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MLA guidelines require the Works Cited page to be arranged alphabetically by the author’s last name (or title, if no author) and
doubled-spaced. For organizational purposes and to save paper, those guidelines are NOT reflected here.
Sample MLA Citation Formats
Books
Dawes, Tim, Jr. Tech Time. Flemington: Central Press, 1997. Print. one author
Deed, Patricia, and Marc Southern. Software Basics. New York: May Press, 2002. Print. two authors
Dew, John, et al. Myths Revisited. New York: The Viking Press, 1992. Print. three or more
authors
The College Dictionary. Springfield: G. & C. Merriam Co., 1976. Print. no author
Baker, Ray Stannard. “Ignorance is the Real Enemy.” Ordinary Americans. Ed. Linda R. Monk.
Alexandria: Close Up Publishing, 1994. 150-1. Print.
work in anthology,
reference, or
collection (editor)
Johnson, Diane. Introduction. Frankenstein. By Mary Shelley. 3rd
ed. New York: Bantam Books, 1991. vii-
xix. Print.
introduction,
preface, foreword,
afterword
E-books
Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter. Boston, 1890. Google Book Search. Web. 7 July, 2009. e-book
Ency./Dict.
“Japan.” World Book Online. World Book, 1999. Web. 2 Aug. 2008. online
Dundes, Alan. “Myth: Myths of the Beginning and of the End.” Encyclopaedia Britannica. 15th ed. 1970.
Print.
print
ElectronicDatabases(includingPeriodicals)
Golombok, Susan, and Robyn Fivush. "Gender Is Determined Biologically and Socially." Opposing
Viewpoints: Human Sexuality. Ed. Brenda Stalcup. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1995. Opposing
Viewpoints Resource Center. Web. 18 Aug. 2008.
Note: For sources originally from a book series, the editor and publisher are included, as shown in this example.
Opposing
Viewpoints
Lincoln, Joanne, et al. “Hidden Atlanta: The City Behind the Trees.” American Libraries 33 (June 2002): 94.
eLibrary Curriculum. Web. 19 Sept. 2008.
eLibrary
Curriculum
(Proquest)
“The Beastie Boys.” Newsmakers 1999 1 (1999). Biography Resource Center. Web. 19 Sept. 2008. Biography
Resource Center
(Gale)
Jones, Tom. “Romance.” American Essays. Ed. Bob Smith. 2nd
ed. Vol. 3. New York: Random House,
1998. Literary Reference Center. Web. 12 Aug. 2008.
Literary Reference
Center (Galileo)
Leibrock, Rachel. “Teens Herald the Death of E-mail.” Sacramento Bee 13 July 2008. SIRS Knowledge
Source. Web. 22 Sept. 2008.
SIRS Knowledge
Source
Winsor, Mary. “Biology.” History of Modern Science and Mathematics. Ed. Brian Baigrie. New York:
Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2002. Science Resource Center. Web. 19 Sept. 2008.
Science Resource
Center (Gale)
Print
Periodical
Quinn, Christopher. “Homeless Shelter Another Victim of Poor Economy.” The Atlanta Journal-
Constitution 17 Aug. 2009, A1+. Print.
Note: The “+” sign is used to denote the story continues on other pages.
newspaper
Massaro, Thomas. “A Welfare Primer.” American Heritage June 1996: 16-19. Print. magazine
Websites
“Shakespeare’s Life.” Folger Shakespeare Library. Folger Institute, 2009. Web. 16 July 2008. website with
sponsoring agency
Sherman, Amy. "All about Chutney." Cooking with Amy: A Food Blog. Cooking with Amy, 30 Mar. 2005.
Web. 12 Sept. 2008.
website/blog
“Genetic Counselor.” Career Cruising. Ananca Technologies, 2008. Web. 19 Sept. 2008. Career Cruising
website
This document is modified from Hunterdon Central Regional HS Instructional Media Center http://central.hcrhs.k12.nj.us/imc/.
Other Underwood, Carrie. “Last Name.” Carnival Ride. Arista, 2007. CD. sound recording
United States. Dept. of Labor. Child Labor Laws. Washington: GPO, 1997. Print. government pub.
Wheeler, Dora. Fairy in Irises. 1888. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Works of Art Collection Database.
Web. 4 Aug. 2008.
image found
online (art or
photo)
Victor, Scott, perf. “HC Devils.” Hunterdon Central Chronicles. iTunes, 5 May 2008. Digital file. digital file (mp3,
jpg, pdf)
Roberts, John, host. “$675K Fine for Music Downloads.” CNN.com. Cable News Network, 4 Aug. 2009.
Web. 5 Aug. 2009.
video clip online
Wasserman, Eric. Personal interview. 18 Sept. 2008. interview
West, Adam. “Re: Bats at Night.” Message to John Doe. 18 Nov. 2006. E-mail. personal e-mail
Woods, Jim. “Dream Questionnaire.” Collins Hill High School: Suwanee, GA. 2009. survey
West Side Story. Dir. Robert Wise and Jerome Robbins. 1961. MGM Home Entertainment, 2003. DVD. movie
**All citations must be alphabetical and double-spaced. Here is a breakdown of some of the citation formats:
Book – One Author
Dawes, Tim, Jr. Tech Time. Flemington: Central Press, 1997. Print.
Video from a Website
Roberts, John, host. “$675K Fine for Music Downloads.” CNN.com. Cable News Network, 4 Aug. 2009. Web. 5 Aug. 2009.
Periodical – in Print
Massaro, Thomas. “A Welfare Primer.” American Heritage June 1996: 16-19. Print.
Subscription Database Periodical
Lincoln, Joanne, et al. “Hidden Atlanta: The City Behind the Trees.” American Libraries 33 (June 2002): 94. eLibrary Curriculum.
Web. 19 Sept. 2008.
Website
Sherman, Amy. "All about Chutney." Cooking with Amy: A Food Blog. Cooking with Amy, 30 Mar. 2005. Web. 12 Sept. 2008.
Notes:
For citations with multiple authors, follow the formats used for books.
Abbreviations are required for missing information in web citations.
o Use n.p. if no publisher or sponsor is given.
o Use n.d. when no publication date is given.
o Use n. pag. if no page numbers are given (for a work on the Web that also has print publication data)
Missing a format? Try the 2009 MLA Formatting and Style Guide online at the Owl Lab at Perdue’s website:
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/ or the 7th
edition of the MLA Handbook located in the Media Center.
Author -
last name, first
name
Title
Place of
Publication Publisher Copyright
Date
Title of Work
Date of Posting
Title of
Website
Date of Access
Title of
Article
Author or Authors Page #’s
Publication
Date
Title of
Magazine
Title of Original
Source and Volume
#, if anyAuthor of Article,
if any
Title of
Article
Original
Page #s
Original
Publication
Date
Date of Access
Database
Name
Title of WebsiteAuthor of
Article/Section
Title of Article/Section
Last Updated
/ Copyright
Date of
Access
Format
Format
Format
Creator/
Publisher of
entire Website
Format
FormatPublisher
or Sponsor
Name of
Author/Host, etc.
MLA Parenthetical Citation Formats
The following are examples of parenthetical citation formats. For more detailed information, consult the MLA Handbook (7
th
edition) or try the MLA Formatting Guide at the Owl at Perdue’s website http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/02/.
Please note: When using online resources, page numbers are omitted from the parenthetical citation.
When you omit the author’s name in your sentence:
One researcher has found that dreams move backward in time as the night progresses (Dement 71).
When you mention the author’s name in your sentence:
Freud states that “a dream is the fulfillment of a wish” (154).
When you use a Website and mention the author’s name, OMIT the page number:
Smith states that “we are all individuals, similar but different.”
When you cite more than one work by the same author:
One current theory emphasizes the principle that dreams express “profound aspects of personality” (Foulkes, Sleep 184). But
investigation shows that young children’s dreams are “rather simple and unemotional” (Foulkes, Dreams 78).
When the work has two or three authors:
Psychologists hold that no two children are alike (Gesell and Smith 68).
When the work has more than three authors:
(Rosenberg et al. 14)
When the work has no author, begin with the word by which the title is alphabetized in the Works Cited. If the title is
long, it is acceptable to shorten it:
Random testing for use of steroids by athletes is facing strong opposition by owners of several of these teams (“Steroids” 22).
When you quote or paraphrase a quotation from a book or article that appeared somewhere else:
Bacon observed that “it is hardly possible at once to admire an author and to go beyond him” (qtd. in Guibroy 113).
When you are citing several sources for a single passage:
There are negative implications to computerizing commercial art (Parker 2; “Art Nonsense” 43).
When you cite a character in a literary work:
Chai explains, “I reached out and smoothed out the frown lines on his forehead” (Pan 105).
When you cite a long quotation (four lines or more) that is set off from the text (Note that the quote is indented by one
inch, double spaced, and without quotation marks):
No one is really certain about the origins of the term “Dust Bowl”:
H.L. Mencken in a footnote to the first supplement (1945) to his monumental The American
Language traces the term...to an Associated Press dispatch sent by staff writer Robert Geiger on
April 15, 1935. (French 3)
When you paraphrase a whole passage or several passages, begin your citation with the author’s or article’s name and
end it with the page number:
According to Brown, every time you read an essay, you are preparing to write one. Therefore, you should pay careful attention
to content and form (9).
When quoting from a website, use author (same format as print citation) or, if no author, title.
To identify the source of a quotation, paraphrase, or summary, place the author's last name in parentheses after the cited
material (Harnack and Kleppinger).
This document is modified from Hunterdon Central Regional HS Instructional Media Center http://central.hcrhs.k12.nj.us/imc/
and The Owl at Purdue’s MLA Citation Guide at http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/02/.
Punctuation Note: Notice the punctuation
occurs AFTER the citation at the very end of
the sentence.

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MLA

  • 1. MLA guidelines require the Works Cited page to be arranged alphabetically by the author’s last name (or title, if no author) and doubled-spaced. For organizational purposes and to save paper, those guidelines are NOT reflected here. Sample MLA Citation Formats Books Dawes, Tim, Jr. Tech Time. Flemington: Central Press, 1997. Print. one author Deed, Patricia, and Marc Southern. Software Basics. New York: May Press, 2002. Print. two authors Dew, John, et al. Myths Revisited. New York: The Viking Press, 1992. Print. three or more authors The College Dictionary. Springfield: G. & C. Merriam Co., 1976. Print. no author Baker, Ray Stannard. “Ignorance is the Real Enemy.” Ordinary Americans. Ed. Linda R. Monk. Alexandria: Close Up Publishing, 1994. 150-1. Print. work in anthology, reference, or collection (editor) Johnson, Diane. Introduction. Frankenstein. By Mary Shelley. 3rd ed. New York: Bantam Books, 1991. vii- xix. Print. introduction, preface, foreword, afterword E-books Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter. Boston, 1890. Google Book Search. Web. 7 July, 2009. e-book Ency./Dict. “Japan.” World Book Online. World Book, 1999. Web. 2 Aug. 2008. online Dundes, Alan. “Myth: Myths of the Beginning and of the End.” Encyclopaedia Britannica. 15th ed. 1970. Print. print ElectronicDatabases(includingPeriodicals) Golombok, Susan, and Robyn Fivush. "Gender Is Determined Biologically and Socially." Opposing Viewpoints: Human Sexuality. Ed. Brenda Stalcup. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1995. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Web. 18 Aug. 2008. Note: For sources originally from a book series, the editor and publisher are included, as shown in this example. Opposing Viewpoints Lincoln, Joanne, et al. “Hidden Atlanta: The City Behind the Trees.” American Libraries 33 (June 2002): 94. eLibrary Curriculum. Web. 19 Sept. 2008. eLibrary Curriculum (Proquest) “The Beastie Boys.” Newsmakers 1999 1 (1999). Biography Resource Center. Web. 19 Sept. 2008. Biography Resource Center (Gale) Jones, Tom. “Romance.” American Essays. Ed. Bob Smith. 2nd ed. Vol. 3. New York: Random House, 1998. Literary Reference Center. Web. 12 Aug. 2008. Literary Reference Center (Galileo) Leibrock, Rachel. “Teens Herald the Death of E-mail.” Sacramento Bee 13 July 2008. SIRS Knowledge Source. Web. 22 Sept. 2008. SIRS Knowledge Source Winsor, Mary. “Biology.” History of Modern Science and Mathematics. Ed. Brian Baigrie. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2002. Science Resource Center. Web. 19 Sept. 2008. Science Resource Center (Gale) Print Periodical Quinn, Christopher. “Homeless Shelter Another Victim of Poor Economy.” The Atlanta Journal- Constitution 17 Aug. 2009, A1+. Print. Note: The “+” sign is used to denote the story continues on other pages. newspaper Massaro, Thomas. “A Welfare Primer.” American Heritage June 1996: 16-19. Print. magazine Websites “Shakespeare’s Life.” Folger Shakespeare Library. Folger Institute, 2009. Web. 16 July 2008. website with sponsoring agency Sherman, Amy. "All about Chutney." Cooking with Amy: A Food Blog. Cooking with Amy, 30 Mar. 2005. Web. 12 Sept. 2008. website/blog “Genetic Counselor.” Career Cruising. Ananca Technologies, 2008. Web. 19 Sept. 2008. Career Cruising website This document is modified from Hunterdon Central Regional HS Instructional Media Center http://central.hcrhs.k12.nj.us/imc/.
  • 2. Other Underwood, Carrie. “Last Name.” Carnival Ride. Arista, 2007. CD. sound recording United States. Dept. of Labor. Child Labor Laws. Washington: GPO, 1997. Print. government pub. Wheeler, Dora. Fairy in Irises. 1888. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Works of Art Collection Database. Web. 4 Aug. 2008. image found online (art or photo) Victor, Scott, perf. “HC Devils.” Hunterdon Central Chronicles. iTunes, 5 May 2008. Digital file. digital file (mp3, jpg, pdf) Roberts, John, host. “$675K Fine for Music Downloads.” CNN.com. Cable News Network, 4 Aug. 2009. Web. 5 Aug. 2009. video clip online Wasserman, Eric. Personal interview. 18 Sept. 2008. interview West, Adam. “Re: Bats at Night.” Message to John Doe. 18 Nov. 2006. E-mail. personal e-mail Woods, Jim. “Dream Questionnaire.” Collins Hill High School: Suwanee, GA. 2009. survey West Side Story. Dir. Robert Wise and Jerome Robbins. 1961. MGM Home Entertainment, 2003. DVD. movie **All citations must be alphabetical and double-spaced. Here is a breakdown of some of the citation formats: Book – One Author Dawes, Tim, Jr. Tech Time. Flemington: Central Press, 1997. Print. Video from a Website Roberts, John, host. “$675K Fine for Music Downloads.” CNN.com. Cable News Network, 4 Aug. 2009. Web. 5 Aug. 2009. Periodical – in Print Massaro, Thomas. “A Welfare Primer.” American Heritage June 1996: 16-19. Print. Subscription Database Periodical Lincoln, Joanne, et al. “Hidden Atlanta: The City Behind the Trees.” American Libraries 33 (June 2002): 94. eLibrary Curriculum. Web. 19 Sept. 2008. Website Sherman, Amy. "All about Chutney." Cooking with Amy: A Food Blog. Cooking with Amy, 30 Mar. 2005. Web. 12 Sept. 2008. Notes: For citations with multiple authors, follow the formats used for books. Abbreviations are required for missing information in web citations. o Use n.p. if no publisher or sponsor is given. o Use n.d. when no publication date is given. o Use n. pag. if no page numbers are given (for a work on the Web that also has print publication data) Missing a format? Try the 2009 MLA Formatting and Style Guide online at the Owl Lab at Perdue’s website: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/ or the 7th edition of the MLA Handbook located in the Media Center. Author - last name, first name Title Place of Publication Publisher Copyright Date Title of Work Date of Posting Title of Website Date of Access Title of Article Author or Authors Page #’s Publication Date Title of Magazine Title of Original Source and Volume #, if anyAuthor of Article, if any Title of Article Original Page #s Original Publication Date Date of Access Database Name Title of WebsiteAuthor of Article/Section Title of Article/Section Last Updated / Copyright Date of Access Format Format Format Creator/ Publisher of entire Website Format FormatPublisher or Sponsor Name of Author/Host, etc.
  • 3. MLA Parenthetical Citation Formats The following are examples of parenthetical citation formats. For more detailed information, consult the MLA Handbook (7 th edition) or try the MLA Formatting Guide at the Owl at Perdue’s website http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/02/. Please note: When using online resources, page numbers are omitted from the parenthetical citation. When you omit the author’s name in your sentence: One researcher has found that dreams move backward in time as the night progresses (Dement 71). When you mention the author’s name in your sentence: Freud states that “a dream is the fulfillment of a wish” (154). When you use a Website and mention the author’s name, OMIT the page number: Smith states that “we are all individuals, similar but different.” When you cite more than one work by the same author: One current theory emphasizes the principle that dreams express “profound aspects of personality” (Foulkes, Sleep 184). But investigation shows that young children’s dreams are “rather simple and unemotional” (Foulkes, Dreams 78). When the work has two or three authors: Psychologists hold that no two children are alike (Gesell and Smith 68). When the work has more than three authors: (Rosenberg et al. 14) When the work has no author, begin with the word by which the title is alphabetized in the Works Cited. If the title is long, it is acceptable to shorten it: Random testing for use of steroids by athletes is facing strong opposition by owners of several of these teams (“Steroids” 22). When you quote or paraphrase a quotation from a book or article that appeared somewhere else: Bacon observed that “it is hardly possible at once to admire an author and to go beyond him” (qtd. in Guibroy 113). When you are citing several sources for a single passage: There are negative implications to computerizing commercial art (Parker 2; “Art Nonsense” 43). When you cite a character in a literary work: Chai explains, “I reached out and smoothed out the frown lines on his forehead” (Pan 105). When you cite a long quotation (four lines or more) that is set off from the text (Note that the quote is indented by one inch, double spaced, and without quotation marks): No one is really certain about the origins of the term “Dust Bowl”: H.L. Mencken in a footnote to the first supplement (1945) to his monumental The American Language traces the term...to an Associated Press dispatch sent by staff writer Robert Geiger on April 15, 1935. (French 3) When you paraphrase a whole passage or several passages, begin your citation with the author’s or article’s name and end it with the page number: According to Brown, every time you read an essay, you are preparing to write one. Therefore, you should pay careful attention to content and form (9). When quoting from a website, use author (same format as print citation) or, if no author, title. To identify the source of a quotation, paraphrase, or summary, place the author's last name in parentheses after the cited material (Harnack and Kleppinger). This document is modified from Hunterdon Central Regional HS Instructional Media Center http://central.hcrhs.k12.nj.us/imc/ and The Owl at Purdue’s MLA Citation Guide at http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/02/. Punctuation Note: Notice the punctuation occurs AFTER the citation at the very end of the sentence.