  PRACTICE MINDFULNESS – 10 DEEP BREATHS
3  DESIGNATE PHONE-FREE ZONES
4  BANISH PHONES AT MEALTIMES
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7 DAY CHALLENGE
1  TURN ON YOUR PHONE AT 11AM
2  PRACTICE MINDFULNESS – 10 DEEP BREATHS
3  DESIGNATE PHONE-FREE ZONES
4  BANISH PHONES AT MEALTIMES
5  USE AN ALARM CLOCK, PUT YOUR PHONE IN THE
NEXT ROOM
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3
ADDICTION?
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DEFINITION OF ADDICTION
A repetitive habit pattern that
increases the risk of disease and/or
associated personal and social problems,
often experienced subjectively as
‘‘loss of control’’
“ Source: Annual Review of Psychology (1998)
”
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Q
WHAT DO THE FOLLOWING THREE
THINGS HAVE IN COMMON?
[ ]
CASE STUDY
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EXPER MENT
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A
THEY’RE DESIGNED TO INTITIATE
DOPAMINE LOOPS
[ ]
CASE STUDY
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HOW DOES THIS WORK?
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VARIABLE RATIO REINFORCEMENT
We never know when we'll get a
satisfying email, so we keep checking, over
and over again, like slot machines – we
keep seeking that pleasurable hit
“ ”Source: Susan Davis, Web MD (2013)
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JUST BAD HABITS?
People aren't addicted to smartphones
themselves as much as they are addicted
to "checking habits" that develop
with phone use[ ]Source: Personal and Ubiquitous Computing (2012)
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TRIGGERS
Certain environmental triggers like
being bored or listening to a lecture
can trigger the habits
[ ]Source: Personal and Ubiquitous Computing (2012)
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ADDICTIVE BY DESIGN?
It's an environment of almost constant
interruptions and distractions… Human
beings have a deep, primitive desire to know
everything that's going on around them
“ Source: Nicholas Carr (2010)
”
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4
NEUROCHEMICAL
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DOPAMINE
•  DISCOVERED 1958 BY ARVID CARLSSON AND NILS-AKE HILLARP,
NATIONAL HEART INSTITUTE OF SWEDEN
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DOPAMINE
•  DISCOVERED 1958 BY ARVID CARLSSON AND NILS-AKE HILLARP,
NATIONAL HEART INSTITUTE OF SWEDEN
•  CRITICAL FOR MOOD, ATTENTION, MOTIVATION, THINKING,
MOVING, SLEEPING, SEEKING AND REWARD
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DOPAMINE
•  DISCOVERED 1958 BY ARVID CARLSSON AND NILS-AKE HILLARP,
NATIONAL HEART INSTITUTE OF SWEDEN
•  CRITICAL FOR MOOD, ATTENTION, MOTIVATION, THINKING,
MOVING, SLEEPING, SEEKING AND REWARD
•  CAUSES PLEASURE-SEEKING BEHAVIOUR
(THE OPIOID SYSTEM MAKES US FEEL PLEASURE)
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THE 5 TRIGGERS OF
DOPAMINE LOOPS
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1 WANTING VS LIKING
DOPAMINE
“WANTING”
TAKE
ACTION
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1 WANTING VS LIKING
DOPAMINE
“WANTING”
OPIOID
“LIKING”
TAKE
ACTION
FEEL
SATISFIED
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1 WANTING VS LIKING
DOPAMINE
“WANTING”
OPIOID
“LIKING”
FEEL
SATISFIED
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BUT
The dopamine system is stronger
than the opioid system - you tend to
seek more than you are satisfied
[ ]
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1 WANTING VS LIKING
INSTANT REWARD
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2 ANTICIPATION
[ ]The brain shows more activity
when you’re anticipating a reward
than when you’re getting one
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3 UNPREDICTABLE
Activated when you experience an
unpredictable reward – such as a
great email, tweet, ‘like’ or text
[ ]
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4 CUES
[ ]Activated by cues that tell us
there’s a reward coming, such as the
specific beep of push notifications or text
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5 SMALL IS UNSATISFYING
[ ]Stimulated most strongly when the
reward is so small that it doesn't fully
satisfy – e.g. 140 characters!
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THE HACK
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THE HACK
1  TURN OFF YOUR PUSH NOTIFICATIONS
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THE HACK
1  TURN OFF YOUR PUSH NOTIFICATIONS
2  UNINSTALL TWITTER / INSTAGRAM / FACEBOOK (STREAMS)
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THE HACK
1  TURN OFF YOUR PUSH NOTIFICATIONS
2  UNINSTALL TWITTER / INSTAGRAM / FACEBOOK (STREAMS)
3  UNINSTALL YOUR EMAIL
(Settings > Mail, Contacts, Calendars > Gmail > delete)
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THE HACK
1  TURN OFF YOUR PUSH NOTIFICATIONS
2  UNINSTALL TWITTER / INSTAGRAM / FACEBOOK (STREAMS)
3  UNINSTALL YOUR EMAIL
(Settings > Mail, Contacts, Calendars > Gmail > delete)
4  DISABLE SAFARI / GOOGLE CHROME
(Settings > General > Restrictions > Set up passcode)
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5
KEY TAKEAWAYS
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KEY TAKEAWAYS
1  BE CONSCIOUS: List the situations and emotions that make you
want to check your phone. Are you bored / lonely / anxious? What
could you do instead to soothe yourself?
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THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych
KEY TAKEAWAYS
1  BE CONSCIOUS: List the situations and emotions that make you
want to check your phone. Are you bored / lonely / anxious? What
could you do instead to soothe yourself?
2  CHOOSE: You’re in control. Turn your notifications off and decide
if you want to check your phone.
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THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych
KEY TAKEAWAYS
1  BE CONSCIOUS: List the situations and emotions that make you
want to check your phone. Are you bored / lonely / anxious? What
could you do instead to soothe yourself?
2  CHOOSE: You’re in control. Turn your notifications off and decide
if you want to check your phone.
3  SET SOME RULES: List times / situations in which you won’t use
your device (e.g. mealtimes, in bed, during play time).
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MAKE HEALTHY CHOICES
I don’t use the metaphor of addiction.
We’re not going to give it up. We shouldn’t
give it up. It’s more like food, and being on a
digital diet. The questions we should ask are,
‘What are the healthy choices?’
“ ”Source: NY Times, Sherry Turkle (2012)
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THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych
RESOURCES & REFERENCES
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THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych
RESOURCES
1  THE VIRTUAL REVOLUTION
bit.ly/virtualrevolution
2  10 ONLINE TOOLS FOR BETTER ATTENTION & FOCUS
bit.ly/10focusapps
3  NICHOLAS CARR (BOOK)
The Shallows: How the Internet is Changing the Way We Think,
Read and Remember
All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution.
THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych
REFERENCES
1  A. Oulasvirta, T. Rattenbury, L. Ma, E. Raita (2012). Habits make smartphone use more pervasive. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 16(1), pp. 105-114.
2  Nicholas Carr (2010). The Shallows: How the Internet is Changing the Way We Think, Read and Remember (Atlantic Books).
3  K.C. Berridge and T.E. Robinson (1998). What is the role of dopamine in reward: hedonic impact, reward learning, or incentive salience? Brain Research Reviews, 28,
pp.309–369.
4  G. A. Marlatt, J. S. Baer. D. M. Donovan and D. R. Kivlahan (1988). Addictive behaviors: etiology and treatment. Annual Review of Psychology. 39(1), pp. 223-252.
5  Susan Davis, Web MD (2013). Addicted to your smartphone? Here's what to do.
http://www.webmd.com/balance/guide/addicted-your-smartphone-what-to-do
6  An IDC Research Report, Sponsored By Facebook (2013). Always connected: how smartphones and social keep us engaged.
http://www.nu.nl/files/IDC-Facebook%20Always%20Connected%20(1).pdf
7  The Drum (2013). Over half of brits suffer 'extreme tech anxiety' when separated from smartphones.
http://www.thedrum.com/news/2013/07/11/over-half-brits-suffer-extreme-tech-anxiety-when-separated-smartphones
8  Leslie Perlow, PhD, the Konosuke Matsushita professor of leadership at the Harvard Business School (2013).
In: http://www.webmd.com/balance/guide/addicted-your-smartphone-what-to-do
9  John Tierny, New York Times (2010) When the mind wanders, happiness also strays.
http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/16/science/16tier.html?_r=1&src=me&ref=homepage
10  Tanya Mohn, New York Times (2012). Silencing the smartphone.
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/01/business/some-companies-seek-to-wean-employees-from-their-smartphones.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
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THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych
THANK YOU!
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Nathalie Nahai - Dopamine loops: The hidden psychology of why we're addicted to our phones

  • 1. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych DOPAMINE LOOPS THE PSYCHOLOGY BEHIND WHY WE’RE ADDICTED TO OUR PHONES
  • 2. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych 1  INTRODUCTION 2  THE BIG PROBLEM 3  ADDICTION? 4  5 TRIGGERS OF DOPAMINE LOOPS 5  KEY TAKEAWAYS
  • 3. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych 1  INTRODUCTION 2  THE BIG PROBLEM 3  ADDICTION? 4  5 TRIGGERS OF DOPAMINE LOOPS 5  KEY TAKEAWAYS
  • 4. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych 1  INTRODUCTION 2  THE BIG PROBLEM 3  ADDICTION? 4  5 TRIGGERS OF DOPAMINE LOOPS 5  KEY TAKEAWAYS
  • 5. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych 1  INTRODUCTION 2  THE BIG PROBLEM 3  ADDICTION? 4  5 TRIGGERS OF DOPAMINE LOOPS 5  KEY TAKEAWAYS
  • 6. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych 1  INTRODUCTION 2  THE BIG PROBLEM 3  ADDICTION? 4  5 TRIGGERS OF DOPAMINE LOOPS 5  KEY TAKEAWAYS
  • 7. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych 1 INTRODUCTION
  • 8. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST NATHALIE NAHAI @TheWebPsych The Web Psychologist .com Institute Of Web Psychology .com
  • 9. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych WHO I’VE WORKED WITH
  • 10. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych WEBS OF INFLUENCE Pearson, 2012 UK | EU | USA | KOREA | JAPAN | CHINA THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ONLINE PERSUASION
  • 11. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych WEB PSYCHOLOGY [ ]I coined the term ‘Web Psychology’ in 2011 and defined it as…
  • 12. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych WEB PSYCHOLOGY The empirical study of how online environments influence our attitudes and behaviours “ ”
  • 13. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych HOW IT HELPS YOU [ ]Web Psychology is a psychological toolkit that will help you design more persuasive websites, apps, and user experiences
  • 14. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych WEBPSYCHOLOGY HCI neuro- aesthetics user experience social psychology cognitive psychology neuroscience cross-cultural psychology behavioural economics persuasive technology personality psychology digital humanities marketing
  • 15. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych IT’S ABOUT CONTEXT UNIVERSAL CULTURAL INDIVIDUAL
  • 16. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych UNIVERSAL CULTURAL INDIVIDUAL IT’S ABOUT CONTEXT
  • 17. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych UNIVERSAL CULTURAL INDIVIDUAL IT’S ABOUT CONTEXT
  • 18. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych 3 SECRETS TO ONLINE SUCCESS
  • 19. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych 1  KNOW WHO YOU’RE TARGETING
  • 20. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych 1  KNOW WHO YOU’RE TARGETING 2  COMMUNICATE PERSUASIVELY
  • 21. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych 1  KNOW WHO YOU’RE TARGETING 2  COMMUNICATE PERSUASIVELY 3  SELL WITH INTEGRITY
  • 22. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych 2 THE BIG PROBLEM
  • 23. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych EXPER MENT 1  WHAT’S THE FIRST THING YOU REACH FOR IN THE MORNING?
  • 24. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych EXPER MENT 1  WHAT’S THE FIRST THING YOU REACH FOR IN THE MORNING? 2  HOW MANY TIMES AN HOUR DO YOU CHECK YOUR PHONE?
  • 25. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych EXPER MENT 1  WHAT’S THE FIRST THING YOU REACH FOR IN THE MORNING? 2  HOW MANY TIMES AN HOUR DO YOU CHECK YOUR PHONE? 3  HOW LONG CAN YOU GO BEFORE YOU FEEL ANXIOUS AND HAVE TO CHECK YOUR PHONE?
  • 26. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych EXPER MENT 1  WHAT’S THE FIRST THING YOU REACH FOR IN THE MORNING? 2  HOW MANY TIMES AN HOUR DO YOU CHECK YOUR PHONE? 3  HOW LONG CAN YOU GO BEFORE YOU FEEL ANXIOUS AND HAVE TO CHECK YOUR PHONE? 4  IF YOU ACCIDENTALLY LEAVE YOUR PHONE AT HOME, DO YOU PANIC?
  • 27. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych THE BIG PROBLEM
  • 28. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych TECH ANXIETY Being disconnected from technology is surprisingly stressful. There's often a feeling of missing out, as we worry about what's going on… without our knowledge. “ ”Source: Leon Edwards, Managing Director, Versapack (2013)
  • 29. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych #FOMO
  • 30. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych TRENDS 62% of smartphone users aged 18-44 reach for their smartphones immediately on waking up [ ]Source: IDC report sponsored by Facebook (2013)
  • 31. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych Source: Harvard Business School (2013) 28" 35" 37" 41" 51" Stressed Not bothered Lack of control Not being included amongst friends Extreme tech anxiety Being separated from your device
  • 32. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych 70" 56" 48" 51" 44" Within an hour of getting up Within an hour of going to sleep Over the weekend Continuously during vacation A great deal of anxiety if you lost your phone and couldn't replace it for a week How often do you check your phone? Source: Harvard Business School (2013)
  • 33. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych THE HACK
  • 34. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych TECH HAPPY Whatever people were doing, whether it was having sex or reading or shopping, they tended to be happier if they focused on the activity instead of thinking about something else “ ”Source: John Tierney, New York Times (2010)
  • 35. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych 7 DAY CHALLENGE 1  TURN ON YOUR PHONE AT 11AM
  • 36. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych 7 DAY CHALLENGE 1  TURN ON YOUR PHONE AT 11AM 2  PRACTICE MINDFULNESS – 10 DEEP BREATHS
  • 37. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych 7 DAY CHALLENGE 1  TURN ON YOUR PHONE AT 11AM 2  PRACTICE MINDFULNESS – 10 DEEP BREATHS 3  DESIGNATE PHONE-FREE ZONES
  • 38. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych 7 DAY CHALLENGE 1  TURN ON YOUR PHONE AT 11AM 2  PRACTICE MINDFULNESS – 10 DEEP BREATHS 3  DESIGNATE PHONE-FREE ZONES 4  BANISH PHONES AT MEALTIMES
  • 39. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych 7 DAY CHALLENGE 1  TURN ON YOUR PHONE AT 11AM 2  PRACTICE MINDFULNESS – 10 DEEP BREATHS 3  DESIGNATE PHONE-FREE ZONES 4  BANISH PHONES AT MEALTIMES 5  USE AN ALARM CLOCK, PUT YOUR PHONE IN THE NEXT ROOM
  • 40. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych 3 ADDICTION?
  • 41. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych DEFINITION OF ADDICTION A repetitive habit pattern that increases the risk of disease and/or associated personal and social problems, often experienced subjectively as ‘‘loss of control’’ “ Source: Annual Review of Psychology (1998) ”
  • 42. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych Q WHAT DO THE FOLLOWING THREE THINGS HAVE IN COMMON? [ ] CASE STUDY
  • 43. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych EXPER MENT
  • 44. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych A THEY’RE DESIGNED TO INTITIATE DOPAMINE LOOPS [ ] CASE STUDY
  • 45. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych HOW DOES THIS WORK?
  • 46. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych VARIABLE RATIO REINFORCEMENT We never know when we'll get a satisfying email, so we keep checking, over and over again, like slot machines – we keep seeking that pleasurable hit “ ”Source: Susan Davis, Web MD (2013)
  • 47. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych JUST BAD HABITS? People aren't addicted to smartphones themselves as much as they are addicted to "checking habits" that develop with phone use[ ]Source: Personal and Ubiquitous Computing (2012)
  • 48. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych TRIGGERS Certain environmental triggers like being bored or listening to a lecture can trigger the habits [ ]Source: Personal and Ubiquitous Computing (2012)
  • 49. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych ADDICTIVE BY DESIGN? It's an environment of almost constant interruptions and distractions… Human beings have a deep, primitive desire to know everything that's going on around them “ Source: Nicholas Carr (2010) ”
  • 50. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych 4 NEUROCHEMICAL
  • 51. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych DOPAMINE •  DISCOVERED 1958 BY ARVID CARLSSON AND NILS-AKE HILLARP, NATIONAL HEART INSTITUTE OF SWEDEN
  • 52. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych DOPAMINE •  DISCOVERED 1958 BY ARVID CARLSSON AND NILS-AKE HILLARP, NATIONAL HEART INSTITUTE OF SWEDEN •  CRITICAL FOR MOOD, ATTENTION, MOTIVATION, THINKING, MOVING, SLEEPING, SEEKING AND REWARD
  • 53. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych DOPAMINE •  DISCOVERED 1958 BY ARVID CARLSSON AND NILS-AKE HILLARP, NATIONAL HEART INSTITUTE OF SWEDEN •  CRITICAL FOR MOOD, ATTENTION, MOTIVATION, THINKING, MOVING, SLEEPING, SEEKING AND REWARD •  CAUSES PLEASURE-SEEKING BEHAVIOUR (THE OPIOID SYSTEM MAKES US FEEL PLEASURE)
  • 54. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych THE 5 TRIGGERS OF DOPAMINE LOOPS
  • 55. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych 1 WANTING VS LIKING DOPAMINE “WANTING” TAKE ACTION
  • 56. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych 1 WANTING VS LIKING DOPAMINE “WANTING” OPIOID “LIKING” TAKE ACTION FEEL SATISFIED
  • 57. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych 1 WANTING VS LIKING DOPAMINE “WANTING” OPIOID “LIKING” FEEL SATISFIED
  • 58. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych BUT The dopamine system is stronger than the opioid system - you tend to seek more than you are satisfied [ ]
  • 59. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych 1 WANTING VS LIKING INSTANT REWARD
  • 60. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych 2 ANTICIPATION [ ]The brain shows more activity when you’re anticipating a reward than when you’re getting one
  • 61. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych 3 UNPREDICTABLE Activated when you experience an unpredictable reward – such as a great email, tweet, ‘like’ or text [ ]
  • 62. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych 4 CUES [ ]Activated by cues that tell us there’s a reward coming, such as the specific beep of push notifications or text
  • 63. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych 5 SMALL IS UNSATISFYING [ ]Stimulated most strongly when the reward is so small that it doesn't fully satisfy – e.g. 140 characters!
  • 64. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych THE HACK
  • 65. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych THE HACK 1  TURN OFF YOUR PUSH NOTIFICATIONS
  • 66. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych THE HACK 1  TURN OFF YOUR PUSH NOTIFICATIONS 2  UNINSTALL TWITTER / INSTAGRAM / FACEBOOK (STREAMS)
  • 67. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych THE HACK 1  TURN OFF YOUR PUSH NOTIFICATIONS 2  UNINSTALL TWITTER / INSTAGRAM / FACEBOOK (STREAMS) 3  UNINSTALL YOUR EMAIL (Settings > Mail, Contacts, Calendars > Gmail > delete)
  • 68. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych THE HACK 1  TURN OFF YOUR PUSH NOTIFICATIONS 2  UNINSTALL TWITTER / INSTAGRAM / FACEBOOK (STREAMS) 3  UNINSTALL YOUR EMAIL (Settings > Mail, Contacts, Calendars > Gmail > delete) 4  DISABLE SAFARI / GOOGLE CHROME (Settings > General > Restrictions > Set up passcode)
  • 69. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych 5 KEY TAKEAWAYS
  • 70. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych KEY TAKEAWAYS 1  BE CONSCIOUS: List the situations and emotions that make you want to check your phone. Are you bored / lonely / anxious? What could you do instead to soothe yourself?
  • 71. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych KEY TAKEAWAYS 1  BE CONSCIOUS: List the situations and emotions that make you want to check your phone. Are you bored / lonely / anxious? What could you do instead to soothe yourself? 2  CHOOSE: You’re in control. Turn your notifications off and decide if you want to check your phone.
  • 72. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych KEY TAKEAWAYS 1  BE CONSCIOUS: List the situations and emotions that make you want to check your phone. Are you bored / lonely / anxious? What could you do instead to soothe yourself? 2  CHOOSE: You’re in control. Turn your notifications off and decide if you want to check your phone. 3  SET SOME RULES: List times / situations in which you won’t use your device (e.g. mealtimes, in bed, during play time).
  • 73. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych MAKE HEALTHY CHOICES I don’t use the metaphor of addiction. We’re not going to give it up. We shouldn’t give it up. It’s more like food, and being on a digital diet. The questions we should ask are, ‘What are the healthy choices?’ “ ”Source: NY Times, Sherry Turkle (2012)
  • 74. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych RESOURCES & REFERENCES
  • 75. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych RESOURCES 1  THE VIRTUAL REVOLUTION bit.ly/virtualrevolution 2  10 ONLINE TOOLS FOR BETTER ATTENTION & FOCUS bit.ly/10focusapps 3  NICHOLAS CARR (BOOK) The Shallows: How the Internet is Changing the Way We Think, Read and Remember
  • 76. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych REFERENCES 1  A. Oulasvirta, T. Rattenbury, L. Ma, E. Raita (2012). Habits make smartphone use more pervasive. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 16(1), pp. 105-114. 2  Nicholas Carr (2010). The Shallows: How the Internet is Changing the Way We Think, Read and Remember (Atlantic Books). 3  K.C. Berridge and T.E. Robinson (1998). What is the role of dopamine in reward: hedonic impact, reward learning, or incentive salience? Brain Research Reviews, 28, pp.309–369. 4  G. A. Marlatt, J. S. Baer. D. M. Donovan and D. R. Kivlahan (1988). Addictive behaviors: etiology and treatment. Annual Review of Psychology. 39(1), pp. 223-252. 5  Susan Davis, Web MD (2013). Addicted to your smartphone? Here's what to do. http://www.webmd.com/balance/guide/addicted-your-smartphone-what-to-do 6  An IDC Research Report, Sponsored By Facebook (2013). Always connected: how smartphones and social keep us engaged. http://www.nu.nl/files/IDC-Facebook%20Always%20Connected%20(1).pdf 7  The Drum (2013). Over half of brits suffer 'extreme tech anxiety' when separated from smartphones. http://www.thedrum.com/news/2013/07/11/over-half-brits-suffer-extreme-tech-anxiety-when-separated-smartphones 8  Leslie Perlow, PhD, the Konosuke Matsushita professor of leadership at the Harvard Business School (2013). In: http://www.webmd.com/balance/guide/addicted-your-smartphone-what-to-do 9  John Tierny, New York Times (2010) When the mind wanders, happiness also strays. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/16/science/16tier.html?_r=1&src=me&ref=homepage 10  Tanya Mohn, New York Times (2012). Silencing the smartphone. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/01/business/some-companies-seek-to-wean-employees-from-their-smartphones.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
  • 77. All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No unauthorised reproduction or distribution. THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych THANK YOU! If you want to know more try the FREE mini-course