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How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing?

Richard Galt
MA Creative Advertising
October 2009
How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing?




Bucks New University
Faculty of Creativity and Culture

Title:
How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing?

By
Richard Galt
MA Creative Advertising

Tutor: Reg Winfield
Submitted: October 2009
Word Count: 8,283
Module number: ADM02




Cover Image

Fig.1
The Opte Project’s first full map of the Internet



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How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing?




Acknowledgements

I would like to thank my tutor, Reg, for reading through this many times. I would also like to
thank Martin Runnacles, who has taught me a lot throughout the year. Thanks also to Bob
Udale, Tom White, Oli Christie and Gareth Goodall for the invaluable placements and
insights that gave me the knowledge to write this. Thanks lastly but by no means least to my
brother, Tom Galt, for his editing, ideas and teaching me how to finally use Word properly.




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How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing?




Index
Index                                                                                                      4
1.    Prologue                                                                                             5
2.    Introduction                                                                                         6
3.    Mobile futures                                                                                       7
4.     What is a phone?                                                                                  10
     4.1 Mobile phones fulfilling needs                                                                  10
     4.2 The blind man’s cane                                                                            12
5.     What are the functions of a phone in modern life?                                                 14
     5.1 What people are doing with them now                                                             14
     5.2 How media consumption behaviours are changing                                                   16
6.    The origins of mobile marketing – SMS and 2G                                                       17
7.     So   what’s happening in the UK now?                                                              18
     7.1    3G                                                                                           18
     7.2    Mobile Web Browsing                                                                          19
     7.3    App Store                                                                                    20
     7.4    Games                                                                                        21
     7.5    Tools                                                                                        22
     7.6    Freemium                                                                                     23
8.    The Power of mobile Word of Mouth                                                                  24
9.    Digital vs. Analogue                                                                               26
10. What do we already know is next?                                                                     28
  10.1 Quick Response Codes                                                                              28
  10.2 Augmented Reality: Making life interactive                                                        29
  10.3 Location based Services                                                                           30
11. Japan                                                                                                31
  11.1 Case Study – AXE ‘Laser’                                                                          32
  11.2 Case Study – Tohato ‘Tyrant Habanero’ vs. ‘Satan Jorquia’                                         33
12. Conclusion                                                                                           34
13. Epilogue                                                                                             35
14. Account of Sources                                                                                   36
  14.1 Bibliography                                                                                      37
  14.2 Newspapers, Reports, Articles, Magazines and Journals                                             38
  14.3 Webography                                                                                        40
  14.4 Interviews                                                                                        46
  14.5 Placements                                                                                        47
  14.6 Correspondence                                                                                    48
  14.7 Picture Sources                                                                                   49




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How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing?




1.   Prologue
               In the beginning was a screen.
               Millions of us came together in a public place.
               To understand the present.
               To see visions of the Future.
               Sharing emotions.
               Sharing experiences…
               …that shaped our lives.

               Then there was a second screen.
               It connected us to our world.
               And even to other worlds.
               It gave us amazing new games to play.
               It made us think and got us talking.
               But although it was a world we could all share,
               …the experience itself was becoming private.

               Then came a third screen.
               It changed the way we worked and played.
               It became a part of something much bigger.
               The Internet.
               And a revolution happened.
               We could play new games in new ways.
               Find new music in new places.
               New communities, new kinds of communities emerged.
               But the experience had become individual,
               …even solitary.
               The sense of community felt real,
               …but it was virtual.

               And then everything changed…
               …and it changed forever.
               Everything came to us in a device that fit into a pocket.
               We went back out into the world.
               We listened to what we loved, when we liked.
               We played when we wanted, where we chose.
               We shared what inspired us with everyone we cared about.
               We carried our sense of purpose with us.
               We discovered new people, places and experiences.
               And our sense of purpose kept growing.
               It was the end of something.
               It was the beginning of everything.
               Welcome to the fourth screen.

     Nokia NSeries1




     1   Inspiration: Nokia – The Fourth Screen <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5V-2qQS3NY0>


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How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing?




2.   Introduction
     The prologue is the dialogue from a Nokia NSeries video released on YouTube. It emotively
     expresses the fast paced development of the ‘Screen’ in our society. It points out the affects
     that screens have on our lives. It also points out the coming of the ‘fourth screen’. In case
     you hadn’t guessed it the first screen was the Cinema, second the TV, thirdly the Computer
     and finally, the ‘fourth screen’ is the Mobile.

     In this paper I dissect the cultural implications of the mobile phone in UK society and look at
     why we rely so much off it. I show how Mobile Marketing has emerged and where it is going
     now. I showcase examples of the most innovative uses of Mobile Marketing to engage
     customers in their surroundings in targeted, relevant and engaging communications. I analyse
     these technologies, and suggest their implications. I explain the use of Word of Mouth in
     advertising and show how it is used more effectively in mobile than any other media. I
     explain the differences between digital and analogue communication and show how analogue
     communication is the key to advertising success. I briefly look to Japan to show how the
     pinnacle of mobile technology and mobile marketing are a long way from reached in the UK
     using examples. I conclude that Mobiles will become the fourth screen that will bridge the
     gap between the currently vastly separate worlds of digital and physical.

     There is a mobile phone for one out of every two people globally2. In the UK there are soon
     going to be two phones for every person3. There is no doubting that the ubiquity of the
     mobile screen will surpass that of the previous screens.




     2 Ahonen, T., Tomi Ahonen Almanac 2009: Mobile Telecoms Industry Review, Published Online,
     2009
     3 Telegraph Online <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/news/3949050/Average-person-

     will-soon-have-two-mobile-phones.html>


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3.   Mobile futures
     To what extent are our futures mobile?

      Mobile phones have become such a ubiquitous part of our life that it is easy to overlook
     their potential to continue to develop the way we communicate and consume media. Many
     marketers have predicted 2009 to be the year of ‘Mobile’. This is because we are starting to
     see huge shifts from mobiles being a tool to communicate, to the all-encompassing tool that
     covers all our human needs. Technology is shifting from linear functioned, to the ‘Black Box’
     that does everything we can think of4.

     Amara’s Law states ‘We tend to overestimate the effect of a technology in the short run and
     underestimate the effect in the long run.’ In the terms of Mobile Phones this can be translated
     to state that the best is yet to come in terms of developments that truly affect the way
     people communicate. Every year Gartner produce a ‘Hype Cycle’ showing the emergence of
     technologies.




                                        Fig.2 Gartner Hype Cycle

     Gartner’s model implies a sharp increase in ‘Hype’ around emerging technologies in the first
     stage of the five, characterized by what Gartner terms the ‘technology trigger’. This stage
     marks the moment when so-called early adopters embrace the technology. I will later show
     you why Smartphones have progressed past this position, ready for mainstream society.




     4Jenkins, H., Convergence Culture; Where Old and New Media Collide, New York University
     Press, New York and London, 2006, pp. 14-16


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                 Fig.3 The Bi-Modal Consumer and the Generational Chasm


If the technology is successful enough it breaks into mainstream society and becomes
adopted by what is sometimes called the ‘Passive Massive’ (see diagram). This results in a
‘peak of inflated expectations’. This is where the publicity generates a frenzy of over-
enthusiasm and unrealistic expectations on the part of the late-adopters who expect the
technology to affect their lives more than it realistically can. This, in turn, then leads to a
‘trough of disillusionment’ – the frenzy has left people feeling unimpressed by the effect they
were promised on their lives. The following ‘slope of enlightenment’ slowly shows how, with
the benefit of hindsight and experience, the effects that were actually real (without the
hype), allowing the new technology to proceed and develop its full potential through what
Gartner terms a ‘plateau of productivity’.

The last two stages represent the period in which a new technology actually gains
widespread acceptance and its effects become embedded in society. To enable this
transition, new technologies must also learn to adapt themselves in reciprocal fashion to
people’s lives. Very often we are slow to recognise the ways in which these new
technologies truly change the way we live.




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                              Fig.4 Gartner Hype Cycle 2009

As we can see, the Hype Cycle has more advanced technologies than a mobile phone. The
mobile phone, however, is more advanced in terms of integration into society. This means it
has gone off the end of the cycle. It is now what can be done on the phone that will be on
the cycle (e.g. Augmented Reality explained later), as mobile phones have become just
another platform for tasks to be solved with.

To understand quite how much mobiles are affecting society now, we need to understand
what a mobile phone has come to stand for in our every day lives.




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4.    What is a phone?
      92% of teens and young adults in Japan view a message as soon as they receive it.5

4.1   Mobile phones fulfilling needs

      Studies into what people carry with them show that the three global essential items that
      someone will not leave the house without are money, keys and mobile phone6. The question
      is why have we come to depend on this small plastic package that allows us to talk to each
      other, more than clothes on our backs?

      Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs, famously dissects our dependencies. The
      lowest levels are those that represent physiological needs, and the higher levels are focused
      around personal growth. It is a hierarchy because Maslow states that only once the base
      physiological needs are met, can the higher self-actualization needs come into effect. For
      example, when a businessman finds out that he has cancer, he immediately focuses on
      regaining his health (physiological) rather than his job (self-actualization). Therefore the
      bottom levels are given the height of importance.




                                    Fig.5 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

      Jan Chipcase is a Researcher for Nokia in Tokyo who has travelled all over the world
      analysing the use of mobile phones in different societies. He stated in his TED talk in 2008,




      5 Ito, M. & Okabe, D. & Matsuda, M., Personal, Portable, Pedestrian: Mobile Phones in Japanese
      Life, The MIT Press, Tokyo, London and New York, 2005
      6 Chipcase, J., Why we love Mobile Phones, TED Talks

      <http://www.ted.com/talks/jan_chipchase_on_our_mobile_phones.html>


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that mobile phones have become such a part of our society because they cover the two base
levels of Maslow’s hierarchy, and parts of the third.7

        A recent immersion study conducted by Millward Brown across seven sub-Saharan African
        countries demonstrated the intimate, “always-on” nature of mobile phones. On average,
        respondents interacted with (that is, used, touched, looked at or looked for) their phones 82
        times per day. The activity engaged in next most frequently – just 37 times each day – was
        the act of female subjects touching their hair.8

Mobile phones have become a lifeline, upon which we rely to meet our most basic
physiological needs; finding restaurants, hotels and all general amenities we survive off, when
out of our comfort zones. We also rely on mobile phones for the next level of Maslow’s
Hierarchy, in that we rely on them to provide safety not only in a crisis, but to exist in
current society by staying in contact with work, family and in touch with the wider world
around us. The relevance of the third level is obvious in relation to the mobile phone.
Without a mobile phone in modern society we are cut off from friendship, family and sexual
intimacy in the way that the rest of society works.




                         Fig.6 Possible future roles of a mobile phone




7 Chipcase, J., Why we love Mobiles Phones, TED talks
<http://www.ted.com/talks/jan_chipchase_on_our_mobile_phones.html>
8 Smyth, T., What’s Next For Mobile? Millward Brown Points of View, July 2009




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4.2 The blind man’s cane

    In ‘The Question Concerning Technology’, Heidegger famously uses the metaphor of a blind
    person’s cane to explain how technology is becoming invisible, yet crucial9. He states that
    the cane becomes more than a tool for the blind person to function, the cane becomes part
    of the person. Mobile phones have certainly become tools that we use in our lives as
    extensions of ourselves. They are the liminal10 spaces that take us to our digital selves.




                                 Fig.7 The Subtle Knife by Philip Pullman

    If we exist in a different world through the object sitting in our pocket, it can be likened to
    Phillip Pullman’s ‘Subtle Knife’11. The Subtle Knife is a magical knife that transports the holder
    into parallel dimensions, where ethereal characters wander. In Pullman’s world the knife
    holds the power to the universe. Like the Subtle Knife, the modern mobile phone allows us
    to transport into the ether and become another self.




               Fig.8 Sarah Morning’s Essay Travelling without moving: The digital consumer

    Sarah Morning writes about digi-travellers and digi-tourists12. She says that every aspect of
    Web 2.0 can be likened to that of travel and exploration with names like Safari, Amazon and
    Explorer and verbs like surfing, tagging and bookmarking. We are all exploring an
    infinitesimal world without boundaries, picking up scraps of culture as we explore. We
    recommend to other travellers and choose the experiences that we want to have. This can
    either be reaching a certain destination or aimlessly wandering, looking for things that take
    our interest and broadening our spheres of knowledge.

    If Web 2.0 nature is that of tourists exploring uncharted territory, then the mobile allows
    the portal, through which we explore, to be mobilized. We become digi-travellers at every
    moment of our lives. Our mobiles are always turned on and we do not choose when and
    where we are connected, as we cannot survive in modern society without it. Mobile phones



    9 Heidegger, M., The Question Concerning Technology, Harper Collins, New York, 1993
    10 Liminal – ‘Threshold’ or ‘Portal’
    11 Pullman, P., The Subtle Knife, Scholastic Point, London, 1997
    12 Morning, S., Travelling Without Moving: The Digital Consumer, Published Online, March 2007




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allow us to communicate and explore realms other than our own while being in our own
society still functioning.

        In Japan, the pervasiveness of mobile phones has enabled mobile marketing to reach
        consumers in a variety of situations where conventional media cannot follow, such as when
        they are outdoors or closer to the places where they buy and consume products.
        Harnessing mobile capacity in these contexts has been shown to produce an enhanced
        ‘recency effect,’ meaning consumers have a better chance of remembering the most recent
        message conveyed to them, which makes it more lucrative to market in closer proximity to
        shopping TPOs (times, places and occasions).13

But I am getting ahead of myself here. I am talking of the Smartphone usage, still only really
used by the Early Adopters. I will now step many paces back in our journey and look at who
uses what, from all sides of society, to then try to predict how mobile technology is shaping
our future.




13Fujita, A., Mobile Marketing in Japan: The Acceleration of Integrated Marketing Communications,
Journal of Integrated Marketing Communications, 2008


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5.    What are the functions of a phone in modern life?
      According to Nielson, the UK mobile Internet is growing eight times more rapidly than the PC
      internet. The UK currently has more than seven million mobile Internet users (20% of the entire
      online population).14

5.1   What people are doing with them now

      Smartphones are currently the mobile phones of choice. They include WAP Internet
      capabilities and are constantly encroaching on the functions of a laptop; so much so that
      Nokia has recently announced its development of a laptop with advanced mobile Internet
      capabilities. Nokia’s Kai Oistamo said,

              A growing number of people want the computing power of a PC with the full benefits of
              mobility. We are in the business of connecting people and the Nokia Booklet 3G is a
              natural evolution for us… we will make the personal computer more social, more helpful
              and more personal.

      This is not a huge step in the sense of convergence. It shows that Nokia see a profitable
      market in Netbooks. However it does show that they see a strong ability for Netbooks to
      soon require mobile Internet connectivity. The more astounding steps in this case of
      convergence are the Nokia N900 – a Linux15 based Maemo16 phone that functions very
      much like a computer and is open sourced, and the potential Apple ‘tablet’ that has been
      prophesied to come out Christmas 2009/1017.




                         Fig.9 Apple Tablet as imagined by Tommaso Gecchelin
                                           Fig.10 Nokia N900

      Smartphones hold the key to increased mobile Internet penetration in a society. In the UK
      13.5% have Smartphones18. This percentage seems likely to increase rapidly. It has steadily
      been increasing by about 35% per year, for the last few years. The restriction is mainly

      14 Stirling, G., Search Engine Land, <http://searchengineland.com/nielsen-uk-mobile-web-
      growing-8x-faster-than-pc-internet-15604>
      15 Linux is an operating system like Microsoft Windows or Apple’s Mac OS X
      16 Maemo – a software platform, used to run an operating system
      17 Cashmore, P., Mashable <http://mashable.com/2009/07/27/apple-tablet/>
      18 McQueen, D. & Byrne, G. & Kamal-Saadi, M., Media Operating Systems: The impact of open

      source and importance of user experience, Informa Telecoms and Media, May 2009


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around the cost of such an advanced device. Developments in technology will undoubtedly
reduce this very quickly. When the adoption of Smartphones penetrates further than the
‘Innovators’ and ‘Early Adopters’, we will see the Internet-connected mobile phone really
begin to take off.




                        Fig.11 Classic Consumer Adoption Process

Currently Smartphone usage in the UK has only been by early adopters and innovators.
However, if the evidence of Japan offers anything to go by, it looks like the Smartphone will
rapidly penetrate society at large. However, this reference to Japan and its use of Mobile
Internet and Mobile Marketing will be picked up later. For now we need to understand what
other media is doing and how that could translate to mobile, to see whether we believe
media consumption habits are moving mobile.




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5.2   How media consumption behaviours are changing
      In this section I show current trends in media consumption perfectly aligning to mobile. For brevity I
      will discuss only three major media; TV, Press and Music

      Music

      iTunes has held onto the prized position for a long time now, in terms of digital music.
      However Spotify have recently received approval for an iPhone application that is set to
      invade into iTunes’ space. With iTunes you need to pay for a track, and then you own a
      digital copy of it. Spotify is completely free to anyone and anyone can listen to whatever they
      want, whenever, without paying. The catch with Spotify, is that advertising funds it. You
      stream songs via the Internet rather than owning them.

      This opens music consumption up and encourages exploration by recommendations. Spotify
      is currently extremely popular and the ability to access such vast libraries for free while
      moving (the most common time music is consumed) will undoubtedly shake iTunes’
      monopoly. Above anything its philosophy seems more in-tune to current youth attitudes to
      digital music than iTunes.

      Television

      TV use is decreasing rapidly in the UK19. Younger generations only watch what they want
      online, commonly without adverts or permission from providers. There is a growing attitude
      that media is free. People, also, are becoming far less receptive to media that they are at all
      disinterested in. People look to TV to entertain them with shorter and punchier demands
      upon their attention span.

      In Japan and Korea mobile TV is extremely popular and most often watched when travelling.
      Like the UK, Japan and Korea are large users of public transport and high percentages
      commute for long journeys. The potential for mobile TV in the UK to fulfil this role is huge.
      Japan and Korea however not only have higher bandwidth of Internet for mobiles, but they
      also have better technologies and a much higher penetration of smart phone users. With the
      future expansion of the bandwidth of Internet for mobile phones, and the increased
      penetration of smart phones, the UK will soon follow.

      Press

      Newspapers are moving online and people are increasingly going online to view news. A
      large part of people’s news consumption is also now based around social networking sites
      like Twitter. Twitter and Blogs provide people with short sharp spikes of information that is
      rarely the whole picture. For example with the bombing in Mumbai and the election in Iran,
      people got the hourly updates via Twitter (most commonly mobile) but still turn to the
      printed press for the whole picture.

      With the rise in Smartphone penetration, fewer people will buy print and more will read
      news on the phone. Surely the emergence of electronic books like the Kindle, are just
      stepping-stones until full convergence of the mobile phone and the book.




      19Mortimer, R., The Decline of TV and Rise of the Internet – IBM global consumer research
      <http://brandstrategy.wordpress.com/2007/08/22/the-decline-of-tv-and-rise-of-the-internet-
      ibm-global-consumer-research/>


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6.   The origins of mobile marketing – SMS and 2G
     What has been done with Mobile Marketing up until the development of Smartphones.

     Before the introduction of the Internet on mobile phones, advertising had taken the form of
     SMS messages that broadcast offers & deals and have made use of hard sales techniques
     (often referred to as the ‘push model’20). This type of advertising is the hardest form of
     intrusion sales. It is the equivalent of a ‘cold call’ from a salesperson to your door. However
     charming the salesman might be, we don't really want him there. Similarly mobile messages
     are regarded with distain and mostly ignored or rejected. People do not react kindly to hard
     sell and we now know that there are better ways to engage customers.

             Click through and conversion rates in the very low percentage points are all that’s required
             for a direct marketing campaign to be successful in as much as there’s a return on
             investment. The fact that 99.9% of your audience didn’t respond is largely irrelevant if the
             0.05% responding made you the money. Screwed up, yes, but it still ads up financially.21

     As Helen Keegan points out, a small Return On Investment (ROI) on something that is very
     cheap is still very effective. However for a brand this can also be hugely detrimental in
     establishing a trusted and long lasting relationship between a brand and a customer.

     SMS advertising, like email will still retain users. It produces returns. However as mobile
     Internet develops, customers will become more and more used to receiving value from
     brands. This will increase the distance between hard sell and engagement. This will lead
     customers to become less receptive to SMS advertisements and thus will go the same way
     that email advertising has gone – left largely to pornography.

     According to Brandweek, there still is considerable ‘consumer resistance, the main reason
     behind the carriers' historic refusal to open the gates to ad content.’ Brandweek goes on:

             Studies have shown that consumers are less than thrilled with the idea of receiving ads on
             their cells. While early adopter teens are among the biggest targets, three-quarters of cell
             phone users aged 10 to 18 said they do not think it's OK to be marketed to on a mobile
             device, according to a study of 2,000 users conducted by Weekly Reader Research,
             Stamford, Conn., on Brandweek's behalf. Forrester Research in Cambridge, Mass., found
             79% of consumers are turned off by the idea of ads on their phones and a mere 3% of
             respondents said they trust text ads.22

     SMS campaigns need to be extremely careful. Intrusions into privacy and distrustful methods
     of communications are undoubtedly hugely detrimental to brand/consumer relations. There
     are now other options for marketers to choose from, not just SMS.




     20 Springer, P., Ads to Icons: How Advertising Succeeds in a Multimedia Age, Kogan Page Limited,
     London and Philadelphia, 2007, p. 359
     21 Keegan, H., <http://technokitten.blogspot.com/2009/04/is-sms-marketing-doomed.html>
     22 Mobile Active <http://mobileactive.org/taxonomy/term/1243>




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7.    So what’s happening in the UK now?
      To best understand the Future we need to be on the same page about the present.

7.1   3G

      3G stands for ‘third generation’. For the sake of argument I categorize 1G as analogue
      mobile and 2G as digital. 3G is defined by the use of GSM EDGE, UMTS, CDMA2000, DECT
      and WiMAX in a phone. The benefits of the above can be distilled (albeit very crudely) to
      the allowance of simultaneous speech and data services as well as higher data rates.

      So our ‘screens’ have become far larger and computing capabilities far wider. However the
      most interesting thing brought about by 3G technologies in terms of its impact on
      advertising, has been the high volume of mobile Internet browsing it has generated, together
      with the introduction of so-called Applications to Mobiles.




                        Fig.12 The strong advantages of mobile over other media




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7.2   Mobile Web Browsing

      With the increase of mobile web browsing, banner adverts are being tailored to fit smaller
      screens. People are five to ten times more responsive to mobile banner ads than computer
      banner ads23. However, there is potential that this high response rate is only due to the fact
      that early adopters are more responsive to adverts and the fact that the technology is new.
      When PC banner advertising first started the response rates were far higher and have
      steadily dipped since24.

      Example – Kmart ‘Protégé’

      Kmart wanted to provide affordable basketball shoes to African-Americans between 14 to
      18 years old. This posed challenges due to the demographics lack of regular media
      consumption. The insight that these children are always out and about and in the street led
      Kmart to look to the use of mobile as a strategy. The most successful part of the campaign
      they devised was a New York subway poster that had a strong ‘call to action’. Viewers were
      asked to text the word ‘Protégé’ to Kmart. They were then pushed a WAP link that took
      them to a customized site. This gave them many free ringtones, wallpaper, videos for their
      mobiles. This drove more than 100,000 visits to the website and led to a very high frequency
      of product site viewings and then their nearest Kmart store viewings.




                        Fig.13 & 14 Kmart Protégé ads on the New York Subway

      In Summary…

      The importance of mobile web browsing for marketers is huge. Many adverts however
      clever, funny or persuasive still lack the ability to drive home a message that actually
      generates a sale. The lack of latency between seeing communications you are interested in
      and engaging your interest through enquiry, allows 3G mobile to really dominate. It acts as
      the cane through which you explore your chosen digital world.




      23 EConsultancy <http://econsultancy.com/blog/4205-mobile-ads-perform-better-than-online-
      ads-for-now>
      24 Business Week Online

      <http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/07_46/b4058053.htm>


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7.3   App Store

      With over 1.5 billion downloads, Apple’s App Store has revolutionized mobile marketing.
      Now the majority of software and hardware producers and telecommunications providers
      are trying to produce their own versions. The ability for third party developers to produce
      what they as consumers deem necessary and generating income from that, is another
      example of the philosophy of success in web 2.0.

      Google has been known for relating their success to doing nothing but creating a platform
      for others to exist - i.e. practising the art of the good middleman. Amazon, eBay and Google
      all similarly rely on customers deciding what they want and acting upon it. These same
      customers also constantly offer comment on their purchases and very rarely take advice
      from anyone but another peer. In this way, opinions are freely formed and actions
      democratically taken, no longer dictated.

      This democratized market characterizes the idea of the App Store. Apple does nothing but
      provide the perfectly customizable platform - the app store, while others provide the
      products to entice the consumer.

      Example – iTunes App Store

      On July 14 2009, Steve Jobs announced ‘The App Store is like nothing the industry has ever seen
      before in both scale and quality. With 1.5 billion apps downloaded, it is going to be very hard for
      others to catch up.’25




                                          Fig.15 iTunes App Store

      In Summary…

      Web 2.0 has changed the way online market places exist. Customer opinions are key and
      people follow the herd, not what they are told to follow. The ability for third party
      developers to create what they want shows the move away from software monopolies and
      restricted hardware, to a democratic open market.




      25   Apple <http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2009/07/14apps.html>


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7.4   Games

      The majority of branded applications are for entertainment purposes and there is a huge
      demand for simple entertainment in phone users. This undoubtedly presents numerous
      possibilities for enhanced marketing. For example, branded games are used to incorporate
      the product and show it’s benefits. They provide another touch point for engagement with
      the brand, developing the opportunity to engage with customers who would normally not
      think of buying their products. In this way they can engineer the opportunity to establish
      themselves in the eyes of young or new customers, with the kind of brand aspiration, or
      quality, or value that they desire.

      Example – Barclaycard ‘Waterslide Extreme’

      The perfect example of mobile gaming applications working in Transmedia26 Advertising is
      Barclaycard’s ‘Waterslide Extreme’. A very successful and creative TV campaign was
      released. An application was later released on the iPhone app store for free under the title
      of ‘Waterslide Extreme’. The game puts the user in the position of the character in the TV
      advert. The app quickly became iTunes’ most downloaded free branded game. Within three
      weeks over four million people had downloaded it and it became the number one free app
      in 57 countries. They engaged with a new demographic that was not typically responsive to
      Financial communications, but crucial future customers.




                           Fig.16 Barclaycard ‘Waterslide Extreme’ iPhone Game


      In Summary…

      Video games have long been trying to move onto mobile phones successfully. Until now the
      screens were too small and the hardware too slow. With the increase in technical ability
      that is imminent, phones are going to see more entertainment options. The current trend of
      more sociable and family oriented gaming highlights the move away from the stereotyped
      gamer. Mobiles will allow this move to continue to spread with games emerging that reach
      all demographics. This broadens the purpose of a phone hugely. It moves from being
      primarily to communicate, to now entertain.




      26   Yakob, F., <http://farisyakob.typepad.com/blog/2006/10/transmedia_plan.html>


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7.5   Tools

      A brand has a unique opportunity through apps to not only to entertain, but also to provide
      an appreciated customer with a utility. This enhances his or her perception of the brand -
      not necessarily selling a product to the consumer, but making their life easier. The brand
      becomes a trusted part of the consumer’s life and the brand loyalty pays off far more in
      dividends than any push campaign could generate.

      The ability for a brand to engage with certain demographics of consumers by providing a
      function that they need, allows them to change the way they are perceived. It allows them to
      add on an aspect to them, as a brand, by promoting an aspect of culture that ameliorates
      them by giving diversity.

      Example – Adidas Urban Art in Germany

      Adidas have taken Berlin by storm with an app that aggregates street art in the capital and
      puts it into a Google map. Not only can it direct you (virtually) around the city’s gallery of
      graffiti, but it also runs mini tour programs highlighting the best of the city’s innovative
      underground art scene. Adidas sells shoes nowhere on the app. It does nothing to generate
      revenue – the app is free. The app’s sole purpose is to associate itself with something that its
      target consumers feel very strongly about. It would previously be impossible for a brand to
      enter such an underground anti-advertising community. However by providing a service and
      showing respect, by not selling to the customers, they are developing relationships with
      areas of society that are otherwise very difficult to market to.




                                    Fig.17 & 18 Adidas Urban Art Guide

      In Summary…

      With the emergence of apps, the mobile becomes the flexible device that can perform
      almost whatever task you have need of. With the development of Android, mobile phones
      are becoming open-source27 and therefore even more open for anyone to produce what
      they want. They will become the ubiquitous Swiss army knife that you choose what functions
      you wish to add on to fit your life.




      27   Platform Agnostic – Not tied down to one particular technological platform


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7.6   Freemium
      Free/Premium media

      People will rarely pay for branded content that is obvious advertising. This is why it needs to
      perform one of the previous functions and then it will be adopted for free.

      The biggest debate revolving around digital is currently that of whether the Internet can
      carry on funding free content. The youth generation has no interest in paying for media and
      is very unlikely to ever change that attitude. A new model must be found.

      Chris Anderson has recently published a free audio book called ‘Free’ that explores this
      exact subject. He revolves this conversation around the most important word ever in
      advertising, ‘Free’28. He argues that making something ‘free’ can actually make you more
      money than an initial pricing. This can be seen clearly in the case of apps where content is
      usually free. The price of creating these apps is minimal and in comparison to an ATL
      campaign, it is an extremely cost effective approach due to its high level of mutual and
      personal engagement – the perfect example of the so-called ‘pull model’ of advertising.

      By giving away a service, the brand is giving to the consumer by providing something,
      without asking for anything in return. The obvious returns are brand loyalty; engagement
      with a new product and the potential to promote to an already engaged consumer. But
      above all the advantage is just another ‘touch point’ into someone’s life that offers a further
      dimension to an already rich brand.

      Example – Blyk




                                             Fig.19 Blyk Logo

      Blyk was the first free mobile phone network in the UK, started in 2007. It allowed its users
      a monthly allowance of £15. This was due to the use of advertising to sponsor the network.
      Targeted adverts were sent to users up to the frequency of 6 a day. The service was
      extremely successful and reported in 2008 to have reached its yearly target of 100,000 users
      six months earlier than scheduled. The Times reported that certain analysts believed Blyk
      ‘could provide a boost to the nascent market in mobile marketing.’ 29 It provides a highly
      interesting business structure; utilizing highly targeted adverts to provide relevant
      communications between brands and consumers.

      In Summary…

      The youth view Media as shared, not owned. Charging for ownership of content will cause
      the youth to bypass this, albeit illegally. To reach the youth, new economic formats must be
      utilised. Using Blyk and Spotify as examples, we can see that young people are willing to view
      advertising in return for free media.




      28   Wired Magazine Online <http://www.wired.com/techbiz/it/magazine/16-03/ff_free>
      29   Wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blyk>


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8.   The Power of mobile Word of Mouth
     Why mobiles are the best tools to spread memes.

     Now that we understand the emerging technologies related to mobile phones, we are in a
     position to analyze the benefits that these could bring. By analysing the previous examples, I
     will highlight the major effects that mobile technologies are having on our behavioural
     communication with brands and media.

     The true power that mobile phones have in society is the ability to spread information,
     opinions, news and brand awareness via word of mouth. Marketers have long since
     recognized Word of Mouth (WOM) as a very powerful tool. This has increased dramatically
     by the use of the Internet (eWOM). Spreadability is a sink or swim factor in a campaigns’
     success. Viral marketing is the most obvious example of this. A name like viral relates to a
     verb of something spreading virally and has been used to describe videos over the Internet.
     This is a wrong use of the term. It is not a noun, it is a verb. As a verb it can be used to
     chart the progression of much of society, not just videos.

     The term ‘Meme’ is used to describe units of culture. It was termed by Richard Dawkins in
     ‘The Selfish Gene’,

             Examples of memes are tunes, ideas, catch-phrases, clothes fashions, ways of making pots
             or building arches. Just as genes propagate themselves in the gene pool by leaping from
             body to body via sperms or eggs, so memes propagate themselves in the meme pool by
             leaping from brain to brain via a process, which, in the broad sense, can be called
             imitation.30

     The linguistic reference to gene is not accidental. Mutation and adaptability is the key to
     survival, as with Darwin’s “Origin of the Species”. Rather than ‘virals’, adverts can better be
     described as memes, which take from and add to culture while developing and spreading. It
     is very like the phenomenon that underpins Darwin’s idea of the survival of a species -
     hence, Henry Jenkins’ phrase ‘If it doesn’t spread, it is dead’31

     In this respect, the mobile, through Smartphones, allow spreadability beyond any other
     media. People spread via word of mouth and even word of finger. What is viewed, spread and
     recommended by a friend becomes more powerful than anything that is recommended by an
     advert.

             The ubiquity of mobile internet access has further enhanced the power of eWOM. The
             service is ubiquitous because it is unconstrained in time and space. This unique nature of
             the mobile Internet has enabled consumers to transmit, gather, and retransmit product
             information via voice calls, email, an interactive messaging service, and a variety of
             consumer-friendly mobile social-networking applications. Juniper Research (2007) reported
             that the number of active users of mobile social-networking sites is expected to rise from
             14 million in 2007 to nearly 600 million in 2012.32

     Shintaro Okazaki recently published a paper titled “The tactical use of mobile marketing:
     How adolescents’ Social Networking can best shape Brand Extensions”. In it he compares
     eWOM to consumer socialization theory (CS). ‘CS is the process by which young people acquire

     30 Dawkins, R., The Selfish Gene, Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1976 p.
     192
     31 Jenkins, H., <http://www.henryjenkins.org/2009/02/if_it_doesnt_spread_its_dead_p.html>
     32 Okazaki, S., The Tactical Use of Mobile Marketing: How Adolescents’ Social Networking Can

     Best Shape Brand Extensions, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 49, No. 1, March 2009


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skills, knowledge, and attitudes relevant to their functioning as consumers in the marketplace.’ The
CS theory suggests that consumer behaviour is learnt through interactions between the
individual and various agents in different social settings. He writes,

        This study posits that the social structure constraints, agent, and content of CS theory are
        the primary factors affecting adolescents’ participation in mobile based WOM campaigns.
        They translate, respectively to interpersonal connectivity, self-identification with the mobile
        device, and affective brand commitment.

Okazaki concludes by making eight hypotheses. Three of which are;

    •   H1: Interpersonal connectivity will directly and positively affect attitude toward the
        campaign
    •   H2: Self-Identification with the mobile device will directly and positively affect attitude
        toward the campaign
    •   H7: Mobile-based WOM is more strongly associated with affective commitment to the
        promoted brand than face-to-face WOM

From this we can deduce that the desire to spread and propagate media via mobile phones is
more than just a fad. It seems to have become a natural survival technique through
interpersonal connectivity and self-identification.

We can also learn that an electronic Word of Mouth campaign can generate an affective
commitment to the brand. Through this we deduce that consumers value brand engagement
more through mobile. They also find spreading media a part of life – they almost desire
media of a quality worth spreading.




                   Fig.20 The effectiveness of Word Of Mouth in marketing




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9.   Digital vs. Analogue
     So what is analogue communication?

     We all know that the modern world is digital and there seems to be no way forward other
     than digital. Digital technology seems to be encroaching constantly on our everyday lives.
     However, if we understand what digital and analogue actually mean, we find new applications
     to the terms.

     According to Paul Watzlawick, ‘digital’ is binary, it refers to numbers. Its opposite is
     ‘analogue’; it refers more closely to words33. Where digital is definitive (numerical), analogue
     is interpretable (linguistic). A digital clock says that it is 13:41:54. But with an analogue clock
     it is impossible to ever make a truthful statement. It is always in a state of flux. Therefore it
     is something that requires interpretation from the viewer.




                                    Fig.21 Digital and analogue Clocks

     Theoretician, Paul Watzlawick, famously argued that there are two types of human
     communication - digital and analogue communication. Digital communication is precise and
     logical, while Analogue communication is ambiguous and emotional. A statement is digital,
     whereas a hug is analogous.




                                    Fig.22 Portrait of Paul Watzlawick

     Paul Feldwick has taken Watzlawick’s theories and applied them to current advertising
     trends34. He states that modern advertising has become more analogue (ironically!) in terms
     of communication techniques. When research into advertising so often claims that we need
     to speak to the heart and not to the head, this is the analogue communication. It is talking in
     a human way that speaks so much more.

     When we are talking about communicating to humans, we need to look for different
     attributes than those efficient in computing. Humans communicate in far more subtle and
     inextricably detailed ways. Research suggests that these subtleties are 70% of all

     33 Watzlawick, P. & Helmick Beavin, J. & Jackson, D., Pragmatics of human communication,
     W.W. Norton, California, 1967
     34 ThinkBox <http://www.thinkbox.tv/server/show/nav.1015>




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communication35. The more subtle communication techniques like body language and facial
expression (sometimes called gesture-calls) are more rarely misleading. Like these
communication techniques, analogue communications work.

Word of Mouth plays on the benefits of analogue communication. Media that is spread by
peers is treated as valuable culture. People do not sell in a hard selling technique to one
another, instead the warmth, relevance and personalization of word of mouth spread media
takes all the attributes of the most human of communications.

Marketing needs to speak to the heart, not the head. The death of the Unique Selling
Proposition36 and emergence of the Emotional Selling Proposition are strong arguments to
believe in the power of analogue communications. We must engage people around
something that they are interested in, not something that we, as marketers, believe they
should be interested in.




35 Engleberg, I., Working in Groups: Communication Principles and Strategies, Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2006. p. 133
36 Earls, M., Welcome to the Creative Age – Bananas, Business and the Death of Marketing, John

Wiley, London, 2002


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10. What do we already know is next?
    We have now looked at and analysed what is currently happening in the market. We will now look
    at the emerging technologies; those with ‘hype’ surrounding them that are yet to prove whether they
    can be adopted by UK society.

10.1 Quick Response Codes




                     Fig.23 Tokyo Disney QR Campaign, Fig.24 A typical QR code

    Quick Response codes are similar to barcodes, but act like web addresses that when
    photographed they act as port of entry. They are very popular in Japan and Korea and are
    on everything as common as sandwiches in convenience stores. The key to QR codes is that
    they allow a mobile phone to very quickly take a photograph of one, and that photograph
    loads the phone straight into the intended website. The phone requires Internet access and
    a moderate quality camera.

    Example – Pepsi Kicks




                                Fig.25 & Fig.26 Pepsi Kicks QR Campaign

    Pepsi wanted to engage with 18 to 24 year olds. Kelly Brook joined forces for this campaign
    pushing the use of QR codes. GraphicoDMG, who created the campaign, won a FAB award
    and said,

             This group loves to share content so it was important that all our content could be shared
             and forwarded. None of the content was locked – to a device or a platform - and it could
             all be embedded in their own social networking profiles. Content for sharing included: Kelly
             Brook video, behind the scenes at the shoot (interview, video and stills), three mobile games
             including Project Gotham Racing and specially selected random snippets from the web.37

    In Summary…

    In Japan, most adverts contain QR codes. These allow interested viewers to rapidly enter
    the website. These speed up the time between seeing an advert and then furthering your
    journey of inquiry. The quicker someone can act on the interest generated by an ad, the
    higher volume of action an advert can generate. This increases analogue communication due
    to provoking a reaction from the consumer.


    37
         Graphico DMG <http://www.graphicodmg.co.uk/CaseStudy.aspx?cid=80>


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10.2 Augmented Reality: Making life interactive




                         Fig.27 & 28 Augmented Reality – Geotagging examples

     Augmented Reality is currently the hot topic for advertisers and refers to the technology
     that allows the manipulation of reality through a digital screen. For example you could look
     at an image of a building and have information overlaying the image of the building, almost
     giving another dimension to reality.

     With Augmented Reality gaming can merge from the confined screen to impact reality itself.
     For example, ‘Geotagging’ has made use of Augmented Reality. ‘Geotagging’ is the digital
     ‘tagging’ of objects like buildings or even like items of clothing, by leaving a digital trace of
     information, which can then be picked up and read by others through their Smartphones.

     Example – Oasis (Augmented Reality in Gaming)

     Oasis’s ‘RubberDuckZilla’ utilizes Augmented Reality to allow the user to have fun with the
     brand by taking on RubberDuckZilla’s head and (seemingly) bring Godzilla-like mayhem and
     destruction to the streets of Tokyo. The game has proved hugely popular and
     (unsurprisingly) done much to help promote the brand in Japan.




                        Fig.29 Oasis’ RubberDuckZilla Augmented Reality game

     In Summary…

     Making use of this technology, people can leave comments about a company, a commercial
     outlet’s services, or even great offers around the corner. It is the epitome of the power of
     the consumers voice in modern society that will be seen by all.




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10.3 Location based Services

    Location Based Services are thought by some to have the most potential to advertising. The
    value of mobile advertising could really be in the ability to target consumers. Targeting
    allows communications to be relevant to the consumer and reduces spam - information that
    nobody actually wants.

    Location Based Services take your GPS location and communicate to you knowing where
    you are (there is a future potential for them to learn more about who you are too) with
    relevant local advice & information, regarding shops, services etc. These mean that a
    company can send messages to people within the proximity of a certain area, shop, billboard.
    Not only this, but also the iPhone 3GS and many other smart phones coming into the
    market, now have digital compass functions. These coincide with the GPS and allow the
    phone to know which direction it is looking and where it is. The potential to exploit the
    technology is clearly considerable.

    Example – FourSquare

    Foursquare is an iPhone application that allows users to send messages to their friends who
    can see where they are on the city map. Friends can then send them messages, leaving
    recommendations as to where to go and what to do. For example ‘try the best Margarita in
    town at Pizzaiolo’s on Bond Street’. When someone acts on such a recommendation, they
    ‘ping’ from the location and gain ‘points’ which turn the world of recommendations into a
    game. Points are tallied and people receive all sorts of awards for achievements. People who
    visit places the most often are awarded “mayor” status which results in them receiving
    offers from the site, which are communicated to them on their phones. This takes
    recommendations to a new level. People can live out their lives based on what their trusted
    friends recommend and reap the rewards of shared patronage. It promotes the idea of
    ‘brand advocates’ and allows us all to review the facilities on offer in any location, sharing the
    information with our friends. The ability for bad press to spread is another intriguing
    example of a brands inability to use push advertising.




                                        Fig.30 Foursquare Logo

    In Summary…

    In Japan for example, there is currently a facility called Felica that allows users to pay for
    items in certain shops and on public transport and in vending machines via swiping their
    phone next to touch pads. This allows the provider of that service to use that information in
    a way similar to that employed famously by the Tesco Club card to build up demographic
    profiles in incredible detail about who is doing what, where and when. This, like LBS, would
    provide highly personal information on consumers and allow messages to be targeted and
    relevant. Whether such information should be available to marketers is currently being hotly
    contested. If used, this will become the most important information for any marketer.




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11. Japan38
   Mobile phone web users nearly equal PC based Internet users in Japan39

   We have now looked at the past in terms of mobile marketing in the UK. We have also
   looked at what is happening right now – at least in the UK. It is now time to briefly look to
   the East to see what is being done in mobile marketing based on the author’s experience, in
   markets that are far more developed than our own. This should give us some insight into
   the future developments. I do not go into detail as this is far too rich a subject and lies
   beyond the scope of this dissertation. However, some discussion will allow insight into the
   kind of future that may well await the UK once Smartphones have more thoroughly
   penetrated the market.

   Japan, for example, has long since been at the front of technology. Ever since the rapid
   industrial redevelopment after the Second World War, they have been the leaders in the
   technology industry. Producing the leading technology, perhaps unsurprisingly, we see the
   most enthusiastic consumers of technology. Japan has embraced mobile phone technologies
   far more than any other country in the world. In Japan there are currently 108 million
   Mobile subscribers. Over 90% of those are 3G phones40. Nokia, the world’s leaders in
   mobile phone sales, has tried to enter their market. Ironically, they recently gave up saying
   that the attitude to mobile phones in Japan is so far different to the rest of the world that
   they cannot begin to compete:

           Today, mobile Internet in Japan has established itself as arguably the fastest-growing mass
           media platform the world has ever seen, reaching an audience of 50 million people in only
           three years. This is less time than it took for the U.S. market to hit the same milestone with
           radio (38 years), television (13 years), cable TV (10 years), and the PC Internet (5 years).41




   38 To presuppose that the UK will follow Japan is very dangerous. Many other factors
   differentiate Japan from the UK. I am using Japan not as a definitive future for the UK, but
   instead as a potential future from a more developed market. This must be taken with
   scepticism as many questions come into effect that cannot be answered; whether these
   technologies will be adopted like Japan, whether there is a benefit in adopting these
   technologies, whether potentially Japan has adopted too many technologies that have
   distanced them from the real world. Japan’s over abundance of deep-rooted social problems
   could be put down to the over adoption of technology. But this is for another paper.
   39 comScore, Mobile web users nearly equal PC based internet users in Japan, Published Online,

   <http://www.comscore.com/Press_Events/Press_Releases/2007/node_1285/
   Japan_Mobile_Phone_Usage>
   40 Billich, C., Future Insight: Mobile commerce in Japan, Infinita,

   <http://www.slideshare.net/cbillich/future-insight-mobile-commerce-in-japan>
   41 Fujita, A., Mobile Marketing in Japan: The Acceleration of Integrated Marketing Communications,

   Journal of Integrated Marketing Communications, 2008


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11.1 Case Study – AXE ‘Laser’




                                     Fig.33 AXE ‘Laser’ Campaign

    To introduce AXE (Lynx in the UK) to Japan, Bascule Tokyo created a very intriguing
    campaign. They needed to introduce the AXE cult advertising that has become so strong in
    the western world. The animal attraction of women to men who wear AXE needed to be
    understood.

    A competition was set up for photographs of public demonstrations of the AXE effect.
    There was a one million yen prize42 for the winner who could take the most appropriate
    photo of the AXE effect. Lasers pointers and branded arrows were given out to highlight the
    AXE effect in the photo. People all over Japan snapped photos of unsuspecting couples with
    laser pointers or signs advertising the AXE effect. This won the Cyber Lions Gold award at
    Cannes in 2008.

    This is not a solely mobile campaign, although the vast majority of images were taken by
    mobile phones. What it did was take the campaigns into everyone’s lives. People not only
    took photos, but also watched others point lasers and shoot, and some even found that they
    themselves had been captured in a photo. The mobile aspects of this are clear. It was
    engaging and encouraged consumers to go out and look at their life in relation to the brand.
    The brand became mobilized.

    The campaign had no sale or generation of anything but engagement. It provided a game in
    reality that took on technology. It spoke to the key market and was spread via word of
    mouth due to recommendations. It was purely analogue communication as everyone
    interpreted the brief and the effect differently. The campaign put the brand image into the
    hands of the consumers. The consumers were given the ability to write their own brand
    experience and spread that.




    42   £6,957 as of 29th September 2009


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11.2 Case Study – Tohato ‘Tyrant Habanero’ vs. ‘Satan Jorquia’




                                    Fig.31 Tohato Campaign Logo
                         Fig.32 QR codes on the back of Tohato crisp packets

     In 2007, Japanese advertising agency Hakuhodo, created a very innovative campaign for spicy
     crisp brand ‘Tohato’. They created two different characters and two different packets of
     crisps. The consumer chose which ‘General’ they would serve under by choosing one of the
     packets of crisps. On the packets were QR codes that when photographed took the
     consumer to the online start up page. This led each user to personalize characters with
     which they fight for their general. Huge armies battled across fantastical worlds every day at
     4am.

     The more people you enlist into your army, the more powerful you become in the world. It
     capitalizes off the word of mouth element that is key to mobile marketing. It spread like
     wild fire all over Japan and has since won the coveted yellow pencil at the D&AD awards in
     2008, where mobile marketing was recognized as a valid new media for the first time.

     This campaign is another example of analogue communication via digital mobile technology.
     The consumer is enticed into buying the product only once, to initiate the game. From then
     on there is no need for customers to come back to the product. The game gives people a
     reason to talk, play and even argue. The consumer grows to feel a certain identity with the
     brand. By taking a 4am slot in every consumer’s life, they grow to depend on Tohato for
     entertainment.

     The communication is in the respect of human communication, a joke. A joke that entertains
     and one that on hearing it you want to tell it to someone else. It cannot be much further
     from the typical ‘push’ model of advertising as it pushes no message to the consumer rather
     than that the brand enjoys fun and understands the need for their consumers to have an
     online identity. Tohato are giving their clients media to play with, spread and gain
     identification through.

     A Tohato digitally communicative campaign would have a proposition for the benefits of
     Tohato over other crisp brands. This campaign, explained above, realizes modern consumers
     desire for more human techniques of communication.




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12. Conclusion
   Mobiles phones are the blind man’s cane, through which people can explore their own
   experience of brands, in clear relation to their immediate reality. Phones will develop to fulfil
   more of the functions pointed out in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. They are quickly
   becoming the ‘black box’ that fulfils any needs. Their ubiquity will become absolute – until
   and unless the technology becomes sub-coetaneous, embedded within the body itself.

   In Don Johnson’s comparison of digital and analogue technologies, he summarizes the
   benefits of digital as ‘efficiency, performance and flexibility’43. This is why the future is digital
   in the sense of digital technologies, but in this paper I have highlighted the opposite effect
   happening to communication techniques.

   Before Smartphones, marketing communications on mobile devices can be termed as using
   digital communication techniques. They were one-directional and use nothing more than
   selling propositions that speak directly to the consumer. Mobile communications
   technologies explained in this paper like Apps, Augmented Reality, Quick Response Codes
   and Location Based Services all develop the ability for marketing techniques to speak more
   humanly, relevantly and emotively to consumers. This is analogue communication. They also
   encourage more inter peer communication. While technology is constantly moving more
   digital, our communication techniques are becoming more analogue.

   Mobile phone developments are increasing connectivity. People are not only connected to
   each other every hour of the day, they are also connected to brands every hour of the day.
   Marketers need to be aware of this. Mobile campaigns that connect people via branded,
   relevant, content will succeed and built brand relationships that will last beyond new
   products or cheap offers.


           And then everything changed…
           …and it changed forever.
           Everything came to us in a device that fit into a pocket.
           We went back out into the world.
           We listened to what we loved, when we liked.
           We played when we wanted, where we chose.
           We shared what inspired us with everyone we cared about.
           We carried our sense of purpose with us.
           We discovered new people, places and experiences.
           And our sense of purpose kept growing.
           It was the end of something.
           It was the beginning of everything.
           Welcome to the fourth screen.




   43Johnson, D., Comparison of Analog and Digital Communication, Published Online,
   Connexions, June 3 2007


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13. Epilogue
   4G and the fifth screen - where we might be headed

   I want to add in a few words about where I believe the future to be heading in a completely
   speculative way. I understand that by no means can these things be forecast with any degree
   of accuracy, particularly in the times we are living in, where the rate of developments in
   technology seem to be accelerating at exponential rates. But I wanted to try!

   I believe…

        •   4G phones will become less of a communication device, and more of a device that
            connects everyone to everything. It will be everything that we carry on us; wallet,
            clock, key, ID and more than we can predict.

        •   More interactive gaming will take games and brands into closer relationships. Adver-
            gaming will continue to develop and advertising will grow into fully-fledged
            experiences. This will merge with the physical world and everything that we do44.
            Brands will buy our time and loyalty through providing entertainment of the highest
            quality. This has always happened, but the entertainment is changing, not the need to
            be entertained, only the media.

        •   Targeting/relevancy through collation and use of data as consumers will be enabled
            and will allow advertising to be more ‘polite’ and actually better lives through
            expanding areas of interest for people, not narrowing interests. Personal habitual
            data collation will be highly contested, but will be tightly regulated and will force
            brands to speak to, and listen to individuals.

        •   Augmented Reality and Haptic screens45 will allow the screen to become more
            related to the physical world we live in. This will then lead to the screen entering
            our lives for good. This could happen via digital glasses46, contact lenses47, projectors
            and sensors on our bodies48, or interactive screens as materials49. Whichever of
            these technologies becomes dominant, will be the fifth screen. The fifth screen will
            be seen over our current world. We will live through the screen.




   44 HP – Roku’s Reward <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BUOHfVXkUaI>
   45 Interactive Touchable Screens e.g. Panasonic Interactive TV wall -
   <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P8GriGd6vdU>
   46 Inbar, O., Vuzix Wrap920 will see the light of day in 2009 but will not see through,

   GamesAlFresco <http://gamesalfresco.com/2009/09/30/vuzix-wrap920-will-see-the-light-of-
   day-in-2009-but-will-not-see-thru/>
   47 Hickey, H., Bionic Eyes, University Week

   <http://uwnews.org/uweek/uweekarticle.asp?articleID=39100> Jan 17th 2008
   48 Pattie Maes and Pranav Mistry demo Sixth Sense – TED talks

   <http://www.ted.com/talks/pattie_maes_demos_the_sixth_sense.html>
   49 Yakob, F., The Future is Haptic, Talent Imitates Genius steals,

   <http://farisyakob.typepad.com/blog/2009/03/the-future-is-haptic.html>


                                                 - 35 -
How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing?




14. Account of Sources
   The vast majority of my research has come from web-based sources. I have found in my
   research that the majority of books or papers written about the subject have very quickly
   become outdated and thus irrelevant unless looking at the long view. The subject is such a
   fast moving one that the only sources that were current and fully informed were selected
   opinions on the Internet or those of professionals in the industry.




                                             - 36 -
How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing?




14.1 Bibliography

    Anderson, C., The Long Tail: How endless Choice is Creating Unlimited Demand, Random House
    Business Books, London, 2006

    Anderson, C., Free: The Future of a Radical Price, Hyperion, London, 2009

    Dawkins, R., The Selfish Gene, Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1976

    Department for Business, Innovation and Skills & Department for Culture, Media and Sport,
    Digital Britain Final Report, TSO, London, 2009

    Earls, M., Welcome to the Creative Age – Bananas, Business and the Death of Marketing, John
    Wiley, London, 2002

    Engleberg, I., Working in Groups: Communication Principles and Strategies, Houghton Mifflin
    Company, 2006. p. 133

    Heidegger, M., The Question Concerning Technology, Harper Collins, New York, 1993

    Ito, M. & Okabe, D. & Matsuda, M., Personal, Portable, Pedestrian: Mobile Phones in Japanese
    Life, The MIT Press, Tokyo, London and New York, 2005

    Jenkins, H., Convergence Culture; Where Old and New Media Collide, New York University
    Press, New York and London, 2006

    Pullman, P., The Subtle Knife, Scholastic Point, London, 1997

    Pursell, C., White Heat: People and Technology, University of California Press, California and
    London, 1994

    Springer, P., Ads to Icons: How Advertising Succeeds in a Multimedia Age, Kogan Page Limited,
    London and Philadelphia, 2007

    Watzlawick, P. & Helmick Beavin, J. & Jackson, D., Pragmatics of human communication, W.W.
    Norton, California, 1967




                                                 - 37 -
How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing?




14.2 Newspapers, Reports, Articles, Magazines and Journals

    Ahonen, T., Tomi Ahonen Almanac 2009: Mobile Telecoms Industry Review, Published Online,
    2009

    Bainbridge, L., ‘Apps’, the coolest new craze, are changing the way we work and play, The
    Observer, 12th April 09

    Booz & Co. Stockholm/Berlin/Vienna/Munich, The March of Mobile Marketing: New Chances for
    Consumer Companies, New Opportunities for Mobile Operators, Journal of Advertising Research,
    Vol. 49, No. 1, March 2009

    Cerf, V., Digital Viewpoint: Father of the Internet, Campaign Magazine, 25th April 2008

    Enders Analysis, UK Mobile User Survey 2009: iPhones femtocells, predators and the recession,
    Published Online, July 2009

    Fujita, A., Mobile Marketing in Japan: The Acceleration of Integrated Marketing Communications,
    Journal of Integrated Marketing Communications, 2008

    Harper, R., People Vs. Information: the evolution of mobile technology, The Digital World
    Research Centre, University of Surrey England, Published Online,

    Internet Advertising Bureau, IAB Platform Status Report: A Mobile Advertising Overview, IAB, July
    2008

    Johnson, D., Comparison of Analog and Digital Communication, Published Online, Connexions,
    June 3 2007

    Judge, E., Mobile phone users fail to get in tune with TV on the move, The Times,
    <http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/media/article6108334.ece>,
    17th April 2009

    Kakektsis, M., Professional Investor: Mobile Phone Advertising: the next big thing, The
    Independent,      <http://www.independent.co.uk/money/spend-save/professional-investor-
    mobile-phone-advertising-the-next-big-thing-464529.html>, 22nd September 2007

    Laszlo, J. & IAB advertising Committee, The New Unwired World: An IAB Status Report on
    Mobile Advertising, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 49, No. 1, March 2009, pp. 27-43

    Lee, Y., Mobile Advertising Market in Japan – Latest Developments and Market Forecast 2009 –
    2015, Research on Asia Group, Published Online, June 2009

    Levine, J., Turning the Page, Time Magazine, 2nd March 09

    McQueen, D. & Byrne, G. & Kamal-Saadi, M., Media Operating Systems: The impact of open
    source and importance of user experience, Informa Telecoms and Media, May 2009

    Morning, S., Travelling Without Moving: The Digital Consumer, Published Online, March 2007

    Munford,    M.,    The     mobile   playground   is  now     open,    The      Guardian,
    <http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2009/may/21/mobile-games-industry>, 21st May 2009




                                                  - 38 -
How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing?




Nielson, The Global Online Media Landscape: Identifying Opportunities in a Challenging Market,
Nielson, 2009

Nielson Mobile, Critical Mass: The Worldwide State of the Mobile Web, Nielson, July 2008

Okazaki, S., The Tactical Use of Mobile Marketing: How Adolescents’ Social Networking Can Best
Shape Brand Extensions, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 49, No. 1, March 2009, pp. 12-
26

Ogilvy and Acision, White Paper: Mobile Advertising 2020 Vision, Published Online, August
2009

Pettit, R., From Politics to Marketing: An Emotional Framework for Advertising, Journal of
Advertising Research, Vol. 49, No. 1, March 2009, pp. 10-11

Precourt, G., The Promise of Mobile, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 49, No. 1, March
2009, pp. 1-2

Sheridan, B., A Trillion Pounds of Data, Newsweek, 9th March 2009

Smyth, T., What’s Next For Mobile? Millward Brown Points of View, July 2009

Wray, R., Bond style wrist watch phone joins gizmo assault on Apple, The Guardian,
<http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2009/feb/17/smartphones-mobile-world-congress-
barcelona>, 17th February 2009

Wray, R., UK mobile phone firms to sell data about customer activity, The Guardian,
<http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2009/feb/16/mobile-phone-internet-advertising>, 16th
February 2009

Wray, R., Smartphones are go – and everyone is calling in for a piece of the action, The
Observer,   <http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2009/feb/22/mobile-phone-technology-
smartphones>, 22nd February 2009

Yakob, F., The Future of Brands: I believe the children are our future, Published Online,
November 2007

Yakob, F., Digital Viewpoints: The Invisible Web, Campaign Magazine, 17th October 2008




                                             - 39 -
How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing?




14.3 Webography

    Websites

    AdAge <http://adage.com>

    Apple Inc. <http://www.apple.com/>

    Baekdal <http://www.baekdal.com>

    Boards Magazine Online <http://www.boardsmag.com/>

    Campaign Magazine <http://www.campaignlive.co.uk/>

    CNet Asia <http://asia.cnet.com/>

    comScore <http://www.comscore.com/>

    Contagious Magazine Online <http://www.contagiousmagazine.com/>

    Convergence Culture Online <http://www.convergenceculture.org/>

    Culture Buzz <http://www.culture-buzz.com/>

    Demo <http://www.demo.com/>

    Digital Trends <http://www.digitaltrends.com/>

    Direct Marketing Association <http://www.the-dma.org/index.php>

    Guardian Online <http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology>

    GraphicoDMG < http://www.graphicodmg.co.uk/>

    Institute Practitioners of Advertising <http://www.ipa.co.uk/NewsList.aspx?type=Latest>

    Interactive Advertising Bureau <http://www.iab.net/>

    Into Mobile <http://www.intomobile.com/>

    Mashable <http://mashable.com/>

    Mobi Ad News <http://www.mobiadnews.com/index.php>

    Mobile Active <http://mobileactive.org/>

    Mobile in Japan <http://www.mobileinjapan.com/>

    Mobile Marketing Association <http://www.mmaglobal.com/main>

    Mobile Marketing Forum <http://www.mobilemarketingforum.com/>

    Mobile Marketing Watch <http://www.mobilemarketingwatch.com/>

    Mobile Media Japan <http://www.mobilemediajapan.com/>


                                               - 40 -
How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing?




Mobile Monday <http://www.mobilemonday.net/>

New Media, Marketing & Advertising Magazine <http://www.nma.co.uk/>

Open Advertising Online <http://www.openad.net/>

Search Engine Land <http://searchengineland.com/#selogo>

TED Talks <http://www.ted.com/>

Times Online <http://technology.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/tech_and_web/>

ThinkBox <http://www.thinkbox.tv/>

UK Tribes <http://www.uktribes.com/>

Wikipedia < http://www.wikipedia.org/>

Wired Magazine <http://www.wired.com/>

Wireless Watch Japan <http://wirelesswatch.jp/>



(All referred to multiple times throughout July to September)




                                           - 41 -
How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing?




Blogs

3G 4G <http://3g4g.blogspot.com/2008_09_01_archive.html>

Ad Freak <http://adweek.blogs.com/adfreak/>

Ad Space Pioneers <http://adspace-pioneers.blogspot.com/>

Ad Tech Blog <http://www.adtechblog.com/>

Ads of the World <http://adsoftheworld.com/>

Adver Lab <http://adverlab.blogspot.com/>

Ad Week Media <http://www.adweekmedia.com/aw/custom-reports/index.jsp>

Ana Anjelic <http://anaandjelic.typepad.com/>

Analytic 1st <http://analytica1st.com/analytica1st/index.html>

Bad Science <http://www.badscience.net/>

Buzz Machine <http://www.buzzmachine.com/>

Buzz Mobile Marketing <http://www.buzzmobilemarketing.com/home.html>

Cell Phone Advertising <http://www.cellphone-advertising.com/>

Charles Frith <http://www.charlesfrith.com/>

CST Advertising <http://www.cstadvertising.com/blog/>

Dan Burgess <http://danburgess.typepad.com/tap_tap/>

Digi Native <http://diginative.blogspot.com/>

E Marketer <http://www.emarketer.com/Welcome.aspx>

Euro Technology <http://eurotechnology.com/store/jcomm/index.shtml>

Games Al Fresco <http://gamesalfresco.com/>

Henry Jenkins <http://www.henryjenkins.org/>

Herd <http://herd.typepad.com/herd_the_hidden_truth_abo/>

I Loop Mobile <http://iloopmobile.com/blog/>

Interactive Marketing Trends <http://interactivemarketingtrends.blogspot.com/>

Internet Marketing Genie <http://www.theinternetmarketinggenie.com/>

I Watch Stuff <http://www.iwatchstuff.com/advertise/>

Jan Chipcase <http://www.janchipchase.com/>


                                             - 42 -
How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing?




Lab 77 <http://lab.77agency.com/>

Lewis Hyde <http://www.lewishyde.com/>

Mayo Lounge <http://mayolounge.blogspot.com/>

Media Futurist <http://www.mediafuturist.com/about.html>

Meme Huffer <http://memehuffer.typepad.com/>

Misentropy <http://www.misentropy.com>

Mobile Alley <http://mobilealley.wordpress.com/>

Mobile Cruch <http://www.mobilecrunch.com/>

Mobile Data Association <http://www.themda.org/index.php>

Mobile Marketing <http://m.obilemarketing.com/>

Mobile Marketing Ads <http://mobilemarketingads.blogspot.com/>

Mobile Marketing Masters <http://www.mobilemarketingmasters.com/>

Mobile Marketing ROI <http://mobile-marketing-roi.adreka.com/mobile.phtml>

Mobile Weblog <http://www.mobile-weblog.com/>

Mutant Frog <http://www.mutantfrog.com/>

Nicola Davies <http://nicspic2608.wordpress.com/>

O Alquimista <http://www.oalquimista.com/>

QR Code Kaywa <http://qrcode.kaywa.com/>

Ramzi Yakob <http://ramziyakob.blogspot.com/>

Real Meme <http://www.realmeme.com/Main/>

Rick Haslam <http://livinginadigitalworld.com/>

Russell Davies <http://russelldavies.typepad.com/>

Sandeep Makam <http://sandeepmakam.blogspot.com/>

Scamp <http://scampblog.blogspot.com/>

Textually <http://www.textually.org/>

Tim Berners Lee <http://dig.csail.mit.edu/breadcrumbs/blog/4>

What Japan Thinks <http://whatjapanthinks.com/>



                                           - 43 -
How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing?




Web 20 Asia <http://www.web20asia.com/>

We Love Mobile <http://welovemobile.co.uk/index.html>



(All referred to multiple times throughout July to September)




                                           - 44 -
How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing?




Slide Share Presentations

Ando, R., Location Based Mobile Ad: A Lesson from Japan, Cirius Technologies,
<http://www.slideshare.net/ren_cirius/locationbased-mobile-ad-a-lesson-from-japan-
presentation>

Beckstrom, B., Mobile Marketing Trends 2009, Apollo Bravo,
<http://www.slideshare.net/m2bradb/mobile-marketing-trends-2009>

Billich, C., Future Insight: Mobile commerce in Japan, Infinita,
<http://www.slideshare.net/cbillich/future-insight-mobile-commerce-in-japan>

Cosser, S., Mobile Search, Media Vision, <http://www.slideshare.net/SandyCosser/mobile-
search-presentation>

Fernandes, J., A View on Mobile Marketing, AdLab,
<http://www.slideshare.net/joaotfernandes/aviewonmobilemarketing>

Friis, J., Mobile Marketing – now and in the future, Responsfabrikken,
<http://www.slideshare.net/jensfriis/mobile-marketing-now-and-in-the-future>

Grigsby, J., Native vs. Web vs. Hybrid: Mobile Development Choices,
<http://www.slideshare.net/grigs/native-vs-web-vs-hybrid-mobile-development-choices>

Joffe, B., Mobile and Web innovation in China, Plus Eight Star
<http://www.slideshare.net/plus8star/mobile-and-web-innovation-in-china>

Metzger, M., Mobile Future 2020, Ahead of Time,
<http://www.slideshare.net/montymetzger/mobile-future-2020>

Ogilvy, Mobile Advertising 2020 Vision, <http://www.slideshare.net/guest240766/mobile-
advertising-2020-vision>

Pankraz, D., The New Marketing Landscape, Clemenger BBDO Sydney,
<http://www.slideshare.net/guest7e5b6a/the-new-marketing-landscape-by-dan-pankraz-
presentation>

Sen, S., Mobile Phone Trends2008 – 2010, Infibeam,
<http://www.slideshare.net/infibeam/mobile-phone-trend-2008-2010>

Wilson, J., Adma Mobile Marketing (and More) June 2009, The Project Factory,
<http://www.slideshare.net/JenWilson/adma-mobile-marketing-and-more-june-
2009?src=related_normal&rel=1532006>

(All referred to multiple times throughout August and September)




                                           - 45 -
How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing?




14.4 Interviews

    Berg, Kristin, Wunderman, Head of Digital, ongoing discussions in September 2009

    Christie, Oli, Inbox DMG, Creative Director, ongoing discussions in April 2009

    Davies, Nicola, Abbott Mead Vickers BBDO, Digital Planner, ongoing discussions in
    September 2009

    Eldridge, Andrew, Inbox DMG, Web Designer/Digital Creative, ongoing discussions in April
    2009

    Manveille, Tim, RAPP, Digital/Data Strategist, ongoing discussions in July 2009

    Moss, Paul, Archibald Ingall Stretton, Head of Data Planning, ongoing discussions in August
    2009

    Rolt, Will, Archibald Ingall Stretton, Head of New Business, ongoing discussions in August
    2009

    Runnacles, Martin, Ultegra Management Consulting, MD, ongoing discussions in July 2009

    White, Tom, Abbott Mead Vickers BBDO, Senior Planner, ongoing discussions in September
    2009

    Wiliffer, Matt, nDreams, Partner, ongoing discussions in August 2009




                                                - 46 -
How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing?




14.5 Placements

    14th – 25th September 2009
    Abbott Mead Vickers BBDO
    151 Marylebone Road,
    London
    NW1 5QE

    3rd – 28th August 2009
    Archibald Ingall Stretton
    Berners House,
    47-48 Berners Street,
    London
    W1T 3NF

    15th – 26th June 2009
    Fallon London
    Elsley Court,
    20-22 Great Titchfield Street,
    London,
    W1W 8BE

    6th – 17th April 2009
    Inbox DMG
    Vicarage Court,
    160 Ermin Street,
    Swindon,
    Wilts
    SN3 4NE




                                     - 47 -
How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing?




14.6 Correspondence

    Blume, David, OBE
    Managing Director
    Jaguar Land Rover
    Tokyo
    Japan

    Kerwin, Robert W.
    Chariman
    Dentsu Young & Rubicam Inc.
    Tokyo
    Japan




                                  - 48 -
How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing?




14.7 Picture Sources

    Fig.1    The Opte Project’s first full map of the Internet – Opte -
             <http://www.opte.org/maps/>

    Fig.2    Gartner Hype Cycle, <http://www.gartner.com/technology/home.jsp>

    Fig.3    The Bi-Modal Consumer and the Generational Chasm, IBM Institute for Business
             Value <http://www-935.ibm.com/services/us/index.wss/ibvstudy/imc/a1
             023172?cntxt=a1000062&re=endoftv>

    Fig.4    Gartner Hype Cycle 2009, <http://www.gartner.com/technology/home.jsp>

    Fig.5    Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, K&J Investigations & Management,
             <http://kandjinvestigations.com/blog/2009/07/23/reevaluting-maslows-pyramid-the-
             funnel-effect/>

    Fig.6    Classic Consumer Adoption Process, Strategic Marketing and Research Techniques,
             SMART, <http://www.s-m-a-r-t.com/SMARTForecasting.htm>

    Fig.7    Possible future roles of a mobile phone – Slide Share -
             <http://www.slideshare.net/joaotfernandes/aviewonmobilemarketing>

    Fig.8    The Subtle Knife by Philip Pullman – Wikipedia –
             <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Subtle_Knife>

    Fig.9    Nokia N900 - <http://www.nokiamobiletalk.com/2009/09/nokia-n900-evolution-
             nw09/>

    Fig.10   Apple Tablet as imagined by Tommaso Gecchelin -
             <http://www.yankodesign.com/2009/04/29/macbook-touch-maybe-just-maybe/>

    Fig.11   Sarah Morning’s Essay Travelling without moving: The digital consumer,
             <http://farisyakob.typepad.com/Digitourists_and_Digitravellers.pdf>

    Fig.12   The strong advantages of mobile over other media - Booz & Co.
             Stockholm/Berlin/Vienna/Munich, The March of Mobile Marketing: New Chances for
             Consumer Companies, New Opportunities for Mobile Operators, Journal of Advertising
             Research, Vol. 49, No. 1, March 2009

    Fig.13   Kmart Protégé ads on the New York Subway – The Fashion Examiner -
             <http://thefashionexaminer.blogspot.com/2009/03/protege-affordable-sneakers-by-
             knicks.html>

    Fig.14   Kmart Protégé ads on the New York Subway – Brand Anthropologist -
             <http://www.yamoms.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/alprotege.gif >

    Fig.15   iTunes App Store – Apple Inc. -
             <http://www.apple.com/hk/en/itunes/whatson/appstore.html>

    Fig.16   Barclaycard Waterslide Extreme iPhone Game – Dare Digital -
             <http://www.daredigital.com/work/mobile/iPhone/Barclaycard/Waterslide/index.html>

    Fig.17   Adidas Urban Art Guide – iPhonic -
             <http://www.iphonic.tv/2009/05/adidas_creates_free_guide_to_b.html>


                                                 - 49 -
How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing?




Fig.18   Adidas Urban Art Guide – Blogo Pub -
         <http://blogopub.tv/adidas+iphone+application>

Fig.19   Blyk Logo – Dutch Cowboys -
         <http://www.dutchcowboys.nl/images/upload/logo_blyk.jpg>

Fig.20   The effectiveness of Word Of Mouth in marketing, Fujita, A., Mobile Marketing in Japan:
         The Acceleration of Integrated Marketing Communications, Journal of Integrated Marketing
         Communications, 2008

Fig.21   Digital and analogue Clocks – Author’s own

Fig.22   Portrait of Paul Watzlawick – Danto Cumnicacion -
         <http://cricelli.files.wordpress.com/2009/07/ba_bit_watzlawick.jpg>

Fig.23   Tokyo Disney QR Campaign – The Bindery Blog -
         <http://thebinderyblog.com/2009/09/10/qr-code-technology/>

Fig.24   A typical QR code – The Next Web - <http://thenextweb.com/2008/03/14/japanese-
         magazine-filled-with-only-qr-codes/>

Fig.25   Pepsi Kicks QR Campaign – Graphico DMG -
         <http://www.graphicodmg.co.uk/CaseStudy.aspx?cid=80>

Fig.26   Pepsi Kicks QR Campaign – Ferlips - <http://ferlips.files.wordpress.com/2009/05/pepsi-
         kick-qr-code.jpg>

Fig.27   Augmented Reality – Geotagging examples – Crystalinks -
         <http://www.crystalinks.com/augmentedreality.jpg>

Fig.28   Augmented Reality – Geotagging examples – AdLab -
         <http://adverlab.blogspot.com/2008/11/future-now-reality-augmented-through.html>

Fig.29   Oasis’ RubberDuckZilla Augmented Reality game – Poke London -
         <http://www.pokelondon.com/images/RubberDuckZillaWebcam03.jpg>

Fig.30   Foursquare logo <http://www.cashflowec.com/images1/foursquare.png>

Fig.31   Tohato Campaign Logo – Wikinomics -
         <http://www.wikinomics.com/blog/index.php/tag/advertising/>

Fig.32   QR codes on the back of Tohato crisp packets – Mobi Ad News -
         <http://www.mobiadnews.com/?p=2954>

Fig.33   Axe ‘Laser’ Campaign – Coloribus - <http://www.coloribus.com/adsarchive/prints/axe-
         axe-laser-202132/>




                                            - 50 -

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Mobile Marketing

  • 1. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? Richard Galt MA Creative Advertising October 2009
  • 2. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? Bucks New University Faculty of Creativity and Culture Title: How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? By Richard Galt MA Creative Advertising Tutor: Reg Winfield Submitted: October 2009 Word Count: 8,283 Module number: ADM02 Cover Image Fig.1 The Opte Project’s first full map of the Internet -2-
  • 3. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? Acknowledgements I would like to thank my tutor, Reg, for reading through this many times. I would also like to thank Martin Runnacles, who has taught me a lot throughout the year. Thanks also to Bob Udale, Tom White, Oli Christie and Gareth Goodall for the invaluable placements and insights that gave me the knowledge to write this. Thanks lastly but by no means least to my brother, Tom Galt, for his editing, ideas and teaching me how to finally use Word properly. -3-
  • 4. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? Index Index 4 1. Prologue 5 2. Introduction 6 3. Mobile futures 7 4. What is a phone? 10 4.1 Mobile phones fulfilling needs 10 4.2 The blind man’s cane 12 5. What are the functions of a phone in modern life? 14 5.1 What people are doing with them now 14 5.2 How media consumption behaviours are changing 16 6. The origins of mobile marketing – SMS and 2G 17 7. So what’s happening in the UK now? 18 7.1 3G 18 7.2 Mobile Web Browsing 19 7.3 App Store 20 7.4 Games 21 7.5 Tools 22 7.6 Freemium 23 8. The Power of mobile Word of Mouth 24 9. Digital vs. Analogue 26 10. What do we already know is next? 28 10.1 Quick Response Codes 28 10.2 Augmented Reality: Making life interactive 29 10.3 Location based Services 30 11. Japan 31 11.1 Case Study – AXE ‘Laser’ 32 11.2 Case Study – Tohato ‘Tyrant Habanero’ vs. ‘Satan Jorquia’ 33 12. Conclusion 34 13. Epilogue 35 14. Account of Sources 36 14.1 Bibliography 37 14.2 Newspapers, Reports, Articles, Magazines and Journals 38 14.3 Webography 40 14.4 Interviews 46 14.5 Placements 47 14.6 Correspondence 48 14.7 Picture Sources 49 -4-
  • 5. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? 1. Prologue In the beginning was a screen. Millions of us came together in a public place. To understand the present. To see visions of the Future. Sharing emotions. Sharing experiences… …that shaped our lives. Then there was a second screen. It connected us to our world. And even to other worlds. It gave us amazing new games to play. It made us think and got us talking. But although it was a world we could all share, …the experience itself was becoming private. Then came a third screen. It changed the way we worked and played. It became a part of something much bigger. The Internet. And a revolution happened. We could play new games in new ways. Find new music in new places. New communities, new kinds of communities emerged. But the experience had become individual, …even solitary. The sense of community felt real, …but it was virtual. And then everything changed… …and it changed forever. Everything came to us in a device that fit into a pocket. We went back out into the world. We listened to what we loved, when we liked. We played when we wanted, where we chose. We shared what inspired us with everyone we cared about. We carried our sense of purpose with us. We discovered new people, places and experiences. And our sense of purpose kept growing. It was the end of something. It was the beginning of everything. Welcome to the fourth screen. Nokia NSeries1 1 Inspiration: Nokia – The Fourth Screen <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5V-2qQS3NY0> -5-
  • 6. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? 2. Introduction The prologue is the dialogue from a Nokia NSeries video released on YouTube. It emotively expresses the fast paced development of the ‘Screen’ in our society. It points out the affects that screens have on our lives. It also points out the coming of the ‘fourth screen’. In case you hadn’t guessed it the first screen was the Cinema, second the TV, thirdly the Computer and finally, the ‘fourth screen’ is the Mobile. In this paper I dissect the cultural implications of the mobile phone in UK society and look at why we rely so much off it. I show how Mobile Marketing has emerged and where it is going now. I showcase examples of the most innovative uses of Mobile Marketing to engage customers in their surroundings in targeted, relevant and engaging communications. I analyse these technologies, and suggest their implications. I explain the use of Word of Mouth in advertising and show how it is used more effectively in mobile than any other media. I explain the differences between digital and analogue communication and show how analogue communication is the key to advertising success. I briefly look to Japan to show how the pinnacle of mobile technology and mobile marketing are a long way from reached in the UK using examples. I conclude that Mobiles will become the fourth screen that will bridge the gap between the currently vastly separate worlds of digital and physical. There is a mobile phone for one out of every two people globally2. In the UK there are soon going to be two phones for every person3. There is no doubting that the ubiquity of the mobile screen will surpass that of the previous screens. 2 Ahonen, T., Tomi Ahonen Almanac 2009: Mobile Telecoms Industry Review, Published Online, 2009 3 Telegraph Online <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/news/3949050/Average-person- will-soon-have-two-mobile-phones.html> -6-
  • 7. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? 3. Mobile futures To what extent are our futures mobile? Mobile phones have become such a ubiquitous part of our life that it is easy to overlook their potential to continue to develop the way we communicate and consume media. Many marketers have predicted 2009 to be the year of ‘Mobile’. This is because we are starting to see huge shifts from mobiles being a tool to communicate, to the all-encompassing tool that covers all our human needs. Technology is shifting from linear functioned, to the ‘Black Box’ that does everything we can think of4. Amara’s Law states ‘We tend to overestimate the effect of a technology in the short run and underestimate the effect in the long run.’ In the terms of Mobile Phones this can be translated to state that the best is yet to come in terms of developments that truly affect the way people communicate. Every year Gartner produce a ‘Hype Cycle’ showing the emergence of technologies. Fig.2 Gartner Hype Cycle Gartner’s model implies a sharp increase in ‘Hype’ around emerging technologies in the first stage of the five, characterized by what Gartner terms the ‘technology trigger’. This stage marks the moment when so-called early adopters embrace the technology. I will later show you why Smartphones have progressed past this position, ready for mainstream society. 4Jenkins, H., Convergence Culture; Where Old and New Media Collide, New York University Press, New York and London, 2006, pp. 14-16 -7-
  • 8. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? Fig.3 The Bi-Modal Consumer and the Generational Chasm If the technology is successful enough it breaks into mainstream society and becomes adopted by what is sometimes called the ‘Passive Massive’ (see diagram). This results in a ‘peak of inflated expectations’. This is where the publicity generates a frenzy of over- enthusiasm and unrealistic expectations on the part of the late-adopters who expect the technology to affect their lives more than it realistically can. This, in turn, then leads to a ‘trough of disillusionment’ – the frenzy has left people feeling unimpressed by the effect they were promised on their lives. The following ‘slope of enlightenment’ slowly shows how, with the benefit of hindsight and experience, the effects that were actually real (without the hype), allowing the new technology to proceed and develop its full potential through what Gartner terms a ‘plateau of productivity’. The last two stages represent the period in which a new technology actually gains widespread acceptance and its effects become embedded in society. To enable this transition, new technologies must also learn to adapt themselves in reciprocal fashion to people’s lives. Very often we are slow to recognise the ways in which these new technologies truly change the way we live. -8-
  • 9. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? Fig.4 Gartner Hype Cycle 2009 As we can see, the Hype Cycle has more advanced technologies than a mobile phone. The mobile phone, however, is more advanced in terms of integration into society. This means it has gone off the end of the cycle. It is now what can be done on the phone that will be on the cycle (e.g. Augmented Reality explained later), as mobile phones have become just another platform for tasks to be solved with. To understand quite how much mobiles are affecting society now, we need to understand what a mobile phone has come to stand for in our every day lives. -9-
  • 10. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? 4. What is a phone? 92% of teens and young adults in Japan view a message as soon as they receive it.5 4.1 Mobile phones fulfilling needs Studies into what people carry with them show that the three global essential items that someone will not leave the house without are money, keys and mobile phone6. The question is why have we come to depend on this small plastic package that allows us to talk to each other, more than clothes on our backs? Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs, famously dissects our dependencies. The lowest levels are those that represent physiological needs, and the higher levels are focused around personal growth. It is a hierarchy because Maslow states that only once the base physiological needs are met, can the higher self-actualization needs come into effect. For example, when a businessman finds out that he has cancer, he immediately focuses on regaining his health (physiological) rather than his job (self-actualization). Therefore the bottom levels are given the height of importance. Fig.5 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Jan Chipcase is a Researcher for Nokia in Tokyo who has travelled all over the world analysing the use of mobile phones in different societies. He stated in his TED talk in 2008, 5 Ito, M. & Okabe, D. & Matsuda, M., Personal, Portable, Pedestrian: Mobile Phones in Japanese Life, The MIT Press, Tokyo, London and New York, 2005 6 Chipcase, J., Why we love Mobile Phones, TED Talks <http://www.ted.com/talks/jan_chipchase_on_our_mobile_phones.html> - 10 -
  • 11. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? that mobile phones have become such a part of our society because they cover the two base levels of Maslow’s hierarchy, and parts of the third.7 A recent immersion study conducted by Millward Brown across seven sub-Saharan African countries demonstrated the intimate, “always-on” nature of mobile phones. On average, respondents interacted with (that is, used, touched, looked at or looked for) their phones 82 times per day. The activity engaged in next most frequently – just 37 times each day – was the act of female subjects touching their hair.8 Mobile phones have become a lifeline, upon which we rely to meet our most basic physiological needs; finding restaurants, hotels and all general amenities we survive off, when out of our comfort zones. We also rely on mobile phones for the next level of Maslow’s Hierarchy, in that we rely on them to provide safety not only in a crisis, but to exist in current society by staying in contact with work, family and in touch with the wider world around us. The relevance of the third level is obvious in relation to the mobile phone. Without a mobile phone in modern society we are cut off from friendship, family and sexual intimacy in the way that the rest of society works. Fig.6 Possible future roles of a mobile phone 7 Chipcase, J., Why we love Mobiles Phones, TED talks <http://www.ted.com/talks/jan_chipchase_on_our_mobile_phones.html> 8 Smyth, T., What’s Next For Mobile? Millward Brown Points of View, July 2009 - 11 -
  • 12. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? 4.2 The blind man’s cane In ‘The Question Concerning Technology’, Heidegger famously uses the metaphor of a blind person’s cane to explain how technology is becoming invisible, yet crucial9. He states that the cane becomes more than a tool for the blind person to function, the cane becomes part of the person. Mobile phones have certainly become tools that we use in our lives as extensions of ourselves. They are the liminal10 spaces that take us to our digital selves. Fig.7 The Subtle Knife by Philip Pullman If we exist in a different world through the object sitting in our pocket, it can be likened to Phillip Pullman’s ‘Subtle Knife’11. The Subtle Knife is a magical knife that transports the holder into parallel dimensions, where ethereal characters wander. In Pullman’s world the knife holds the power to the universe. Like the Subtle Knife, the modern mobile phone allows us to transport into the ether and become another self. Fig.8 Sarah Morning’s Essay Travelling without moving: The digital consumer Sarah Morning writes about digi-travellers and digi-tourists12. She says that every aspect of Web 2.0 can be likened to that of travel and exploration with names like Safari, Amazon and Explorer and verbs like surfing, tagging and bookmarking. We are all exploring an infinitesimal world without boundaries, picking up scraps of culture as we explore. We recommend to other travellers and choose the experiences that we want to have. This can either be reaching a certain destination or aimlessly wandering, looking for things that take our interest and broadening our spheres of knowledge. If Web 2.0 nature is that of tourists exploring uncharted territory, then the mobile allows the portal, through which we explore, to be mobilized. We become digi-travellers at every moment of our lives. Our mobiles are always turned on and we do not choose when and where we are connected, as we cannot survive in modern society without it. Mobile phones 9 Heidegger, M., The Question Concerning Technology, Harper Collins, New York, 1993 10 Liminal – ‘Threshold’ or ‘Portal’ 11 Pullman, P., The Subtle Knife, Scholastic Point, London, 1997 12 Morning, S., Travelling Without Moving: The Digital Consumer, Published Online, March 2007 - 12 -
  • 13. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? allow us to communicate and explore realms other than our own while being in our own society still functioning. In Japan, the pervasiveness of mobile phones has enabled mobile marketing to reach consumers in a variety of situations where conventional media cannot follow, such as when they are outdoors or closer to the places where they buy and consume products. Harnessing mobile capacity in these contexts has been shown to produce an enhanced ‘recency effect,’ meaning consumers have a better chance of remembering the most recent message conveyed to them, which makes it more lucrative to market in closer proximity to shopping TPOs (times, places and occasions).13 But I am getting ahead of myself here. I am talking of the Smartphone usage, still only really used by the Early Adopters. I will now step many paces back in our journey and look at who uses what, from all sides of society, to then try to predict how mobile technology is shaping our future. 13Fujita, A., Mobile Marketing in Japan: The Acceleration of Integrated Marketing Communications, Journal of Integrated Marketing Communications, 2008 - 13 -
  • 14. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? 5. What are the functions of a phone in modern life? According to Nielson, the UK mobile Internet is growing eight times more rapidly than the PC internet. The UK currently has more than seven million mobile Internet users (20% of the entire online population).14 5.1 What people are doing with them now Smartphones are currently the mobile phones of choice. They include WAP Internet capabilities and are constantly encroaching on the functions of a laptop; so much so that Nokia has recently announced its development of a laptop with advanced mobile Internet capabilities. Nokia’s Kai Oistamo said, A growing number of people want the computing power of a PC with the full benefits of mobility. We are in the business of connecting people and the Nokia Booklet 3G is a natural evolution for us… we will make the personal computer more social, more helpful and more personal. This is not a huge step in the sense of convergence. It shows that Nokia see a profitable market in Netbooks. However it does show that they see a strong ability for Netbooks to soon require mobile Internet connectivity. The more astounding steps in this case of convergence are the Nokia N900 – a Linux15 based Maemo16 phone that functions very much like a computer and is open sourced, and the potential Apple ‘tablet’ that has been prophesied to come out Christmas 2009/1017. Fig.9 Apple Tablet as imagined by Tommaso Gecchelin Fig.10 Nokia N900 Smartphones hold the key to increased mobile Internet penetration in a society. In the UK 13.5% have Smartphones18. This percentage seems likely to increase rapidly. It has steadily been increasing by about 35% per year, for the last few years. The restriction is mainly 14 Stirling, G., Search Engine Land, <http://searchengineland.com/nielsen-uk-mobile-web- growing-8x-faster-than-pc-internet-15604> 15 Linux is an operating system like Microsoft Windows or Apple’s Mac OS X 16 Maemo – a software platform, used to run an operating system 17 Cashmore, P., Mashable <http://mashable.com/2009/07/27/apple-tablet/> 18 McQueen, D. & Byrne, G. & Kamal-Saadi, M., Media Operating Systems: The impact of open source and importance of user experience, Informa Telecoms and Media, May 2009 - 14 -
  • 15. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? around the cost of such an advanced device. Developments in technology will undoubtedly reduce this very quickly. When the adoption of Smartphones penetrates further than the ‘Innovators’ and ‘Early Adopters’, we will see the Internet-connected mobile phone really begin to take off. Fig.11 Classic Consumer Adoption Process Currently Smartphone usage in the UK has only been by early adopters and innovators. However, if the evidence of Japan offers anything to go by, it looks like the Smartphone will rapidly penetrate society at large. However, this reference to Japan and its use of Mobile Internet and Mobile Marketing will be picked up later. For now we need to understand what other media is doing and how that could translate to mobile, to see whether we believe media consumption habits are moving mobile. - 15 -
  • 16. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? 5.2 How media consumption behaviours are changing In this section I show current trends in media consumption perfectly aligning to mobile. For brevity I will discuss only three major media; TV, Press and Music Music iTunes has held onto the prized position for a long time now, in terms of digital music. However Spotify have recently received approval for an iPhone application that is set to invade into iTunes’ space. With iTunes you need to pay for a track, and then you own a digital copy of it. Spotify is completely free to anyone and anyone can listen to whatever they want, whenever, without paying. The catch with Spotify, is that advertising funds it. You stream songs via the Internet rather than owning them. This opens music consumption up and encourages exploration by recommendations. Spotify is currently extremely popular and the ability to access such vast libraries for free while moving (the most common time music is consumed) will undoubtedly shake iTunes’ monopoly. Above anything its philosophy seems more in-tune to current youth attitudes to digital music than iTunes. Television TV use is decreasing rapidly in the UK19. Younger generations only watch what they want online, commonly without adverts or permission from providers. There is a growing attitude that media is free. People, also, are becoming far less receptive to media that they are at all disinterested in. People look to TV to entertain them with shorter and punchier demands upon their attention span. In Japan and Korea mobile TV is extremely popular and most often watched when travelling. Like the UK, Japan and Korea are large users of public transport and high percentages commute for long journeys. The potential for mobile TV in the UK to fulfil this role is huge. Japan and Korea however not only have higher bandwidth of Internet for mobiles, but they also have better technologies and a much higher penetration of smart phone users. With the future expansion of the bandwidth of Internet for mobile phones, and the increased penetration of smart phones, the UK will soon follow. Press Newspapers are moving online and people are increasingly going online to view news. A large part of people’s news consumption is also now based around social networking sites like Twitter. Twitter and Blogs provide people with short sharp spikes of information that is rarely the whole picture. For example with the bombing in Mumbai and the election in Iran, people got the hourly updates via Twitter (most commonly mobile) but still turn to the printed press for the whole picture. With the rise in Smartphone penetration, fewer people will buy print and more will read news on the phone. Surely the emergence of electronic books like the Kindle, are just stepping-stones until full convergence of the mobile phone and the book. 19Mortimer, R., The Decline of TV and Rise of the Internet – IBM global consumer research <http://brandstrategy.wordpress.com/2007/08/22/the-decline-of-tv-and-rise-of-the-internet- ibm-global-consumer-research/> - 16 -
  • 17. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? 6. The origins of mobile marketing – SMS and 2G What has been done with Mobile Marketing up until the development of Smartphones. Before the introduction of the Internet on mobile phones, advertising had taken the form of SMS messages that broadcast offers & deals and have made use of hard sales techniques (often referred to as the ‘push model’20). This type of advertising is the hardest form of intrusion sales. It is the equivalent of a ‘cold call’ from a salesperson to your door. However charming the salesman might be, we don't really want him there. Similarly mobile messages are regarded with distain and mostly ignored or rejected. People do not react kindly to hard sell and we now know that there are better ways to engage customers. Click through and conversion rates in the very low percentage points are all that’s required for a direct marketing campaign to be successful in as much as there’s a return on investment. The fact that 99.9% of your audience didn’t respond is largely irrelevant if the 0.05% responding made you the money. Screwed up, yes, but it still ads up financially.21 As Helen Keegan points out, a small Return On Investment (ROI) on something that is very cheap is still very effective. However for a brand this can also be hugely detrimental in establishing a trusted and long lasting relationship between a brand and a customer. SMS advertising, like email will still retain users. It produces returns. However as mobile Internet develops, customers will become more and more used to receiving value from brands. This will increase the distance between hard sell and engagement. This will lead customers to become less receptive to SMS advertisements and thus will go the same way that email advertising has gone – left largely to pornography. According to Brandweek, there still is considerable ‘consumer resistance, the main reason behind the carriers' historic refusal to open the gates to ad content.’ Brandweek goes on: Studies have shown that consumers are less than thrilled with the idea of receiving ads on their cells. While early adopter teens are among the biggest targets, three-quarters of cell phone users aged 10 to 18 said they do not think it's OK to be marketed to on a mobile device, according to a study of 2,000 users conducted by Weekly Reader Research, Stamford, Conn., on Brandweek's behalf. Forrester Research in Cambridge, Mass., found 79% of consumers are turned off by the idea of ads on their phones and a mere 3% of respondents said they trust text ads.22 SMS campaigns need to be extremely careful. Intrusions into privacy and distrustful methods of communications are undoubtedly hugely detrimental to brand/consumer relations. There are now other options for marketers to choose from, not just SMS. 20 Springer, P., Ads to Icons: How Advertising Succeeds in a Multimedia Age, Kogan Page Limited, London and Philadelphia, 2007, p. 359 21 Keegan, H., <http://technokitten.blogspot.com/2009/04/is-sms-marketing-doomed.html> 22 Mobile Active <http://mobileactive.org/taxonomy/term/1243> - 17 -
  • 18. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? 7. So what’s happening in the UK now? To best understand the Future we need to be on the same page about the present. 7.1 3G 3G stands for ‘third generation’. For the sake of argument I categorize 1G as analogue mobile and 2G as digital. 3G is defined by the use of GSM EDGE, UMTS, CDMA2000, DECT and WiMAX in a phone. The benefits of the above can be distilled (albeit very crudely) to the allowance of simultaneous speech and data services as well as higher data rates. So our ‘screens’ have become far larger and computing capabilities far wider. However the most interesting thing brought about by 3G technologies in terms of its impact on advertising, has been the high volume of mobile Internet browsing it has generated, together with the introduction of so-called Applications to Mobiles. Fig.12 The strong advantages of mobile over other media - 18 -
  • 19. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? 7.2 Mobile Web Browsing With the increase of mobile web browsing, banner adverts are being tailored to fit smaller screens. People are five to ten times more responsive to mobile banner ads than computer banner ads23. However, there is potential that this high response rate is only due to the fact that early adopters are more responsive to adverts and the fact that the technology is new. When PC banner advertising first started the response rates were far higher and have steadily dipped since24. Example – Kmart ‘Protégé’ Kmart wanted to provide affordable basketball shoes to African-Americans between 14 to 18 years old. This posed challenges due to the demographics lack of regular media consumption. The insight that these children are always out and about and in the street led Kmart to look to the use of mobile as a strategy. The most successful part of the campaign they devised was a New York subway poster that had a strong ‘call to action’. Viewers were asked to text the word ‘Protégé’ to Kmart. They were then pushed a WAP link that took them to a customized site. This gave them many free ringtones, wallpaper, videos for their mobiles. This drove more than 100,000 visits to the website and led to a very high frequency of product site viewings and then their nearest Kmart store viewings. Fig.13 & 14 Kmart Protégé ads on the New York Subway In Summary… The importance of mobile web browsing for marketers is huge. Many adverts however clever, funny or persuasive still lack the ability to drive home a message that actually generates a sale. The lack of latency between seeing communications you are interested in and engaging your interest through enquiry, allows 3G mobile to really dominate. It acts as the cane through which you explore your chosen digital world. 23 EConsultancy <http://econsultancy.com/blog/4205-mobile-ads-perform-better-than-online- ads-for-now> 24 Business Week Online <http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/07_46/b4058053.htm> - 19 -
  • 20. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? 7.3 App Store With over 1.5 billion downloads, Apple’s App Store has revolutionized mobile marketing. Now the majority of software and hardware producers and telecommunications providers are trying to produce their own versions. The ability for third party developers to produce what they as consumers deem necessary and generating income from that, is another example of the philosophy of success in web 2.0. Google has been known for relating their success to doing nothing but creating a platform for others to exist - i.e. practising the art of the good middleman. Amazon, eBay and Google all similarly rely on customers deciding what they want and acting upon it. These same customers also constantly offer comment on their purchases and very rarely take advice from anyone but another peer. In this way, opinions are freely formed and actions democratically taken, no longer dictated. This democratized market characterizes the idea of the App Store. Apple does nothing but provide the perfectly customizable platform - the app store, while others provide the products to entice the consumer. Example – iTunes App Store On July 14 2009, Steve Jobs announced ‘The App Store is like nothing the industry has ever seen before in both scale and quality. With 1.5 billion apps downloaded, it is going to be very hard for others to catch up.’25 Fig.15 iTunes App Store In Summary… Web 2.0 has changed the way online market places exist. Customer opinions are key and people follow the herd, not what they are told to follow. The ability for third party developers to create what they want shows the move away from software monopolies and restricted hardware, to a democratic open market. 25 Apple <http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2009/07/14apps.html> - 20 -
  • 21. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? 7.4 Games The majority of branded applications are for entertainment purposes and there is a huge demand for simple entertainment in phone users. This undoubtedly presents numerous possibilities for enhanced marketing. For example, branded games are used to incorporate the product and show it’s benefits. They provide another touch point for engagement with the brand, developing the opportunity to engage with customers who would normally not think of buying their products. In this way they can engineer the opportunity to establish themselves in the eyes of young or new customers, with the kind of brand aspiration, or quality, or value that they desire. Example – Barclaycard ‘Waterslide Extreme’ The perfect example of mobile gaming applications working in Transmedia26 Advertising is Barclaycard’s ‘Waterslide Extreme’. A very successful and creative TV campaign was released. An application was later released on the iPhone app store for free under the title of ‘Waterslide Extreme’. The game puts the user in the position of the character in the TV advert. The app quickly became iTunes’ most downloaded free branded game. Within three weeks over four million people had downloaded it and it became the number one free app in 57 countries. They engaged with a new demographic that was not typically responsive to Financial communications, but crucial future customers. Fig.16 Barclaycard ‘Waterslide Extreme’ iPhone Game In Summary… Video games have long been trying to move onto mobile phones successfully. Until now the screens were too small and the hardware too slow. With the increase in technical ability that is imminent, phones are going to see more entertainment options. The current trend of more sociable and family oriented gaming highlights the move away from the stereotyped gamer. Mobiles will allow this move to continue to spread with games emerging that reach all demographics. This broadens the purpose of a phone hugely. It moves from being primarily to communicate, to now entertain. 26 Yakob, F., <http://farisyakob.typepad.com/blog/2006/10/transmedia_plan.html> - 21 -
  • 22. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? 7.5 Tools A brand has a unique opportunity through apps to not only to entertain, but also to provide an appreciated customer with a utility. This enhances his or her perception of the brand - not necessarily selling a product to the consumer, but making their life easier. The brand becomes a trusted part of the consumer’s life and the brand loyalty pays off far more in dividends than any push campaign could generate. The ability for a brand to engage with certain demographics of consumers by providing a function that they need, allows them to change the way they are perceived. It allows them to add on an aspect to them, as a brand, by promoting an aspect of culture that ameliorates them by giving diversity. Example – Adidas Urban Art in Germany Adidas have taken Berlin by storm with an app that aggregates street art in the capital and puts it into a Google map. Not only can it direct you (virtually) around the city’s gallery of graffiti, but it also runs mini tour programs highlighting the best of the city’s innovative underground art scene. Adidas sells shoes nowhere on the app. It does nothing to generate revenue – the app is free. The app’s sole purpose is to associate itself with something that its target consumers feel very strongly about. It would previously be impossible for a brand to enter such an underground anti-advertising community. However by providing a service and showing respect, by not selling to the customers, they are developing relationships with areas of society that are otherwise very difficult to market to. Fig.17 & 18 Adidas Urban Art Guide In Summary… With the emergence of apps, the mobile becomes the flexible device that can perform almost whatever task you have need of. With the development of Android, mobile phones are becoming open-source27 and therefore even more open for anyone to produce what they want. They will become the ubiquitous Swiss army knife that you choose what functions you wish to add on to fit your life. 27 Platform Agnostic – Not tied down to one particular technological platform - 22 -
  • 23. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? 7.6 Freemium Free/Premium media People will rarely pay for branded content that is obvious advertising. This is why it needs to perform one of the previous functions and then it will be adopted for free. The biggest debate revolving around digital is currently that of whether the Internet can carry on funding free content. The youth generation has no interest in paying for media and is very unlikely to ever change that attitude. A new model must be found. Chris Anderson has recently published a free audio book called ‘Free’ that explores this exact subject. He revolves this conversation around the most important word ever in advertising, ‘Free’28. He argues that making something ‘free’ can actually make you more money than an initial pricing. This can be seen clearly in the case of apps where content is usually free. The price of creating these apps is minimal and in comparison to an ATL campaign, it is an extremely cost effective approach due to its high level of mutual and personal engagement – the perfect example of the so-called ‘pull model’ of advertising. By giving away a service, the brand is giving to the consumer by providing something, without asking for anything in return. The obvious returns are brand loyalty; engagement with a new product and the potential to promote to an already engaged consumer. But above all the advantage is just another ‘touch point’ into someone’s life that offers a further dimension to an already rich brand. Example – Blyk Fig.19 Blyk Logo Blyk was the first free mobile phone network in the UK, started in 2007. It allowed its users a monthly allowance of £15. This was due to the use of advertising to sponsor the network. Targeted adverts were sent to users up to the frequency of 6 a day. The service was extremely successful and reported in 2008 to have reached its yearly target of 100,000 users six months earlier than scheduled. The Times reported that certain analysts believed Blyk ‘could provide a boost to the nascent market in mobile marketing.’ 29 It provides a highly interesting business structure; utilizing highly targeted adverts to provide relevant communications between brands and consumers. In Summary… The youth view Media as shared, not owned. Charging for ownership of content will cause the youth to bypass this, albeit illegally. To reach the youth, new economic formats must be utilised. Using Blyk and Spotify as examples, we can see that young people are willing to view advertising in return for free media. 28 Wired Magazine Online <http://www.wired.com/techbiz/it/magazine/16-03/ff_free> 29 Wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blyk> - 23 -
  • 24. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? 8. The Power of mobile Word of Mouth Why mobiles are the best tools to spread memes. Now that we understand the emerging technologies related to mobile phones, we are in a position to analyze the benefits that these could bring. By analysing the previous examples, I will highlight the major effects that mobile technologies are having on our behavioural communication with brands and media. The true power that mobile phones have in society is the ability to spread information, opinions, news and brand awareness via word of mouth. Marketers have long since recognized Word of Mouth (WOM) as a very powerful tool. This has increased dramatically by the use of the Internet (eWOM). Spreadability is a sink or swim factor in a campaigns’ success. Viral marketing is the most obvious example of this. A name like viral relates to a verb of something spreading virally and has been used to describe videos over the Internet. This is a wrong use of the term. It is not a noun, it is a verb. As a verb it can be used to chart the progression of much of society, not just videos. The term ‘Meme’ is used to describe units of culture. It was termed by Richard Dawkins in ‘The Selfish Gene’, Examples of memes are tunes, ideas, catch-phrases, clothes fashions, ways of making pots or building arches. Just as genes propagate themselves in the gene pool by leaping from body to body via sperms or eggs, so memes propagate themselves in the meme pool by leaping from brain to brain via a process, which, in the broad sense, can be called imitation.30 The linguistic reference to gene is not accidental. Mutation and adaptability is the key to survival, as with Darwin’s “Origin of the Species”. Rather than ‘virals’, adverts can better be described as memes, which take from and add to culture while developing and spreading. It is very like the phenomenon that underpins Darwin’s idea of the survival of a species - hence, Henry Jenkins’ phrase ‘If it doesn’t spread, it is dead’31 In this respect, the mobile, through Smartphones, allow spreadability beyond any other media. People spread via word of mouth and even word of finger. What is viewed, spread and recommended by a friend becomes more powerful than anything that is recommended by an advert. The ubiquity of mobile internet access has further enhanced the power of eWOM. The service is ubiquitous because it is unconstrained in time and space. This unique nature of the mobile Internet has enabled consumers to transmit, gather, and retransmit product information via voice calls, email, an interactive messaging service, and a variety of consumer-friendly mobile social-networking applications. Juniper Research (2007) reported that the number of active users of mobile social-networking sites is expected to rise from 14 million in 2007 to nearly 600 million in 2012.32 Shintaro Okazaki recently published a paper titled “The tactical use of mobile marketing: How adolescents’ Social Networking can best shape Brand Extensions”. In it he compares eWOM to consumer socialization theory (CS). ‘CS is the process by which young people acquire 30 Dawkins, R., The Selfish Gene, Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1976 p. 192 31 Jenkins, H., <http://www.henryjenkins.org/2009/02/if_it_doesnt_spread_its_dead_p.html> 32 Okazaki, S., The Tactical Use of Mobile Marketing: How Adolescents’ Social Networking Can Best Shape Brand Extensions, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 49, No. 1, March 2009 - 24 -
  • 25. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? skills, knowledge, and attitudes relevant to their functioning as consumers in the marketplace.’ The CS theory suggests that consumer behaviour is learnt through interactions between the individual and various agents in different social settings. He writes, This study posits that the social structure constraints, agent, and content of CS theory are the primary factors affecting adolescents’ participation in mobile based WOM campaigns. They translate, respectively to interpersonal connectivity, self-identification with the mobile device, and affective brand commitment. Okazaki concludes by making eight hypotheses. Three of which are; • H1: Interpersonal connectivity will directly and positively affect attitude toward the campaign • H2: Self-Identification with the mobile device will directly and positively affect attitude toward the campaign • H7: Mobile-based WOM is more strongly associated with affective commitment to the promoted brand than face-to-face WOM From this we can deduce that the desire to spread and propagate media via mobile phones is more than just a fad. It seems to have become a natural survival technique through interpersonal connectivity and self-identification. We can also learn that an electronic Word of Mouth campaign can generate an affective commitment to the brand. Through this we deduce that consumers value brand engagement more through mobile. They also find spreading media a part of life – they almost desire media of a quality worth spreading. Fig.20 The effectiveness of Word Of Mouth in marketing - 25 -
  • 26. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? 9. Digital vs. Analogue So what is analogue communication? We all know that the modern world is digital and there seems to be no way forward other than digital. Digital technology seems to be encroaching constantly on our everyday lives. However, if we understand what digital and analogue actually mean, we find new applications to the terms. According to Paul Watzlawick, ‘digital’ is binary, it refers to numbers. Its opposite is ‘analogue’; it refers more closely to words33. Where digital is definitive (numerical), analogue is interpretable (linguistic). A digital clock says that it is 13:41:54. But with an analogue clock it is impossible to ever make a truthful statement. It is always in a state of flux. Therefore it is something that requires interpretation from the viewer. Fig.21 Digital and analogue Clocks Theoretician, Paul Watzlawick, famously argued that there are two types of human communication - digital and analogue communication. Digital communication is precise and logical, while Analogue communication is ambiguous and emotional. A statement is digital, whereas a hug is analogous. Fig.22 Portrait of Paul Watzlawick Paul Feldwick has taken Watzlawick’s theories and applied them to current advertising trends34. He states that modern advertising has become more analogue (ironically!) in terms of communication techniques. When research into advertising so often claims that we need to speak to the heart and not to the head, this is the analogue communication. It is talking in a human way that speaks so much more. When we are talking about communicating to humans, we need to look for different attributes than those efficient in computing. Humans communicate in far more subtle and inextricably detailed ways. Research suggests that these subtleties are 70% of all 33 Watzlawick, P. & Helmick Beavin, J. & Jackson, D., Pragmatics of human communication, W.W. Norton, California, 1967 34 ThinkBox <http://www.thinkbox.tv/server/show/nav.1015> - 26 -
  • 27. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? communication35. The more subtle communication techniques like body language and facial expression (sometimes called gesture-calls) are more rarely misleading. Like these communication techniques, analogue communications work. Word of Mouth plays on the benefits of analogue communication. Media that is spread by peers is treated as valuable culture. People do not sell in a hard selling technique to one another, instead the warmth, relevance and personalization of word of mouth spread media takes all the attributes of the most human of communications. Marketing needs to speak to the heart, not the head. The death of the Unique Selling Proposition36 and emergence of the Emotional Selling Proposition are strong arguments to believe in the power of analogue communications. We must engage people around something that they are interested in, not something that we, as marketers, believe they should be interested in. 35 Engleberg, I., Working in Groups: Communication Principles and Strategies, Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006. p. 133 36 Earls, M., Welcome to the Creative Age – Bananas, Business and the Death of Marketing, John Wiley, London, 2002 - 27 -
  • 28. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? 10. What do we already know is next? We have now looked at and analysed what is currently happening in the market. We will now look at the emerging technologies; those with ‘hype’ surrounding them that are yet to prove whether they can be adopted by UK society. 10.1 Quick Response Codes Fig.23 Tokyo Disney QR Campaign, Fig.24 A typical QR code Quick Response codes are similar to barcodes, but act like web addresses that when photographed they act as port of entry. They are very popular in Japan and Korea and are on everything as common as sandwiches in convenience stores. The key to QR codes is that they allow a mobile phone to very quickly take a photograph of one, and that photograph loads the phone straight into the intended website. The phone requires Internet access and a moderate quality camera. Example – Pepsi Kicks Fig.25 & Fig.26 Pepsi Kicks QR Campaign Pepsi wanted to engage with 18 to 24 year olds. Kelly Brook joined forces for this campaign pushing the use of QR codes. GraphicoDMG, who created the campaign, won a FAB award and said, This group loves to share content so it was important that all our content could be shared and forwarded. None of the content was locked – to a device or a platform - and it could all be embedded in their own social networking profiles. Content for sharing included: Kelly Brook video, behind the scenes at the shoot (interview, video and stills), three mobile games including Project Gotham Racing and specially selected random snippets from the web.37 In Summary… In Japan, most adverts contain QR codes. These allow interested viewers to rapidly enter the website. These speed up the time between seeing an advert and then furthering your journey of inquiry. The quicker someone can act on the interest generated by an ad, the higher volume of action an advert can generate. This increases analogue communication due to provoking a reaction from the consumer. 37 Graphico DMG <http://www.graphicodmg.co.uk/CaseStudy.aspx?cid=80> - 28 -
  • 29. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? 10.2 Augmented Reality: Making life interactive Fig.27 & 28 Augmented Reality – Geotagging examples Augmented Reality is currently the hot topic for advertisers and refers to the technology that allows the manipulation of reality through a digital screen. For example you could look at an image of a building and have information overlaying the image of the building, almost giving another dimension to reality. With Augmented Reality gaming can merge from the confined screen to impact reality itself. For example, ‘Geotagging’ has made use of Augmented Reality. ‘Geotagging’ is the digital ‘tagging’ of objects like buildings or even like items of clothing, by leaving a digital trace of information, which can then be picked up and read by others through their Smartphones. Example – Oasis (Augmented Reality in Gaming) Oasis’s ‘RubberDuckZilla’ utilizes Augmented Reality to allow the user to have fun with the brand by taking on RubberDuckZilla’s head and (seemingly) bring Godzilla-like mayhem and destruction to the streets of Tokyo. The game has proved hugely popular and (unsurprisingly) done much to help promote the brand in Japan. Fig.29 Oasis’ RubberDuckZilla Augmented Reality game In Summary… Making use of this technology, people can leave comments about a company, a commercial outlet’s services, or even great offers around the corner. It is the epitome of the power of the consumers voice in modern society that will be seen by all. - 29 -
  • 30. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? 10.3 Location based Services Location Based Services are thought by some to have the most potential to advertising. The value of mobile advertising could really be in the ability to target consumers. Targeting allows communications to be relevant to the consumer and reduces spam - information that nobody actually wants. Location Based Services take your GPS location and communicate to you knowing where you are (there is a future potential for them to learn more about who you are too) with relevant local advice & information, regarding shops, services etc. These mean that a company can send messages to people within the proximity of a certain area, shop, billboard. Not only this, but also the iPhone 3GS and many other smart phones coming into the market, now have digital compass functions. These coincide with the GPS and allow the phone to know which direction it is looking and where it is. The potential to exploit the technology is clearly considerable. Example – FourSquare Foursquare is an iPhone application that allows users to send messages to their friends who can see where they are on the city map. Friends can then send them messages, leaving recommendations as to where to go and what to do. For example ‘try the best Margarita in town at Pizzaiolo’s on Bond Street’. When someone acts on such a recommendation, they ‘ping’ from the location and gain ‘points’ which turn the world of recommendations into a game. Points are tallied and people receive all sorts of awards for achievements. People who visit places the most often are awarded “mayor” status which results in them receiving offers from the site, which are communicated to them on their phones. This takes recommendations to a new level. People can live out their lives based on what their trusted friends recommend and reap the rewards of shared patronage. It promotes the idea of ‘brand advocates’ and allows us all to review the facilities on offer in any location, sharing the information with our friends. The ability for bad press to spread is another intriguing example of a brands inability to use push advertising. Fig.30 Foursquare Logo In Summary… In Japan for example, there is currently a facility called Felica that allows users to pay for items in certain shops and on public transport and in vending machines via swiping their phone next to touch pads. This allows the provider of that service to use that information in a way similar to that employed famously by the Tesco Club card to build up demographic profiles in incredible detail about who is doing what, where and when. This, like LBS, would provide highly personal information on consumers and allow messages to be targeted and relevant. Whether such information should be available to marketers is currently being hotly contested. If used, this will become the most important information for any marketer. - 30 -
  • 31. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? 11. Japan38 Mobile phone web users nearly equal PC based Internet users in Japan39 We have now looked at the past in terms of mobile marketing in the UK. We have also looked at what is happening right now – at least in the UK. It is now time to briefly look to the East to see what is being done in mobile marketing based on the author’s experience, in markets that are far more developed than our own. This should give us some insight into the future developments. I do not go into detail as this is far too rich a subject and lies beyond the scope of this dissertation. However, some discussion will allow insight into the kind of future that may well await the UK once Smartphones have more thoroughly penetrated the market. Japan, for example, has long since been at the front of technology. Ever since the rapid industrial redevelopment after the Second World War, they have been the leaders in the technology industry. Producing the leading technology, perhaps unsurprisingly, we see the most enthusiastic consumers of technology. Japan has embraced mobile phone technologies far more than any other country in the world. In Japan there are currently 108 million Mobile subscribers. Over 90% of those are 3G phones40. Nokia, the world’s leaders in mobile phone sales, has tried to enter their market. Ironically, they recently gave up saying that the attitude to mobile phones in Japan is so far different to the rest of the world that they cannot begin to compete: Today, mobile Internet in Japan has established itself as arguably the fastest-growing mass media platform the world has ever seen, reaching an audience of 50 million people in only three years. This is less time than it took for the U.S. market to hit the same milestone with radio (38 years), television (13 years), cable TV (10 years), and the PC Internet (5 years).41 38 To presuppose that the UK will follow Japan is very dangerous. Many other factors differentiate Japan from the UK. I am using Japan not as a definitive future for the UK, but instead as a potential future from a more developed market. This must be taken with scepticism as many questions come into effect that cannot be answered; whether these technologies will be adopted like Japan, whether there is a benefit in adopting these technologies, whether potentially Japan has adopted too many technologies that have distanced them from the real world. Japan’s over abundance of deep-rooted social problems could be put down to the over adoption of technology. But this is for another paper. 39 comScore, Mobile web users nearly equal PC based internet users in Japan, Published Online, <http://www.comscore.com/Press_Events/Press_Releases/2007/node_1285/ Japan_Mobile_Phone_Usage> 40 Billich, C., Future Insight: Mobile commerce in Japan, Infinita, <http://www.slideshare.net/cbillich/future-insight-mobile-commerce-in-japan> 41 Fujita, A., Mobile Marketing in Japan: The Acceleration of Integrated Marketing Communications, Journal of Integrated Marketing Communications, 2008 - 31 -
  • 32. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? 11.1 Case Study – AXE ‘Laser’ Fig.33 AXE ‘Laser’ Campaign To introduce AXE (Lynx in the UK) to Japan, Bascule Tokyo created a very intriguing campaign. They needed to introduce the AXE cult advertising that has become so strong in the western world. The animal attraction of women to men who wear AXE needed to be understood. A competition was set up for photographs of public demonstrations of the AXE effect. There was a one million yen prize42 for the winner who could take the most appropriate photo of the AXE effect. Lasers pointers and branded arrows were given out to highlight the AXE effect in the photo. People all over Japan snapped photos of unsuspecting couples with laser pointers or signs advertising the AXE effect. This won the Cyber Lions Gold award at Cannes in 2008. This is not a solely mobile campaign, although the vast majority of images were taken by mobile phones. What it did was take the campaigns into everyone’s lives. People not only took photos, but also watched others point lasers and shoot, and some even found that they themselves had been captured in a photo. The mobile aspects of this are clear. It was engaging and encouraged consumers to go out and look at their life in relation to the brand. The brand became mobilized. The campaign had no sale or generation of anything but engagement. It provided a game in reality that took on technology. It spoke to the key market and was spread via word of mouth due to recommendations. It was purely analogue communication as everyone interpreted the brief and the effect differently. The campaign put the brand image into the hands of the consumers. The consumers were given the ability to write their own brand experience and spread that. 42 £6,957 as of 29th September 2009 - 32 -
  • 33. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? 11.2 Case Study – Tohato ‘Tyrant Habanero’ vs. ‘Satan Jorquia’ Fig.31 Tohato Campaign Logo Fig.32 QR codes on the back of Tohato crisp packets In 2007, Japanese advertising agency Hakuhodo, created a very innovative campaign for spicy crisp brand ‘Tohato’. They created two different characters and two different packets of crisps. The consumer chose which ‘General’ they would serve under by choosing one of the packets of crisps. On the packets were QR codes that when photographed took the consumer to the online start up page. This led each user to personalize characters with which they fight for their general. Huge armies battled across fantastical worlds every day at 4am. The more people you enlist into your army, the more powerful you become in the world. It capitalizes off the word of mouth element that is key to mobile marketing. It spread like wild fire all over Japan and has since won the coveted yellow pencil at the D&AD awards in 2008, where mobile marketing was recognized as a valid new media for the first time. This campaign is another example of analogue communication via digital mobile technology. The consumer is enticed into buying the product only once, to initiate the game. From then on there is no need for customers to come back to the product. The game gives people a reason to talk, play and even argue. The consumer grows to feel a certain identity with the brand. By taking a 4am slot in every consumer’s life, they grow to depend on Tohato for entertainment. The communication is in the respect of human communication, a joke. A joke that entertains and one that on hearing it you want to tell it to someone else. It cannot be much further from the typical ‘push’ model of advertising as it pushes no message to the consumer rather than that the brand enjoys fun and understands the need for their consumers to have an online identity. Tohato are giving their clients media to play with, spread and gain identification through. A Tohato digitally communicative campaign would have a proposition for the benefits of Tohato over other crisp brands. This campaign, explained above, realizes modern consumers desire for more human techniques of communication. - 33 -
  • 34. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? 12. Conclusion Mobiles phones are the blind man’s cane, through which people can explore their own experience of brands, in clear relation to their immediate reality. Phones will develop to fulfil more of the functions pointed out in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. They are quickly becoming the ‘black box’ that fulfils any needs. Their ubiquity will become absolute – until and unless the technology becomes sub-coetaneous, embedded within the body itself. In Don Johnson’s comparison of digital and analogue technologies, he summarizes the benefits of digital as ‘efficiency, performance and flexibility’43. This is why the future is digital in the sense of digital technologies, but in this paper I have highlighted the opposite effect happening to communication techniques. Before Smartphones, marketing communications on mobile devices can be termed as using digital communication techniques. They were one-directional and use nothing more than selling propositions that speak directly to the consumer. Mobile communications technologies explained in this paper like Apps, Augmented Reality, Quick Response Codes and Location Based Services all develop the ability for marketing techniques to speak more humanly, relevantly and emotively to consumers. This is analogue communication. They also encourage more inter peer communication. While technology is constantly moving more digital, our communication techniques are becoming more analogue. Mobile phone developments are increasing connectivity. People are not only connected to each other every hour of the day, they are also connected to brands every hour of the day. Marketers need to be aware of this. Mobile campaigns that connect people via branded, relevant, content will succeed and built brand relationships that will last beyond new products or cheap offers. And then everything changed… …and it changed forever. Everything came to us in a device that fit into a pocket. We went back out into the world. We listened to what we loved, when we liked. We played when we wanted, where we chose. We shared what inspired us with everyone we cared about. We carried our sense of purpose with us. We discovered new people, places and experiences. And our sense of purpose kept growing. It was the end of something. It was the beginning of everything. Welcome to the fourth screen. 43Johnson, D., Comparison of Analog and Digital Communication, Published Online, Connexions, June 3 2007 - 34 -
  • 35. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? 13. Epilogue 4G and the fifth screen - where we might be headed I want to add in a few words about where I believe the future to be heading in a completely speculative way. I understand that by no means can these things be forecast with any degree of accuracy, particularly in the times we are living in, where the rate of developments in technology seem to be accelerating at exponential rates. But I wanted to try! I believe… • 4G phones will become less of a communication device, and more of a device that connects everyone to everything. It will be everything that we carry on us; wallet, clock, key, ID and more than we can predict. • More interactive gaming will take games and brands into closer relationships. Adver- gaming will continue to develop and advertising will grow into fully-fledged experiences. This will merge with the physical world and everything that we do44. Brands will buy our time and loyalty through providing entertainment of the highest quality. This has always happened, but the entertainment is changing, not the need to be entertained, only the media. • Targeting/relevancy through collation and use of data as consumers will be enabled and will allow advertising to be more ‘polite’ and actually better lives through expanding areas of interest for people, not narrowing interests. Personal habitual data collation will be highly contested, but will be tightly regulated and will force brands to speak to, and listen to individuals. • Augmented Reality and Haptic screens45 will allow the screen to become more related to the physical world we live in. This will then lead to the screen entering our lives for good. This could happen via digital glasses46, contact lenses47, projectors and sensors on our bodies48, or interactive screens as materials49. Whichever of these technologies becomes dominant, will be the fifth screen. The fifth screen will be seen over our current world. We will live through the screen. 44 HP – Roku’s Reward <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BUOHfVXkUaI> 45 Interactive Touchable Screens e.g. Panasonic Interactive TV wall - <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P8GriGd6vdU> 46 Inbar, O., Vuzix Wrap920 will see the light of day in 2009 but will not see through, GamesAlFresco <http://gamesalfresco.com/2009/09/30/vuzix-wrap920-will-see-the-light-of- day-in-2009-but-will-not-see-thru/> 47 Hickey, H., Bionic Eyes, University Week <http://uwnews.org/uweek/uweekarticle.asp?articleID=39100> Jan 17th 2008 48 Pattie Maes and Pranav Mistry demo Sixth Sense – TED talks <http://www.ted.com/talks/pattie_maes_demos_the_sixth_sense.html> 49 Yakob, F., The Future is Haptic, Talent Imitates Genius steals, <http://farisyakob.typepad.com/blog/2009/03/the-future-is-haptic.html> - 35 -
  • 36. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? 14. Account of Sources The vast majority of my research has come from web-based sources. I have found in my research that the majority of books or papers written about the subject have very quickly become outdated and thus irrelevant unless looking at the long view. The subject is such a fast moving one that the only sources that were current and fully informed were selected opinions on the Internet or those of professionals in the industry. - 36 -
  • 37. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? 14.1 Bibliography Anderson, C., The Long Tail: How endless Choice is Creating Unlimited Demand, Random House Business Books, London, 2006 Anderson, C., Free: The Future of a Radical Price, Hyperion, London, 2009 Dawkins, R., The Selfish Gene, Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1976 Department for Business, Innovation and Skills & Department for Culture, Media and Sport, Digital Britain Final Report, TSO, London, 2009 Earls, M., Welcome to the Creative Age – Bananas, Business and the Death of Marketing, John Wiley, London, 2002 Engleberg, I., Working in Groups: Communication Principles and Strategies, Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006. p. 133 Heidegger, M., The Question Concerning Technology, Harper Collins, New York, 1993 Ito, M. & Okabe, D. & Matsuda, M., Personal, Portable, Pedestrian: Mobile Phones in Japanese Life, The MIT Press, Tokyo, London and New York, 2005 Jenkins, H., Convergence Culture; Where Old and New Media Collide, New York University Press, New York and London, 2006 Pullman, P., The Subtle Knife, Scholastic Point, London, 1997 Pursell, C., White Heat: People and Technology, University of California Press, California and London, 1994 Springer, P., Ads to Icons: How Advertising Succeeds in a Multimedia Age, Kogan Page Limited, London and Philadelphia, 2007 Watzlawick, P. & Helmick Beavin, J. & Jackson, D., Pragmatics of human communication, W.W. Norton, California, 1967 - 37 -
  • 38. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? 14.2 Newspapers, Reports, Articles, Magazines and Journals Ahonen, T., Tomi Ahonen Almanac 2009: Mobile Telecoms Industry Review, Published Online, 2009 Bainbridge, L., ‘Apps’, the coolest new craze, are changing the way we work and play, The Observer, 12th April 09 Booz & Co. Stockholm/Berlin/Vienna/Munich, The March of Mobile Marketing: New Chances for Consumer Companies, New Opportunities for Mobile Operators, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 49, No. 1, March 2009 Cerf, V., Digital Viewpoint: Father of the Internet, Campaign Magazine, 25th April 2008 Enders Analysis, UK Mobile User Survey 2009: iPhones femtocells, predators and the recession, Published Online, July 2009 Fujita, A., Mobile Marketing in Japan: The Acceleration of Integrated Marketing Communications, Journal of Integrated Marketing Communications, 2008 Harper, R., People Vs. Information: the evolution of mobile technology, The Digital World Research Centre, University of Surrey England, Published Online, Internet Advertising Bureau, IAB Platform Status Report: A Mobile Advertising Overview, IAB, July 2008 Johnson, D., Comparison of Analog and Digital Communication, Published Online, Connexions, June 3 2007 Judge, E., Mobile phone users fail to get in tune with TV on the move, The Times, <http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/media/article6108334.ece>, 17th April 2009 Kakektsis, M., Professional Investor: Mobile Phone Advertising: the next big thing, The Independent, <http://www.independent.co.uk/money/spend-save/professional-investor- mobile-phone-advertising-the-next-big-thing-464529.html>, 22nd September 2007 Laszlo, J. & IAB advertising Committee, The New Unwired World: An IAB Status Report on Mobile Advertising, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 49, No. 1, March 2009, pp. 27-43 Lee, Y., Mobile Advertising Market in Japan – Latest Developments and Market Forecast 2009 – 2015, Research on Asia Group, Published Online, June 2009 Levine, J., Turning the Page, Time Magazine, 2nd March 09 McQueen, D. & Byrne, G. & Kamal-Saadi, M., Media Operating Systems: The impact of open source and importance of user experience, Informa Telecoms and Media, May 2009 Morning, S., Travelling Without Moving: The Digital Consumer, Published Online, March 2007 Munford, M., The mobile playground is now open, The Guardian, <http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2009/may/21/mobile-games-industry>, 21st May 2009 - 38 -
  • 39. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? Nielson, The Global Online Media Landscape: Identifying Opportunities in a Challenging Market, Nielson, 2009 Nielson Mobile, Critical Mass: The Worldwide State of the Mobile Web, Nielson, July 2008 Okazaki, S., The Tactical Use of Mobile Marketing: How Adolescents’ Social Networking Can Best Shape Brand Extensions, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 49, No. 1, March 2009, pp. 12- 26 Ogilvy and Acision, White Paper: Mobile Advertising 2020 Vision, Published Online, August 2009 Pettit, R., From Politics to Marketing: An Emotional Framework for Advertising, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 49, No. 1, March 2009, pp. 10-11 Precourt, G., The Promise of Mobile, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 49, No. 1, March 2009, pp. 1-2 Sheridan, B., A Trillion Pounds of Data, Newsweek, 9th March 2009 Smyth, T., What’s Next For Mobile? Millward Brown Points of View, July 2009 Wray, R., Bond style wrist watch phone joins gizmo assault on Apple, The Guardian, <http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2009/feb/17/smartphones-mobile-world-congress- barcelona>, 17th February 2009 Wray, R., UK mobile phone firms to sell data about customer activity, The Guardian, <http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2009/feb/16/mobile-phone-internet-advertising>, 16th February 2009 Wray, R., Smartphones are go – and everyone is calling in for a piece of the action, The Observer, <http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2009/feb/22/mobile-phone-technology- smartphones>, 22nd February 2009 Yakob, F., The Future of Brands: I believe the children are our future, Published Online, November 2007 Yakob, F., Digital Viewpoints: The Invisible Web, Campaign Magazine, 17th October 2008 - 39 -
  • 40. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? 14.3 Webography Websites AdAge <http://adage.com> Apple Inc. <http://www.apple.com/> Baekdal <http://www.baekdal.com> Boards Magazine Online <http://www.boardsmag.com/> Campaign Magazine <http://www.campaignlive.co.uk/> CNet Asia <http://asia.cnet.com/> comScore <http://www.comscore.com/> Contagious Magazine Online <http://www.contagiousmagazine.com/> Convergence Culture Online <http://www.convergenceculture.org/> Culture Buzz <http://www.culture-buzz.com/> Demo <http://www.demo.com/> Digital Trends <http://www.digitaltrends.com/> Direct Marketing Association <http://www.the-dma.org/index.php> Guardian Online <http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology> GraphicoDMG < http://www.graphicodmg.co.uk/> Institute Practitioners of Advertising <http://www.ipa.co.uk/NewsList.aspx?type=Latest> Interactive Advertising Bureau <http://www.iab.net/> Into Mobile <http://www.intomobile.com/> Mashable <http://mashable.com/> Mobi Ad News <http://www.mobiadnews.com/index.php> Mobile Active <http://mobileactive.org/> Mobile in Japan <http://www.mobileinjapan.com/> Mobile Marketing Association <http://www.mmaglobal.com/main> Mobile Marketing Forum <http://www.mobilemarketingforum.com/> Mobile Marketing Watch <http://www.mobilemarketingwatch.com/> Mobile Media Japan <http://www.mobilemediajapan.com/> - 40 -
  • 41. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? Mobile Monday <http://www.mobilemonday.net/> New Media, Marketing & Advertising Magazine <http://www.nma.co.uk/> Open Advertising Online <http://www.openad.net/> Search Engine Land <http://searchengineland.com/#selogo> TED Talks <http://www.ted.com/> Times Online <http://technology.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/tech_and_web/> ThinkBox <http://www.thinkbox.tv/> UK Tribes <http://www.uktribes.com/> Wikipedia < http://www.wikipedia.org/> Wired Magazine <http://www.wired.com/> Wireless Watch Japan <http://wirelesswatch.jp/> (All referred to multiple times throughout July to September) - 41 -
  • 42. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? Blogs 3G 4G <http://3g4g.blogspot.com/2008_09_01_archive.html> Ad Freak <http://adweek.blogs.com/adfreak/> Ad Space Pioneers <http://adspace-pioneers.blogspot.com/> Ad Tech Blog <http://www.adtechblog.com/> Ads of the World <http://adsoftheworld.com/> Adver Lab <http://adverlab.blogspot.com/> Ad Week Media <http://www.adweekmedia.com/aw/custom-reports/index.jsp> Ana Anjelic <http://anaandjelic.typepad.com/> Analytic 1st <http://analytica1st.com/analytica1st/index.html> Bad Science <http://www.badscience.net/> Buzz Machine <http://www.buzzmachine.com/> Buzz Mobile Marketing <http://www.buzzmobilemarketing.com/home.html> Cell Phone Advertising <http://www.cellphone-advertising.com/> Charles Frith <http://www.charlesfrith.com/> CST Advertising <http://www.cstadvertising.com/blog/> Dan Burgess <http://danburgess.typepad.com/tap_tap/> Digi Native <http://diginative.blogspot.com/> E Marketer <http://www.emarketer.com/Welcome.aspx> Euro Technology <http://eurotechnology.com/store/jcomm/index.shtml> Games Al Fresco <http://gamesalfresco.com/> Henry Jenkins <http://www.henryjenkins.org/> Herd <http://herd.typepad.com/herd_the_hidden_truth_abo/> I Loop Mobile <http://iloopmobile.com/blog/> Interactive Marketing Trends <http://interactivemarketingtrends.blogspot.com/> Internet Marketing Genie <http://www.theinternetmarketinggenie.com/> I Watch Stuff <http://www.iwatchstuff.com/advertise/> Jan Chipcase <http://www.janchipchase.com/> - 42 -
  • 43. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? Lab 77 <http://lab.77agency.com/> Lewis Hyde <http://www.lewishyde.com/> Mayo Lounge <http://mayolounge.blogspot.com/> Media Futurist <http://www.mediafuturist.com/about.html> Meme Huffer <http://memehuffer.typepad.com/> Misentropy <http://www.misentropy.com> Mobile Alley <http://mobilealley.wordpress.com/> Mobile Cruch <http://www.mobilecrunch.com/> Mobile Data Association <http://www.themda.org/index.php> Mobile Marketing <http://m.obilemarketing.com/> Mobile Marketing Ads <http://mobilemarketingads.blogspot.com/> Mobile Marketing Masters <http://www.mobilemarketingmasters.com/> Mobile Marketing ROI <http://mobile-marketing-roi.adreka.com/mobile.phtml> Mobile Weblog <http://www.mobile-weblog.com/> Mutant Frog <http://www.mutantfrog.com/> Nicola Davies <http://nicspic2608.wordpress.com/> O Alquimista <http://www.oalquimista.com/> QR Code Kaywa <http://qrcode.kaywa.com/> Ramzi Yakob <http://ramziyakob.blogspot.com/> Real Meme <http://www.realmeme.com/Main/> Rick Haslam <http://livinginadigitalworld.com/> Russell Davies <http://russelldavies.typepad.com/> Sandeep Makam <http://sandeepmakam.blogspot.com/> Scamp <http://scampblog.blogspot.com/> Textually <http://www.textually.org/> Tim Berners Lee <http://dig.csail.mit.edu/breadcrumbs/blog/4> What Japan Thinks <http://whatjapanthinks.com/> - 43 -
  • 44. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? Web 20 Asia <http://www.web20asia.com/> We Love Mobile <http://welovemobile.co.uk/index.html> (All referred to multiple times throughout July to September) - 44 -
  • 45. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? Slide Share Presentations Ando, R., Location Based Mobile Ad: A Lesson from Japan, Cirius Technologies, <http://www.slideshare.net/ren_cirius/locationbased-mobile-ad-a-lesson-from-japan- presentation> Beckstrom, B., Mobile Marketing Trends 2009, Apollo Bravo, <http://www.slideshare.net/m2bradb/mobile-marketing-trends-2009> Billich, C., Future Insight: Mobile commerce in Japan, Infinita, <http://www.slideshare.net/cbillich/future-insight-mobile-commerce-in-japan> Cosser, S., Mobile Search, Media Vision, <http://www.slideshare.net/SandyCosser/mobile- search-presentation> Fernandes, J., A View on Mobile Marketing, AdLab, <http://www.slideshare.net/joaotfernandes/aviewonmobilemarketing> Friis, J., Mobile Marketing – now and in the future, Responsfabrikken, <http://www.slideshare.net/jensfriis/mobile-marketing-now-and-in-the-future> Grigsby, J., Native vs. Web vs. Hybrid: Mobile Development Choices, <http://www.slideshare.net/grigs/native-vs-web-vs-hybrid-mobile-development-choices> Joffe, B., Mobile and Web innovation in China, Plus Eight Star <http://www.slideshare.net/plus8star/mobile-and-web-innovation-in-china> Metzger, M., Mobile Future 2020, Ahead of Time, <http://www.slideshare.net/montymetzger/mobile-future-2020> Ogilvy, Mobile Advertising 2020 Vision, <http://www.slideshare.net/guest240766/mobile- advertising-2020-vision> Pankraz, D., The New Marketing Landscape, Clemenger BBDO Sydney, <http://www.slideshare.net/guest7e5b6a/the-new-marketing-landscape-by-dan-pankraz- presentation> Sen, S., Mobile Phone Trends2008 – 2010, Infibeam, <http://www.slideshare.net/infibeam/mobile-phone-trend-2008-2010> Wilson, J., Adma Mobile Marketing (and More) June 2009, The Project Factory, <http://www.slideshare.net/JenWilson/adma-mobile-marketing-and-more-june- 2009?src=related_normal&rel=1532006> (All referred to multiple times throughout August and September) - 45 -
  • 46. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? 14.4 Interviews Berg, Kristin, Wunderman, Head of Digital, ongoing discussions in September 2009 Christie, Oli, Inbox DMG, Creative Director, ongoing discussions in April 2009 Davies, Nicola, Abbott Mead Vickers BBDO, Digital Planner, ongoing discussions in September 2009 Eldridge, Andrew, Inbox DMG, Web Designer/Digital Creative, ongoing discussions in April 2009 Manveille, Tim, RAPP, Digital/Data Strategist, ongoing discussions in July 2009 Moss, Paul, Archibald Ingall Stretton, Head of Data Planning, ongoing discussions in August 2009 Rolt, Will, Archibald Ingall Stretton, Head of New Business, ongoing discussions in August 2009 Runnacles, Martin, Ultegra Management Consulting, MD, ongoing discussions in July 2009 White, Tom, Abbott Mead Vickers BBDO, Senior Planner, ongoing discussions in September 2009 Wiliffer, Matt, nDreams, Partner, ongoing discussions in August 2009 - 46 -
  • 47. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? 14.5 Placements 14th – 25th September 2009 Abbott Mead Vickers BBDO 151 Marylebone Road, London NW1 5QE 3rd – 28th August 2009 Archibald Ingall Stretton Berners House, 47-48 Berners Street, London W1T 3NF 15th – 26th June 2009 Fallon London Elsley Court, 20-22 Great Titchfield Street, London, W1W 8BE 6th – 17th April 2009 Inbox DMG Vicarage Court, 160 Ermin Street, Swindon, Wilts SN3 4NE - 47 -
  • 48. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? 14.6 Correspondence Blume, David, OBE Managing Director Jaguar Land Rover Tokyo Japan Kerwin, Robert W. Chariman Dentsu Young & Rubicam Inc. Tokyo Japan - 48 -
  • 49. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? 14.7 Picture Sources Fig.1 The Opte Project’s first full map of the Internet – Opte - <http://www.opte.org/maps/> Fig.2 Gartner Hype Cycle, <http://www.gartner.com/technology/home.jsp> Fig.3 The Bi-Modal Consumer and the Generational Chasm, IBM Institute for Business Value <http://www-935.ibm.com/services/us/index.wss/ibvstudy/imc/a1 023172?cntxt=a1000062&re=endoftv> Fig.4 Gartner Hype Cycle 2009, <http://www.gartner.com/technology/home.jsp> Fig.5 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, K&J Investigations & Management, <http://kandjinvestigations.com/blog/2009/07/23/reevaluting-maslows-pyramid-the- funnel-effect/> Fig.6 Classic Consumer Adoption Process, Strategic Marketing and Research Techniques, SMART, <http://www.s-m-a-r-t.com/SMARTForecasting.htm> Fig.7 Possible future roles of a mobile phone – Slide Share - <http://www.slideshare.net/joaotfernandes/aviewonmobilemarketing> Fig.8 The Subtle Knife by Philip Pullman – Wikipedia – <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Subtle_Knife> Fig.9 Nokia N900 - <http://www.nokiamobiletalk.com/2009/09/nokia-n900-evolution- nw09/> Fig.10 Apple Tablet as imagined by Tommaso Gecchelin - <http://www.yankodesign.com/2009/04/29/macbook-touch-maybe-just-maybe/> Fig.11 Sarah Morning’s Essay Travelling without moving: The digital consumer, <http://farisyakob.typepad.com/Digitourists_and_Digitravellers.pdf> Fig.12 The strong advantages of mobile over other media - Booz & Co. Stockholm/Berlin/Vienna/Munich, The March of Mobile Marketing: New Chances for Consumer Companies, New Opportunities for Mobile Operators, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 49, No. 1, March 2009 Fig.13 Kmart Protégé ads on the New York Subway – The Fashion Examiner - <http://thefashionexaminer.blogspot.com/2009/03/protege-affordable-sneakers-by- knicks.html> Fig.14 Kmart Protégé ads on the New York Subway – Brand Anthropologist - <http://www.yamoms.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/alprotege.gif > Fig.15 iTunes App Store – Apple Inc. - <http://www.apple.com/hk/en/itunes/whatson/appstore.html> Fig.16 Barclaycard Waterslide Extreme iPhone Game – Dare Digital - <http://www.daredigital.com/work/mobile/iPhone/Barclaycard/Waterslide/index.html> Fig.17 Adidas Urban Art Guide – iPhonic - <http://www.iphonic.tv/2009/05/adidas_creates_free_guide_to_b.html> - 49 -
  • 50. How will Mobile Technologies change the face of Marketing? Fig.18 Adidas Urban Art Guide – Blogo Pub - <http://blogopub.tv/adidas+iphone+application> Fig.19 Blyk Logo – Dutch Cowboys - <http://www.dutchcowboys.nl/images/upload/logo_blyk.jpg> Fig.20 The effectiveness of Word Of Mouth in marketing, Fujita, A., Mobile Marketing in Japan: The Acceleration of Integrated Marketing Communications, Journal of Integrated Marketing Communications, 2008 Fig.21 Digital and analogue Clocks – Author’s own Fig.22 Portrait of Paul Watzlawick – Danto Cumnicacion - <http://cricelli.files.wordpress.com/2009/07/ba_bit_watzlawick.jpg> Fig.23 Tokyo Disney QR Campaign – The Bindery Blog - <http://thebinderyblog.com/2009/09/10/qr-code-technology/> Fig.24 A typical QR code – The Next Web - <http://thenextweb.com/2008/03/14/japanese- magazine-filled-with-only-qr-codes/> Fig.25 Pepsi Kicks QR Campaign – Graphico DMG - <http://www.graphicodmg.co.uk/CaseStudy.aspx?cid=80> Fig.26 Pepsi Kicks QR Campaign – Ferlips - <http://ferlips.files.wordpress.com/2009/05/pepsi- kick-qr-code.jpg> Fig.27 Augmented Reality – Geotagging examples – Crystalinks - <http://www.crystalinks.com/augmentedreality.jpg> Fig.28 Augmented Reality – Geotagging examples – AdLab - <http://adverlab.blogspot.com/2008/11/future-now-reality-augmented-through.html> Fig.29 Oasis’ RubberDuckZilla Augmented Reality game – Poke London - <http://www.pokelondon.com/images/RubberDuckZillaWebcam03.jpg> Fig.30 Foursquare logo <http://www.cashflowec.com/images1/foursquare.png> Fig.31 Tohato Campaign Logo – Wikinomics - <http://www.wikinomics.com/blog/index.php/tag/advertising/> Fig.32 QR codes on the back of Tohato crisp packets – Mobi Ad News - <http://www.mobiadnews.com/?p=2954> Fig.33 Axe ‘Laser’ Campaign – Coloribus - <http://www.coloribus.com/adsarchive/prints/axe- axe-laser-202132/> - 50 -