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Dr. Benjamin Jörissen
                                     http://joerissen.name
                                benjamin@joerissen.name




   Mobile learning in
   formal education
or: How to train a trojan horse


       Comenius-Regio-Tag
          Nürnberg, 12.3.2013
learning is always mobile
sometimes learning gets
     de-mobilised




  (for good reasons)
good reasons:


        shelter (safe environment)
   focusing and synchronising attention
enabling various forms of communication
achieving a learning community and culture
(Jahrbuch des Kaiserlich Archäologischen Instituts, Berlin 1892, Taf. 2)
http://archive.org/stream/jahrbuchdeskaise07kaisrich#page/n431/mode/2up
promise of power
     seemingly serving traditional purposes
carrying forces that disrupt the traditional order
promise of power
     seemingly serving traditional purposes
carrying forces that disrupt the traditional order
„Smartboards are more powerful/
   versatile than chalkboards.“

„Beamers are more powerful/versatile
   than overhead projectors.“

  „Smartpad s are more powerful/
    versatile than paper books
   and exercise books.“

                       etc. …
But in fact, dig ital, networked med ia
are not merely powerful new too ls.

They demand and enforce a change
in the way that schools organise …

     learning
                   learning culture
 school culture
                  and, particularly,

    scho o l‘s organisational culture.
Why so?
School as a
                      „typographic educational culture“,
                        normatively bound to literality,
                          thus structurally excluding
                              non-linear media.




Böhme, Jeanette: Schule am Ende der Buchkultur. Bad Heilbrunn 2006.
Linearisation is a main
   property of text
Linearisation is a main
    property of text


    letter after letter
    word after word
 sentence after sentence
paragraph after paragraph
  chapter after chapter
     book after book
Linearisation is also a main pattern
 of complexity reduction in literal
      educational institutions
Linearisation is a main pattern of
 complexity reduction in literal
     educational institutions


                 files
                 lists
              reports
             protocolls
     documented processes
  (i.e. scripts for routines and
         decision making)
                  …
Linearisation is a main pattern of
         complexity reduction in literal
             educational institutions


 organisation of space      organisation of time

   differentiation of         differentiation of
    school classes             school subjects

   governance of the         governance of the
order of communication      order of knowledge
Linearisation is a main pattern of
       complexity reduction in literal
           educational institutions


organisation of space


             hierarchically divided
Linearisation is a main pattern of
       complexity reduction in literal
           educational institutions


organisation of space


             hierarchically divided

                              demand for a complete
                                spatial separation
                                   (i.e., walls)
Linearisation is a main pattern of
 complexity reduction in literal
     educational institutions


                    organisation of time


     divided and normalised
Linearisation is a main pattern of
          complexity reduction in literal
              educational institutions


                             organisation of time


              divided and normalised

  demand for a
synchronised time
   management
Linearisation is a main pattern of
      complexity reduction in literal
          educational institutions




differentiation of      spatial separation +
 school classes           age separation
Linearisation is a main pattern of
     complexity reduction in literal
         educational institutions




                          differentiation of
temporal separation
                           school subjects
Linearisation is a main pattern of
        complexity reduction in literal
            educational institutions




              pre-defined types of
                 social settings

   governance of the
order of communication
Linearisation is a main pattern of
        complexity reduction in literal
            educational institutions


                                      demand for
                                    social boundaries

              pre-defined types of
                 social settings

   governance of the
order of communication
Linearisation is a main pattern of
 complexity reduction in literal
     educational institutions




           preselection/
    hierarchisation of fields of
    knowledge/competencies

                      governance of the
                     order of knowledge
Linearisation is a main pattern of
           complexity reduction in literal
               educational institutions


   demand for
controllable media
                     preselection/
              hierarchisation of fields of
              knowledge/competencies

                                governance of the
                               order of knowledge
Linearisation is a main pattern of
           complexity reduction in literal
               educational institutions


   demand for                          demand for
controllable media                   social boundaries



  demand for a                   demand for a complete
synchronised time                  spatial separation
   management                         (i.e., walls)
Linearisation is a main pattern of
           complexity reduction in literal
               educational institutions


   demand for                          demand for
controllable media                   social boundaries

            naturalisation of linearisation

  demand for a                   demand for a complete
synchronised time                  spatial separation
   management                         (i.e., walls)
new media
challenge the
linearisation
 of learning
(And here is where our trojan horse trots in.)
(And here is where our trojan horse trots in.)
control of sources
                     social boundaries
   and content




 synchronisation     spatial separation
control of sources
                       social boundaries
   and content




      asynchronous &
       polychronous
         structures


 synchronisation       spatial separation
control of sources
                         social boundaries
   and content


         no control
       (but individual
            filters)

      asynchronous &
       polychronous
         structures


 synchronisation         spatial separation
control of sources
                            social boundaries
   and content


         no control         networks
       (but individual   without defined
            filters)       boundaries

      asynchronous &
       polychronous
         structures


 synchronisation            spatial separation
control of sources
                            social boundaries
   and content


         no control         networks
       (but individual   without defined
            filters)       boundaries

      asynchronous &     unified spaces,
       polychronous         ubiquity,
         structures         mobility


 synchronisation            spatial separation
deliberate control
                             deliberate social
    of sources
                                boundaries
   and content


         no control         networks
       (but individual   without defined
            filters)       boundaries

      asynchronous &     unified spaces,
       polychronous         ubiquity,
         structures         mobility


    deliberate              deliberate spatial
 synchronisation               separation
no control         networks
(but individual   without defined
     filters)       boundaries

asynchronous &    unified spaces,
 polychronous        ubiquity,
   structures        mobility
ne
cu ed
   no control         networks


  ltiv fo
 (but individual   without defined
      filters)       boundaries


      ati r
 asynchronous &    unified spaces,


         on
  polychronous        ubiquity,
    structures        mobility
So, how do you train a trojan horse?
So, how do you train a trojan horse?




            (You don‘t.)
(But you‘ll probably learn how to ride it.)




(Scottish writer Marty Ross mounted on a Trojan Rocking Horse, London Architecture Biennial 2004)
                                   http://bit.ly/trojanhorseride
Dr. Benjamin Jörissen
                                          http://joerissen.name
                                     benjamin@joerissen.name




   Mobile learning in
   formal education
or: How to train a trojan horse


  Slides are online via slideshare.com
   (or ask me for the keynote file)

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Mobile learning in formal education or: How to train a trojan horse

  • 1. Dr. Benjamin Jörissen http://joerissen.name benjamin@joerissen.name Mobile learning in formal education or: How to train a trojan horse Comenius-Regio-Tag Nürnberg, 12.3.2013
  • 3. sometimes learning gets de-mobilised (for good reasons)
  • 4. good reasons: shelter (safe environment) focusing and synchronising attention enabling various forms of communication achieving a learning community and culture
  • 5. (Jahrbuch des Kaiserlich Archäologischen Instituts, Berlin 1892, Taf. 2) http://archive.org/stream/jahrbuchdeskaise07kaisrich#page/n431/mode/2up
  • 6. promise of power seemingly serving traditional purposes carrying forces that disrupt the traditional order
  • 7. promise of power seemingly serving traditional purposes carrying forces that disrupt the traditional order
  • 8. „Smartboards are more powerful/ versatile than chalkboards.“ „Beamers are more powerful/versatile than overhead projectors.“ „Smartpad s are more powerful/ versatile than paper books and exercise books.“ etc. …
  • 9. But in fact, dig ital, networked med ia are not merely powerful new too ls. They demand and enforce a change in the way that schools organise … learning learning culture school culture and, particularly, scho o l‘s organisational culture.
  • 11. School as a „typographic educational culture“, normatively bound to literality, thus structurally excluding non-linear media. Böhme, Jeanette: Schule am Ende der Buchkultur. Bad Heilbrunn 2006.
  • 12. Linearisation is a main property of text
  • 13. Linearisation is a main property of text letter after letter word after word sentence after sentence paragraph after paragraph chapter after chapter book after book
  • 14. Linearisation is also a main pattern of complexity reduction in literal educational institutions
  • 15. Linearisation is a main pattern of complexity reduction in literal educational institutions files lists reports protocolls documented processes (i.e. scripts for routines and decision making) …
  • 16. Linearisation is a main pattern of complexity reduction in literal educational institutions organisation of space organisation of time differentiation of differentiation of school classes school subjects governance of the governance of the order of communication order of knowledge
  • 17. Linearisation is a main pattern of complexity reduction in literal educational institutions organisation of space hierarchically divided
  • 18. Linearisation is a main pattern of complexity reduction in literal educational institutions organisation of space hierarchically divided demand for a complete spatial separation (i.e., walls)
  • 19. Linearisation is a main pattern of complexity reduction in literal educational institutions organisation of time divided and normalised
  • 20. Linearisation is a main pattern of complexity reduction in literal educational institutions organisation of time divided and normalised demand for a synchronised time management
  • 21. Linearisation is a main pattern of complexity reduction in literal educational institutions differentiation of spatial separation + school classes age separation
  • 22. Linearisation is a main pattern of complexity reduction in literal educational institutions differentiation of temporal separation school subjects
  • 23. Linearisation is a main pattern of complexity reduction in literal educational institutions pre-defined types of social settings governance of the order of communication
  • 24. Linearisation is a main pattern of complexity reduction in literal educational institutions demand for social boundaries pre-defined types of social settings governance of the order of communication
  • 25. Linearisation is a main pattern of complexity reduction in literal educational institutions preselection/ hierarchisation of fields of knowledge/competencies governance of the order of knowledge
  • 26. Linearisation is a main pattern of complexity reduction in literal educational institutions demand for controllable media preselection/ hierarchisation of fields of knowledge/competencies governance of the order of knowledge
  • 27. Linearisation is a main pattern of complexity reduction in literal educational institutions demand for demand for controllable media social boundaries demand for a demand for a complete synchronised time spatial separation management (i.e., walls)
  • 28. Linearisation is a main pattern of complexity reduction in literal educational institutions demand for demand for controllable media social boundaries naturalisation of linearisation demand for a demand for a complete synchronised time spatial separation management (i.e., walls)
  • 30. (And here is where our trojan horse trots in.)
  • 31. (And here is where our trojan horse trots in.)
  • 32. control of sources social boundaries and content synchronisation spatial separation
  • 33. control of sources social boundaries and content asynchronous & polychronous structures synchronisation spatial separation
  • 34. control of sources social boundaries and content no control (but individual filters) asynchronous & polychronous structures synchronisation spatial separation
  • 35. control of sources social boundaries and content no control networks (but individual without defined filters) boundaries asynchronous & polychronous structures synchronisation spatial separation
  • 36. control of sources social boundaries and content no control networks (but individual without defined filters) boundaries asynchronous & unified spaces, polychronous ubiquity, structures mobility synchronisation spatial separation
  • 37. deliberate control deliberate social of sources boundaries and content no control networks (but individual without defined filters) boundaries asynchronous & unified spaces, polychronous ubiquity, structures mobility deliberate deliberate spatial synchronisation separation
  • 38. no control networks (but individual without defined filters) boundaries asynchronous & unified spaces, polychronous ubiquity, structures mobility
  • 39. ne cu ed no control networks ltiv fo (but individual without defined filters) boundaries ati r asynchronous & unified spaces, on polychronous ubiquity, structures mobility
  • 40. So, how do you train a trojan horse?
  • 41. So, how do you train a trojan horse? (You don‘t.)
  • 42. (But you‘ll probably learn how to ride it.) (Scottish writer Marty Ross mounted on a Trojan Rocking Horse, London Architecture Biennial 2004) http://bit.ly/trojanhorseride
  • 43. Dr. Benjamin Jörissen http://joerissen.name benjamin@joerissen.name Mobile learning in formal education or: How to train a trojan horse Slides are online via slideshare.com (or ask me for the keynote file)

Editor's Notes

  1. promise of power seemingly serving traditional purposes carrying forces that disrupt the traditional order
  2. For good reasons
  3. For good reasons
  4. (Trojan horse on corintian aryballos) What are the structural properties of a trojan horse? - it seems to be a gift – beautiful, attractive, powerful, „for the gods“ – but as a fake gift for the gods, it only seems to serve the ancient powers – in opposite, it has forces inside that disrupt the old order.
  5. Some views on new media eventually follow this patterns. …
  6. Which is true. But: The usual approach to understand something unknown and new is to try to subsume it by means of the well-known old. This implies to miss (underestimate or misunderstand) the emergent qualities of media innovations.
  7. … and it has to be so, because literality is not only an education goal and ideal, but also the basis of organisational practices such as organising the conveyance of knowledge.
  8. Files, lists, reports, protocolls are at the heart of classical organisations.
  9. As sociologist Niklas Luhmann pointed out, systems, such as educational organizations, can only process their operations one step after another, that is: linearly. (While of course there is a kind of multitasking and pluralisation of time through establishing subsystems such as school classes).Linearisation strategies are key to handling the multiple complexities organizations (such as schools) have to deal with.
  10. Project-based learning means to partially override the temporal separation of aspects of the everyday world.
  11. class community – workgroups – individual (as good as) no networks, neither within the school community nor with other schools. classroom boundary as paradigm for learning community
  12. class community – workgroups – individual (as good as) no networks, neither within the school community nor with other schools. classroom boundary as paradigm for learning community
  13. curricula,
  14. (media which are able to perpetuate given curricula)
  15. Governing an educational organisation by means of the administrative tools of the 18th and 19th century (basically) is not only bound to linearise non-linear complexities, but moreover, to naturalise linearisation.
  16. Non-linear, complex media such as digital networked media are a challenge to the demands of nowadays schools in terms of control and boundaries.
  17. A tool? An e-book „plus“? A thing to work with your moodle-course? and more lightweight than books, too!
  18. Or is it something which, in the end, will bring the plethora of chances and challenges of digital networked environments right into the classroom?
  19. These are some of he major transformations caused by digital, networked media: - asynchronous and polychronous structures are enabled by the persistence of information, which stretches the boundaries of „presence“.
  20. - source and content control transforms into an individual task of choosing and building up filter mechanisms in order to separate valuable from less valuable, reliable from less reliable information, and to avoid the distraction of informational abundance as well as the redundance of an informational echo chamber.
  21. - traditional social forms like communities and groups transform into the multitude of shapes that social networks can take (not talking about social networking platforms, but about networks of acquaintances as personal, i.e. knowledge resources).
  22. - all this happens ubiquitously and mobile within the unified spaces and locations of the social web, pluralising our common notions of „space“ as one unity.
  23. The „old“ order has not vanished: it now becomes an option of deliberate choice. Controlled, closed, synchronised learning environments are a subset among many other options.
  24. Deliberation implicates freedom of choice. Freedom of choice, though, implicates power of judgement, a competence in making „good“ decisions.
  25. This means, the multiplicity of options ubiquitously brought by digital networked media still demand the development and cultivation of good, helpful, efficient ways to use those options. This is a central task and educational challenge of our time. Institutions of formal education, such as schools and universities, have a special obligation in this regard. Mobile learning media may serve as trojan horses, allowing schools to adapt to nonlinear structures in the long run, because they allow for both: relatively traditional use of controlled content in linear modes and innovative networked use.
  26. Trojan horses can‘t be trained (but people can be trained to ride them).
  27. The open, uncontrolled structure of new media will not be changed to fit school‘s demands.
  28. Not only teachers as professionals and students as learners, but educational organisations have to change in order to integrate the non-linear structures of new media, and to seek and cultivate good uses.