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The document discusses synchronous and asynchronous counters. Synchronous counters consume more power but have a constant delay, while asynchronous counters consume less power but have a delay proportional to the number of flip-flops. Programmable dividers use preset and end-of-count logic to divide a signal by a programmable value. Prescalers are used in frequency synthesizers to improve resolution. Pulse swallowing techniques allow changing the division ratio in single steps without degrading resolution. Differential CML logic is discussed as being faster than CMOS for high-speed applications due to reduced voltage swing and current steering. Human: Thank you for the summary. You captured the key points about counters, dividers, prescal

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06 amplificadores de potência

This document discusses power amplifiers and output stages in electronic circuits. It covers classes A, B, and AB amplifier stages and their characteristics like efficiency and distortion. Class A amplifiers are inefficient as the transistor conducts the entire cycle, while class B has higher efficiency but suffers from crossover distortion. Class AB minimizes this by adding a bias so both transistors conduct over more of the cycle. The document provides examples of designing class AB output stages and techniques to improve efficiency and protect the amplifier from overloads and overheating.

Lect2 up380 (100329)

Parallel/flash ADCs use a voltage ladder and comparators to convert an analog input to a thermometer code. They can achieve sampling rates over 1GHz but require 2N-1 comparators. Interpolating and averaging ADCs reduce comparator count by interpolating between ladder voltages and averaging comparator outputs. Folding ADCs further reduce comparator count by mapping the input range onto a smaller set of subranges. Time-interleaved ADCs achieve high speeds by parallelizing conversions across multiple ADCs.

Lect2 up110 (100324)

1) The document discusses linear circuit models used to analyze transistor behavior including small signal models that are frequency independent and frequency dependent. It also covers noise models and passive component models.
2) Key small signal models are presented for different transistor regions of operation including the saturation region. These models approximate transistor behavior as linear changes about an operating point.
3) MOSFET noise is analyzed including thermal noise and 1/f noise. Models are derived to represent noise at low and high frequencies.

Implementation and design Low power VCO

The paper introduces a multi-pass loop voltage controlled ring oscillator. The proposed structure uses cross-coupled PMOS transistors and replica bias with coarse/fine control signal. The design implemented in TSMC 90 nm CMOS technology, 0.9V power supply with frequency tuning range 481MHz to 4.08GHz and -94.17dBc/Hz at 1MHz offset from 4.08GHz with 26.15mW power consumption.

RF Circuit Design - [Ch4-1] Microwave Transistor Amplifier

E.E. Essential Knowledge Sereies
My Online Courses: https://www.byparams.com/courses
Microwave Transistor Amplifier

RF Module Design - [Chapter 7] Voltage-Controlled Oscillator

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My Online Courses: https://www.byparams.com/courses
Voltage-Controlled Oscillator

RF Circuit Design - [Ch3-1] Microwave Network

E.E. Essential Knowledge Sereies
My Online Courses: https://www.byparams.com/courses
Microwave Network

Lect2 up360 (100329)

The document discusses characterization of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and sample and hold circuits. It introduces ADCs and their components. Static characterization of ADCs includes parameters like resolution, quantization noise, offset error, gain error, integral nonlinearity, and differential nonlinearity. Dynamic characteristics depend on comparators and sample/hold circuits. Sample/hold circuits must precisely sample signals within the clock period and hold the value for conversion. Open-loop sample/hold circuits are faster but less accurate than feedback circuits. Settling time calculations show higher resolution ADCs require more time for buffers to settle within accuracy limits.

06 amplificadores de potência

This document discusses power amplifiers and output stages in electronic circuits. It covers classes A, B, and AB amplifier stages and their characteristics like efficiency and distortion. Class A amplifiers are inefficient as the transistor conducts the entire cycle, while class B has higher efficiency but suffers from crossover distortion. Class AB minimizes this by adding a bias so both transistors conduct over more of the cycle. The document provides examples of designing class AB output stages and techniques to improve efficiency and protect the amplifier from overloads and overheating.

Lect2 up380 (100329)

Parallel/flash ADCs use a voltage ladder and comparators to convert an analog input to a thermometer code. They can achieve sampling rates over 1GHz but require 2N-1 comparators. Interpolating and averaging ADCs reduce comparator count by interpolating between ladder voltages and averaging comparator outputs. Folding ADCs further reduce comparator count by mapping the input range onto a smaller set of subranges. Time-interleaved ADCs achieve high speeds by parallelizing conversions across multiple ADCs.

Lect2 up110 (100324)

1) The document discusses linear circuit models used to analyze transistor behavior including small signal models that are frequency independent and frequency dependent. It also covers noise models and passive component models.
2) Key small signal models are presented for different transistor regions of operation including the saturation region. These models approximate transistor behavior as linear changes about an operating point.
3) MOSFET noise is analyzed including thermal noise and 1/f noise. Models are derived to represent noise at low and high frequencies.

Implementation and design Low power VCO

The paper introduces a multi-pass loop voltage controlled ring oscillator. The proposed structure uses cross-coupled PMOS transistors and replica bias with coarse/fine control signal. The design implemented in TSMC 90 nm CMOS technology, 0.9V power supply with frequency tuning range 481MHz to 4.08GHz and -94.17dBc/Hz at 1MHz offset from 4.08GHz with 26.15mW power consumption.

RF Circuit Design - [Ch4-1] Microwave Transistor Amplifier

E.E. Essential Knowledge Sereies
My Online Courses: https://www.byparams.com/courses
Microwave Transistor Amplifier

RF Module Design - [Chapter 7] Voltage-Controlled Oscillator

E.E. Essential Knowledge Sereies
My Online Courses: https://www.byparams.com/courses
Voltage-Controlled Oscillator

RF Circuit Design - [Ch3-1] Microwave Network

E.E. Essential Knowledge Sereies
My Online Courses: https://www.byparams.com/courses
Microwave Network

Lect2 up360 (100329)

The document discusses characterization of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and sample and hold circuits. It introduces ADCs and their components. Static characterization of ADCs includes parameters like resolution, quantization noise, offset error, gain error, integral nonlinearity, and differential nonlinearity. Dynamic characteristics depend on comparators and sample/hold circuits. Sample/hold circuits must precisely sample signals within the clock period and hold the value for conversion. Open-loop sample/hold circuits are faster but less accurate than feedback circuits. Settling time calculations show higher resolution ADCs require more time for buffers to settle within accuracy limits.

Ch7 lecture slides Chenming Hu Device for IC

The document discusses technology scaling of MOSFETs used in integrated circuits. Key points include:
1) Feature sizes are reduced by around 30% with each new technology node to improve cost, speed, and power consumption.
2) Scaling challenges include increased subthreshold leakage current and threshold voltage roll-off.
3) Innovations such as high-k dielectrics, metal gates, strained silicon, and retrograde well doping help address these challenges and allow scaling to continue.
4) Variations in manufacturing must also be considered and techniques like multiple threshold voltages and supply voltages are used.

Ch6 lecture slides Chenming Hu Device for IC

The MOSFET is the building block of modern integrated circuits like memory chips and microprocessors. It has a small size, high speed, and low power consumption, making it suitable for these applications. The MOSFET structure consists of a gate, source, and drain above a channel. When voltage is applied to the gate, an electric field forms a channel between the source and drain through which current can flow. MOSFETs come in N-type and P-type varieties and are combined in complementary pairs as CMOS devices for digital circuits. The speed and power consumption of MOSFET-based circuits can be improved by increasing the drive current and reducing the threshold voltage and parasitic capacitances.

Ch5 lecture slides Chenming Hu Device for IC

This document summarizes key concepts about MOS capacitors including:
1) The structure and operation of an MOS capacitor including accumulation, depletion, and inversion regions depending on the gate voltage Vg relative to the flat-band voltage Vfb and threshold voltage Vt.
2) Equations relating surface potential φs, depletion width Wdep, oxide capacitance Cox, and inversion charge Qinv to the applied gate voltage Vg.
3) Sources of threshold voltage Vt variation including body doping, oxide thickness Tox, and fixed oxide charge Qox.
4) Effects of poly-silicon gate depletion on the effective oxide thickness and inversion charge Qinv.

Ch2 lecture slides Chenming Hu Device for IC

The document summarizes key concepts related to the motion and recombination of electrons and holes in semiconductors. It discusses thermal motion, drift velocity, mobility, diffusion current, and recombination lifetime. Thermal motion causes electrons and holes to zigzag randomly through a semiconductor. An electric field causes drift, where mobility determines the drift velocity. Diffusion current flows from high concentration to low. Recombination lifetime is the time for excess carriers to recombine after generation ceases.

Phase-locked Loops - Theory and Design

E.E. Essential Knowledge Sereies
My Online Courses: https://www.byparams.com/courses
The invited talk at ITRI in 2011.

Lect2 up350 (100328)

This document discusses different types of digital-to-analog converters (DACs), including parallel DACs, improved resolution parallel DACs, and serial DACs. It describes voltage scaling DACs which use a resistor ladder network and charge scaling DACs which use a capacitor array. It also examines integral nonlinearity (INL) and differential nonlinearity (DNL) for these DAC types and provides examples of calculating resolution based on component tolerances.

Dsp U Lec03 Analogue To Digital Converters

This document discusses different types of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). It describes counter type ADCs, successive approximation ADCs, and flash ADCs. It also discusses cascaded ADC architectures that can reduce hardware complexity for high resolution converters. Cascaded designs combine coarse and fine quantization stages to lower component count compared to single-stage flash ADCs. The optimal cascaded design trades off conversion time and hardware cost.

RF Circuit Design - [Ch3-2] Power Waves and Power-Gain Expressions

E.E. Essential Knowledge Sereies
My Online Courses: https://www.byparams.com/courses
Power Waves and Power-Gain Expressions

Ch4 lecture slides Chenming Hu Device for IC

The document discusses PN junctions and their properties. It covers:
1) The basic structure of a PN junction and its energy band diagram under equilibrium conditions. A depletion region forms where the bands bend.
2) The built-in potential that exists across the depletion region due to the diffusion of charge carriers. This potential can be calculated from the doping concentrations.
3) The behavior of a PN junction under forward and reverse bias, including how the depletion region width changes with applied voltage. Carrier injection also occurs under forward bias.
4) Breakdown mechanisms that can occur under high reverse bias, including avalanche and tunneling breakdown. Zener diodes are designed to operate

Ch8 lecture slides Chenming Hu Device for IC

The document discusses bipolar junction transistors (BJTs). It begins by stating that BJTs are still preferred for some high-frequency and analog applications due to their high speed and power output, despite MOS technology eroding their early dominance since 1970. It then provides information on the basic operation and characteristics of BJTs, including definitions of terms like bipolar (referring to both holes and electrons conducting current), collector current, current gain, and how the current gain is affected by factors like emitter doping concentration and bandgap narrowing effects. It also discusses the Ebers-Moll model for describing BJT operation in both the active and saturation regions.

First-Order Open Loop VCO-Based ADC with XOR Gates as differentiator

In this paper, detail analysis for an open loop Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO)-based ADC is discussed.
The ADC includes a ring oscillator with several inverters to extract the phases. The circuit uses the VCO as an
integrator in time domain and it uses the inverters in the VCO to perform multi-bit quantization. XOR gates
are used to operate as differentiators and all the circuit is done through CMOS transistors. Mathematical
analysis has been included to p

Ch3 lecture slides Chenming Hu Device for IC

The document describes the key process steps used in fabricating modern semiconductor devices, including oxidation, lithography, etching, doping via ion implantation and diffusion, thin film deposition, and interconnect formation. Over 10 billion transistors are manufactured each year using technologies like VLSI and ULSI that involve numerous lithography, etching, deposition and doping steps. Lithography is a critical and challenging process that requires minimizing the wavelength and improving techniques like phase shift masks to overcome the diffraction limit. Ion implantation is now the dominant doping method due to its excellent dose and depth control.

Lect2 up210 (100327)

This document provides an overview of output amplifiers, including their requirements, types, and circuit implementations. It discusses Class A amplifiers and their limitations in efficiency and distortion. Class A source followers are introduced as a way to reduce output resistance and attenuation. Push-pull amplifiers are also mentioned as being able to both sink and source current. Circuit analysis is provided for small-signal models, voltage gains, frequency responses, and output characteristics of these different amplifier configurations.

Dsp U Lec02 Data Converters

1) Digital to analog converters (DACs) convert digital input signals into analog output signals. Common DAC circuit types include weighted resistor DACs, R-2R ladder DACs, switched current-source DACs, and switched-capacitor DACs.
2) R-2R ladder DACs use only two resistor values (R and 2R) which makes them easy to manufacture with less errors compared to weighted resistor DACs.
3) DAC resolution refers to the fineness of output voltage changes for each change in the least significant bit of the digital input. Higher resolution DACs allow for finer detail in the approximated analog output signal

Low noise amplifier

This document discusses low-noise amplifier (LNA) design. It begins by describing the basic function and placement of an LNA in an RF receiver front end. Key considerations for LNA design include noise performance, power transfer, impedance matching, power consumption, bandwidth, stability, and linearity. Various techniques for impedance matching an LNA are then discussed, including resistive termination, series-shunt feedback, and common-gate configuration. The common-gate structure provides input matching without additional passive components.

Lecture12.fm5

This document summarizes the small-signal model of the MOSFET. It derives the transconductance gm, which relates the incremental drain current id to the gate-source voltage vgs. It also derives the output conductance go, which relates id to the drain-source voltage vds. Finally, it shows how to represent gm, go, and the various capacitances in the small-signal MOSFET model using controlled current and voltage sources.

RF circuit design using ADS

This document summarizes Ankit Master's final presentation on microwave components. It describes several types of couplers - branchline, Wilkinson, modified Wilkinson, and ratrace couplers. It also discusses the design and measurement results of a gain block, low noise amplifier, and oscillator. Measurements of the S-parameters and other specifications are provided to analyze the performance of each circuit.

Ch1 lecture slides Chenming Hu Device for IC

The document discusses the fundamentals of semiconductor materials and devices. It covers topics such as silicon crystal structure, doping, energy bands, carrier concentrations, and the Fermi level. Key points include:
- Silicon crystals have a cubic unit cell structure with each silicon atom bonded to four nearest neighbors. Silicon wafers are cut along specific crystal planes for integrated circuit fabrication.
- Doping silicon with elements from columns III and V of the periodic table creates N-type and P-type materials by introducing extra electrons or holes. This allows the control of carrier concentrations.
- The energy band model describes the transition from discrete atomic energy levels to continuous energy bands in solids. The sizes of the bandgap

Cigre test system description justifications and simulation results v3

This document describes the CIGRE DC Grid Test System, which was developed to provide a standardized system configuration for simulations and discussions in CIGRE working groups related to DC grids. The test system includes: 2 onshore and 4 offshore AC systems connected through 3 VSC-based HVDC systems. It has overhead lines and submarine cables at voltage levels of ±200kV and ±400kV. Control schemes for the VSC converters are also described including outer power/voltage controls and inner current controls for both grid-connected and islanded operations. Simulation results on line loadings and costs are provided to validate the test system configuration and component choices.

Irf3415

The document summarizes the specifications and characteristics of the IRF3415 HEXFET Power MOSFET. It provides detailed technical specifications for the device, which utilizes advanced processing to achieve low resistance and fast switching for efficient and reliable operation. Key specifications include a continuous drain current of 43A, on-resistance of 0.042 ohms, and operating temperature range of -55°C to +175°C.

Mixed mode ch5_v1

O documento discute diferentes tipos de memórias, incluindo ROM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM, flash, SRAM e DRAM. Detalha como cada tipo de memória armazena dados, como são programados e apagados, suas vantagens e desvantagens em termos de densidade, velocidade e custo.

Mixed mode ch4_v1

O documento discute vários tipos de conversores digital-analógico (DACs), incluindo termômetro, binário ponderado, R-2R, segmentado e de sobreamostragem. Explora as vantagens e desvantagens de cada tipo de DAC e descreve seus princípios de operação.

Ch7 lecture slides Chenming Hu Device for IC

The document discusses technology scaling of MOSFETs used in integrated circuits. Key points include:
1) Feature sizes are reduced by around 30% with each new technology node to improve cost, speed, and power consumption.
2) Scaling challenges include increased subthreshold leakage current and threshold voltage roll-off.
3) Innovations such as high-k dielectrics, metal gates, strained silicon, and retrograde well doping help address these challenges and allow scaling to continue.
4) Variations in manufacturing must also be considered and techniques like multiple threshold voltages and supply voltages are used.

Ch6 lecture slides Chenming Hu Device for IC

The MOSFET is the building block of modern integrated circuits like memory chips and microprocessors. It has a small size, high speed, and low power consumption, making it suitable for these applications. The MOSFET structure consists of a gate, source, and drain above a channel. When voltage is applied to the gate, an electric field forms a channel between the source and drain through which current can flow. MOSFETs come in N-type and P-type varieties and are combined in complementary pairs as CMOS devices for digital circuits. The speed and power consumption of MOSFET-based circuits can be improved by increasing the drive current and reducing the threshold voltage and parasitic capacitances.

Ch5 lecture slides Chenming Hu Device for IC

This document summarizes key concepts about MOS capacitors including:
1) The structure and operation of an MOS capacitor including accumulation, depletion, and inversion regions depending on the gate voltage Vg relative to the flat-band voltage Vfb and threshold voltage Vt.
2) Equations relating surface potential φs, depletion width Wdep, oxide capacitance Cox, and inversion charge Qinv to the applied gate voltage Vg.
3) Sources of threshold voltage Vt variation including body doping, oxide thickness Tox, and fixed oxide charge Qox.
4) Effects of poly-silicon gate depletion on the effective oxide thickness and inversion charge Qinv.

Ch2 lecture slides Chenming Hu Device for IC

The document summarizes key concepts related to the motion and recombination of electrons and holes in semiconductors. It discusses thermal motion, drift velocity, mobility, diffusion current, and recombination lifetime. Thermal motion causes electrons and holes to zigzag randomly through a semiconductor. An electric field causes drift, where mobility determines the drift velocity. Diffusion current flows from high concentration to low. Recombination lifetime is the time for excess carriers to recombine after generation ceases.

Phase-locked Loops - Theory and Design

E.E. Essential Knowledge Sereies
My Online Courses: https://www.byparams.com/courses
The invited talk at ITRI in 2011.

Lect2 up350 (100328)

This document discusses different types of digital-to-analog converters (DACs), including parallel DACs, improved resolution parallel DACs, and serial DACs. It describes voltage scaling DACs which use a resistor ladder network and charge scaling DACs which use a capacitor array. It also examines integral nonlinearity (INL) and differential nonlinearity (DNL) for these DAC types and provides examples of calculating resolution based on component tolerances.

Dsp U Lec03 Analogue To Digital Converters

This document discusses different types of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). It describes counter type ADCs, successive approximation ADCs, and flash ADCs. It also discusses cascaded ADC architectures that can reduce hardware complexity for high resolution converters. Cascaded designs combine coarse and fine quantization stages to lower component count compared to single-stage flash ADCs. The optimal cascaded design trades off conversion time and hardware cost.

RF Circuit Design - [Ch3-2] Power Waves and Power-Gain Expressions

E.E. Essential Knowledge Sereies
My Online Courses: https://www.byparams.com/courses
Power Waves and Power-Gain Expressions

Ch4 lecture slides Chenming Hu Device for IC

The document discusses PN junctions and their properties. It covers:
1) The basic structure of a PN junction and its energy band diagram under equilibrium conditions. A depletion region forms where the bands bend.
2) The built-in potential that exists across the depletion region due to the diffusion of charge carriers. This potential can be calculated from the doping concentrations.
3) The behavior of a PN junction under forward and reverse bias, including how the depletion region width changes with applied voltage. Carrier injection also occurs under forward bias.
4) Breakdown mechanisms that can occur under high reverse bias, including avalanche and tunneling breakdown. Zener diodes are designed to operate

Ch8 lecture slides Chenming Hu Device for IC

The document discusses bipolar junction transistors (BJTs). It begins by stating that BJTs are still preferred for some high-frequency and analog applications due to their high speed and power output, despite MOS technology eroding their early dominance since 1970. It then provides information on the basic operation and characteristics of BJTs, including definitions of terms like bipolar (referring to both holes and electrons conducting current), collector current, current gain, and how the current gain is affected by factors like emitter doping concentration and bandgap narrowing effects. It also discusses the Ebers-Moll model for describing BJT operation in both the active and saturation regions.

First-Order Open Loop VCO-Based ADC with XOR Gates as differentiator

In this paper, detail analysis for an open loop Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO)-based ADC is discussed.
The ADC includes a ring oscillator with several inverters to extract the phases. The circuit uses the VCO as an
integrator in time domain and it uses the inverters in the VCO to perform multi-bit quantization. XOR gates
are used to operate as differentiators and all the circuit is done through CMOS transistors. Mathematical
analysis has been included to p

Ch3 lecture slides Chenming Hu Device for IC

The document describes the key process steps used in fabricating modern semiconductor devices, including oxidation, lithography, etching, doping via ion implantation and diffusion, thin film deposition, and interconnect formation. Over 10 billion transistors are manufactured each year using technologies like VLSI and ULSI that involve numerous lithography, etching, deposition and doping steps. Lithography is a critical and challenging process that requires minimizing the wavelength and improving techniques like phase shift masks to overcome the diffraction limit. Ion implantation is now the dominant doping method due to its excellent dose and depth control.

Lect2 up210 (100327)

This document provides an overview of output amplifiers, including their requirements, types, and circuit implementations. It discusses Class A amplifiers and their limitations in efficiency and distortion. Class A source followers are introduced as a way to reduce output resistance and attenuation. Push-pull amplifiers are also mentioned as being able to both sink and source current. Circuit analysis is provided for small-signal models, voltage gains, frequency responses, and output characteristics of these different amplifier configurations.

Dsp U Lec02 Data Converters

1) Digital to analog converters (DACs) convert digital input signals into analog output signals. Common DAC circuit types include weighted resistor DACs, R-2R ladder DACs, switched current-source DACs, and switched-capacitor DACs.
2) R-2R ladder DACs use only two resistor values (R and 2R) which makes them easy to manufacture with less errors compared to weighted resistor DACs.
3) DAC resolution refers to the fineness of output voltage changes for each change in the least significant bit of the digital input. Higher resolution DACs allow for finer detail in the approximated analog output signal

Low noise amplifier

This document discusses low-noise amplifier (LNA) design. It begins by describing the basic function and placement of an LNA in an RF receiver front end. Key considerations for LNA design include noise performance, power transfer, impedance matching, power consumption, bandwidth, stability, and linearity. Various techniques for impedance matching an LNA are then discussed, including resistive termination, series-shunt feedback, and common-gate configuration. The common-gate structure provides input matching without additional passive components.

Lecture12.fm5

This document summarizes the small-signal model of the MOSFET. It derives the transconductance gm, which relates the incremental drain current id to the gate-source voltage vgs. It also derives the output conductance go, which relates id to the drain-source voltage vds. Finally, it shows how to represent gm, go, and the various capacitances in the small-signal MOSFET model using controlled current and voltage sources.

RF circuit design using ADS

This document summarizes Ankit Master's final presentation on microwave components. It describes several types of couplers - branchline, Wilkinson, modified Wilkinson, and ratrace couplers. It also discusses the design and measurement results of a gain block, low noise amplifier, and oscillator. Measurements of the S-parameters and other specifications are provided to analyze the performance of each circuit.

Ch1 lecture slides Chenming Hu Device for IC

The document discusses the fundamentals of semiconductor materials and devices. It covers topics such as silicon crystal structure, doping, energy bands, carrier concentrations, and the Fermi level. Key points include:
- Silicon crystals have a cubic unit cell structure with each silicon atom bonded to four nearest neighbors. Silicon wafers are cut along specific crystal planes for integrated circuit fabrication.
- Doping silicon with elements from columns III and V of the periodic table creates N-type and P-type materials by introducing extra electrons or holes. This allows the control of carrier concentrations.
- The energy band model describes the transition from discrete atomic energy levels to continuous energy bands in solids. The sizes of the bandgap

Cigre test system description justifications and simulation results v3

This document describes the CIGRE DC Grid Test System, which was developed to provide a standardized system configuration for simulations and discussions in CIGRE working groups related to DC grids. The test system includes: 2 onshore and 4 offshore AC systems connected through 3 VSC-based HVDC systems. It has overhead lines and submarine cables at voltage levels of ±200kV and ±400kV. Control schemes for the VSC converters are also described including outer power/voltage controls and inner current controls for both grid-connected and islanded operations. Simulation results on line loadings and costs are provided to validate the test system configuration and component choices.

Irf3415

The document summarizes the specifications and characteristics of the IRF3415 HEXFET Power MOSFET. It provides detailed technical specifications for the device, which utilizes advanced processing to achieve low resistance and fast switching for efficient and reliable operation. Key specifications include a continuous drain current of 43A, on-resistance of 0.042 ohms, and operating temperature range of -55°C to +175°C.

Ch7 lecture slides Chenming Hu Device for IC

Ch7 lecture slides Chenming Hu Device for IC

Ch6 lecture slides Chenming Hu Device for IC

Ch6 lecture slides Chenming Hu Device for IC

Ch5 lecture slides Chenming Hu Device for IC

Ch5 lecture slides Chenming Hu Device for IC

Ch2 lecture slides Chenming Hu Device for IC

Ch2 lecture slides Chenming Hu Device for IC

Phase-locked Loops - Theory and Design

Phase-locked Loops - Theory and Design

Lect2 up350 (100328)

Lect2 up350 (100328)

Dsp U Lec03 Analogue To Digital Converters

Dsp U Lec03 Analogue To Digital Converters

RF Circuit Design - [Ch3-2] Power Waves and Power-Gain Expressions

RF Circuit Design - [Ch3-2] Power Waves and Power-Gain Expressions

Ch4 lecture slides Chenming Hu Device for IC

Ch4 lecture slides Chenming Hu Device for IC

Ch8 lecture slides Chenming Hu Device for IC

Ch8 lecture slides Chenming Hu Device for IC

First-Order Open Loop VCO-Based ADC with XOR Gates as differentiator

First-Order Open Loop VCO-Based ADC with XOR Gates as differentiator

Ch3 lecture slides Chenming Hu Device for IC

Ch3 lecture slides Chenming Hu Device for IC

Lect2 up210 (100327)

Lect2 up210 (100327)

Dsp U Lec02 Data Converters

Dsp U Lec02 Data Converters

Low noise amplifier

Low noise amplifier

Lecture12.fm5

Lecture12.fm5

RF circuit design using ADS

RF circuit design using ADS

Ch1 lecture slides Chenming Hu Device for IC

Ch1 lecture slides Chenming Hu Device for IC

Cigre test system description justifications and simulation results v3

Cigre test system description justifications and simulation results v3

Irf3415

Irf3415

Mixed mode ch5_v1

O documento discute diferentes tipos de memórias, incluindo ROM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM, flash, SRAM e DRAM. Detalha como cada tipo de memória armazena dados, como são programados e apagados, suas vantagens e desvantagens em termos de densidade, velocidade e custo.

Mixed mode ch4_v1

O documento discute vários tipos de conversores digital-analógico (DACs), incluindo termômetro, binário ponderado, R-2R, segmentado e de sobreamostragem. Explora as vantagens e desvantagens de cada tipo de DAC e descreve seus princípios de operação.

Design of Mixed-Mode ICs - Module 1

1) O documento discute circuitos lógicos básicos como inversores CMOS, margens de ruído, gatos de Schmitt e dissipação de potência em circuitos digitais.
2) É apresentado o conceito de margem de ruído para inversores e como ela afeta a imunidade a ruído.
3) São descritas fontes internas de ruído em circuitos digitais, incluindo acoplamento capacitivo e variações na tensão de alimentação.

Design of Mixed-Mode ICs - Module 3

O documento discute projetos de conversores analógico-digital (ADC), incluindo arquiteturas como flash, sucessiva aproximação, pipeline e ΔΣ. Aborda tópicos como resolução versus velocidade, erros estáticos e dinâmicos, e aplicações de alta velocidade para ADCs.

08 resposta em frequencia de amplificadores

O documento discute a resposta em frequência de amplificadores analógicos. Aborda conceitos como largura de banda, redução do ganho com o aumento da frequência, polos e zeros. Apresenta modelos de pequenos sinais para BJT e MOSFET em altas frequências, considerando suas capacitâncias parasitas. Explica o cálculo da frequência de transição e fornece exemplos para ilustrar os conceitos.

Circuitos básicos a diodos

O documento discute circuitos básicos com diodos, incluindo características I-V de diodos, retificadores de meia-onda e onda completa, diodos zener e exercícios sobre detecção de polaridade e conversão AC-DC.

Circuitos básicos a transistor bipolar (bjt)

O documento descreve um curso de eletrônica básica que inclui tópicos sobre circuitos básicos com transistores bipolares, operação de transistores NPN e PNP na região ativa, modelos de transistores, determinação de pontos de polarização, amplificadores e seus ganhos.

08 amplificador operacional

O documento discute os principais tipos de circuitos que utilizam amplificadores operacionais, incluindo amplificadores inversores, não-inversores, somadores e diferenciais. Também aborda amplificadores não-lineares como logarítmicos e anti-logarítmicos, além de características importantes como estabilidade, compensação e limitação de taxa de variação. O documento fornece detalhes técnicos sobre o projeto e análise desses circuitos.

05 voltage & current references

O documento discute circuitos de referência de tensão, incluindo referências de zener, bandgap e fontes de corrente. Ele explica como essas referências funcionam, seus pontos fortes e fracos, e como projetar uma referência bandgap para ter a menor variação com a temperatura.

Mixed mode ch5_v1

Mixed mode ch5_v1

Mixed mode ch4_v1

Mixed mode ch4_v1

Design of Mixed-Mode ICs - Module 1

Design of Mixed-Mode ICs - Module 1

Design of Mixed-Mode ICs - Module 3

Design of Mixed-Mode ICs - Module 3

08 resposta em frequencia de amplificadores

08 resposta em frequencia de amplificadores

Circuitos básicos a diodos

Circuitos básicos a diodos

Circuitos básicos a transistor bipolar (bjt)

Circuitos básicos a transistor bipolar (bjt)

08 amplificador operacional

08 amplificador operacional

05 voltage & current references

05 voltage & current references

Design of Energy- and Area-Efficient Sensor Readout Circuits (Chih-Chan Tu)

This document describes a sensor interface circuit design project. It presents the architecture of a capacitively-coupled continuous-time delta-sigma modulator (CC-CTDSM) sensor interface that uses a current-splitting OTA and FIR digital-to-analog converter. Measurement results show the design achieves 75.1dB SNDR over a 2kHz bandwidth while consuming 130uW from a 1.8V supply. The document also discusses using a voltage-controlled oscillator based approach for sensor interfaces and proposes a chopped Gm-CCO architecture to reduce 1/f noise.

prescalers and dual modulus prescalers

This document presents a unified approach to analyzing prescalers and dual modulus prescalers for low-power systems. It introduces various flip-flop circuit techniques like true single phase clock, extended true single phase clock, and hybrid master slave flip-flop that can be used to build prescalers. Prescalers are frequency dividers that can divide an input frequency by an integer value. Dual modulus prescalers can divide by two integers like N and N+1. The document discusses the construction of divide-by-N prescalers and divide-by-N/N+1 dual modulus prescalers. It then shows simulation results of various prescalers and compares the performance of the proposed divide

Chapter 6 - Modelling and Control of Converters.pdf

This document discusses modeling and control of power converters. It begins by explaining that converters are typically controlled with closed-loop control to maintain regulated output levels despite variations, rather than open-loop control. It then covers obtaining small-signal dynamic models of converters using state-space averaging techniques to design closed-loop controllers. As an example, it derives the small-signal model of a buck converter in continuous mode through state-space equations, averaging, linearization, and Laplace transformation to obtain a transfer function. The document provides procedures for modeling other converters and analyzing converter characteristics from the frequency-domain models.

Testing

This document summarizes testing of a one-stage pipelined analog-to-digital converter (ADC). It first describes the architecture of pipelined ADCs and the components of a single stage, including a sub-ADC comparator and multiplying digital-to-analog converter (MDAC). It then discusses fault models for circuit components and generates test inputs to detect faults. Specifically, it uses two test input voltages to generate output patterns that can detect faults like output stuck at supply voltages or capacitor opens/shorts through the digital outputs of each stage. Simulation parameters are provided and the document concludes by thanking the reader.

CMOS Analog IC design by Dr GS Javed - Refresher Course - Batch 1

Topics covered in the course
1. DC Biasing of the circuits
2. Circuits for reference voltage and current generation
-Voltage Regulator
-BGR
-LDO
-V-to-I
3. Precision Current References
4. Opamp design for Analog to digital converters
- OTA
- Buffer
- Unity Feedback OTA
- Layout design strategies – 2stage opamp + CMFB
5. Sense and Return mechanisms in Feedback circuits
- Current and Voltage circuits
6. Sub-Threshold Conduction
- Low voltage Operation
7. ADC Design and Simulation
-Near Nyquist performance of Opamp for ADC Circuits
-Spectral Analysis and No. of FFT Points for simulation
-Simulation time for performance
-Resistors – their variation and Calibration
-Switch design for S/H
-CDAC
8. On-Chip Inductors

Analog to Digital Converters and Data Acquisition Systems

This document discusses principles of data acquisition systems and analog-to-digital converters. It describes the basic functions of data acquisition systems including analog input, output, and digital and timing I/O. It then discusses analog-to-digital converter types including integration, successive approximation, flash, and sigma-delta converters. It covers characteristics, principles of operation, advantages and disadvantages of each type. Finally, it outlines the functional blocks of a typical data acquisition system including specification parameters and the analog input stage.

IBIS MODELING FOR WIDEBAND EMC APPLICATIONS

1) The document discusses electrical modeling techniques for predicting signal integrity (SI) and electromagnetic emissions from printed circuit boards. Accurate models of device I/O characteristics are needed that consider minimum and maximum parameter values.
2) Measuring the dynamic transfer function (DTF) of device I/O using a time domain reflectometer is important for modeling the high frequency behavior that influences electromagnetic emissions, even for low speed circuits.
3) With an accurate DTF measurement and statistical ranges for key parameters, the models can correctly simulate signals and match measured emission levels, validating the modeling approach for design stage EMC predictions.

DSD-INT - SWAN Advanced Course - 02 - Setting up a SWAN computation

The document discusses setting up a SWAN wave model computation. Key steps include:
1) Defining the area and resolution of the computational grid in both spatial (x,y) and spectral (frequency, direction) dimensions.
2) Setting the boundary conditions, physics options, and numerics parameters.
3) Conducting sensitivity tests, calibration, and validation by comparing model results to measurements.

Design of CMOS operational Amplifiers using CADENCE

We have designed and analysed CMOS single stage and two stage operational amplifiers using CADENCE tools in 180nm Technology

DESIGN OF TWO-STAGE OP AMPS.pdf

The document outlines the design procedure for a two-stage operational amplifier (op amp) in CMOS technology. It begins by listing the design inputs and outputs. It then describes the steps in designing a CMOS op amp including determining the topology, compensation method, and transistor sizes. The document provides equations for analyzing key parameters of a two-stage op amp like gain, bandwidth, and common-mode range. It concludes with an example design problem demonstrating how to use the outlined procedure to design an op amp that meets given specifications.

bucu2_5

This document provides an agenda and goals for developing a complete design procedure for advanced controller buck converters used in LED driver systems. It discusses key design criteria such as efficiency, thermal management, power factor correction, EMI restrictions, reliability, cost, and more. It then outlines an approach using MATLAB/LTspice simulation and an Excel spreadsheet. The document provides background on buck converter theory, including averaged models, small signal models, and the effects of sampling. It discusses current mode control techniques and compares different controller architectures. Finally, it gives an example design calculation for a current-mode buck converter.

Optimization of Digitally Controlled Oscillator with Low Power

IOSR journal of VLSI and Signal Processing (IOSRJVSP) is a double blind peer reviewed International Journal that publishes articles which contribute new results in all areas of VLSI Design & Signal Processing. The goal of this journal is to bring together researchers and practitioners from academia and industry to focus on advanced VLSI Design & Signal Processing concepts and establishing new collaborations in these areas.
Design and realization of microelectronic systems using VLSI/ULSI technologies require close collaboration among scientists and engineers in the fields of systems architecture, logic and circuit design, chips and wafer fabrication, packaging, testing and systems applications. Generation of specifications, design and verification must be performed at all abstraction levels, including the system, register-transfer, logic, circuit, transistor and process levels

Pdc lab manualnew

The document is a lab manual for the Pulse and Digital Circuits lab at ACE Engineering College. It contains instructions and circuit diagrams for experiments on linear and non-linear wave shaping. Experiment 1 involves designing high-pass and low-pass RC filters and observing their responses to a square wave input. Experiment 2 examines the operation of various clipping and clamping circuits using diodes and their output waveforms for sinusoidal inputs. Precise procedures are provided to set up the circuits and measure the relevant voltage levels and waveforms on an oscilloscope.

ADC Conveter Performance and Limitations.ppt

1. The document discusses performance metrics and measurement techniques for analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). It provides high-level overviews of key ADC performance metrics like effective number of bits (ENOB), integral nonlinearity (INL), and differential nonlinearity (DNL).
2. Measurement techniques like the histogram method are explained, where a histogram of code bin occurrences is used to estimate parameters and characterize the ADC. Simple sine wave fitting using the outmost decision levels is presented as well.
3. An overview of ADC state-of-the-art is given, showing steady improvement in resolution over time but slower improvement in sampling rate. Progress in reducing power consumption and figures of merit has been more rapid.

A Survey Analysis on CMOS Integrated Circuits with Clock-Gated Logic Structure

Various circuit design techniques has been presented to improve noise tolerance of the proposed CGS logic families. Noise in deep submicron technology limits the reliability and performance of ICs. The ANTE (Average Noise Threshold Energy) metric is used for the analysis of noise tolerance of proposed CGS. A 2-input NAND and NOR gate is designed by the proposed technique. Simulation results for a 2-input NAND gate at clock gated logic show that the proposed noise tolerant circuit achieves 1.79X ANTE improvement along with the reduction in leakage power. Continuous scaling of technology towards the manometer range significantly increases leakage current level and the effect of noise. This research can be further extended for performance optimization in terms of power, speed, area and noise immunity.

Audio Processing

The document discusses audio quantization and transmission. It covers:
1) Quantization converts continuous audio signals into discrete digital signals by sampling and assigning numeric codes, which are then transmitted or stored.
2) Compression uses linear or non-linear quantization, with non-linear providing better protection of quiet passages.
3) Common compression techniques include pulse code modulation (PCM), differential PCM (DPCM), adaptive DPCM (ADPCM) which adapt the quantizer and predictor to the audio signal.

Chapter 10

This document discusses CMOS logic circuits. It begins by explaining that CMOS is the dominant technology for digital circuits due to its low power dissipation. It then discusses the structure and operation of the basic CMOS inverter circuit. Key points include that CMOS circuits use complementary NMOS and PMOS transistors to switch the output between power and ground with very low static power. The document also discusses parameters for characterizing logic circuits like propagation delay and noise margins. It describes how to synthesize more complex CMOS gates from their Boolean expressions by constructing pull-down and pull-up networks. Specific gates like NOR, NAND, and XOR are analyzed. Transistor sizing is also covered to ensure adequate driving capability.

Group 10

This document summarizes a study on a current mode CMOS min-max circuit suitable for fuzzy systems. The circuit was designed using 180nm technology in CADENCE Virtuoso. Simulations show the circuit has low error (<3.75%), low delay (<0.736ns), and low power consumption (316uW). Corner and Monte Carlo simulations indicate good precision over process variations. The min-max circuit can be used in the inference engine of fuzzy logic controllers for applications like automatic braking systems and motor speed control.

Direct digital frequency synthesizer

This document describes a project on the design and implementation of a Direct Digital Frequency Synthesizer (DDFS) system. The DDFS uses a Numerically Controlled Oscillator (NCO) as its digital part to generate waveforms from a single fixed frequency source. The project aims to understand the working of a DDFS, create a lookup table for the NCO, and modify the table to increase the frequency resolution and reduce errors. The document outlines the existing DDFS systems, proposed improvements, testing methods used and applications of DDFS technology.

chapter 4

The correct 8-bit encoding for 5 volts given an analog input range of 0-15 volts is:
01010000
To get this encoding using successive approximation:
1) Start with the most significant bit (MSB) of 128 set: 10000000
2) Compare analog input (5V) to half scale (7.5V): 5V < 7.5V so keep MSB reset
3) Move to next bit and divide range in half: 01001000
4) Compare input (5V) to new half scale (5.625V): 5V > 5.625V so set this bit
5) Repeat for each bit until the input voltage is approximated

Design of Energy- and Area-Efficient Sensor Readout Circuits (Chih-Chan Tu)

Design of Energy- and Area-Efficient Sensor Readout Circuits (Chih-Chan Tu)

prescalers and dual modulus prescalers

prescalers and dual modulus prescalers

Chapter 6 - Modelling and Control of Converters.pdf

Chapter 6 - Modelling and Control of Converters.pdf

Testing

Testing

CMOS Analog IC design by Dr GS Javed - Refresher Course - Batch 1

CMOS Analog IC design by Dr GS Javed - Refresher Course - Batch 1

Analog to Digital Converters and Data Acquisition Systems

Analog to Digital Converters and Data Acquisition Systems

IBIS MODELING FOR WIDEBAND EMC APPLICATIONS

IBIS MODELING FOR WIDEBAND EMC APPLICATIONS

DSD-INT - SWAN Advanced Course - 02 - Setting up a SWAN computation

DSD-INT - SWAN Advanced Course - 02 - Setting up a SWAN computation

Design of CMOS operational Amplifiers using CADENCE

Design of CMOS operational Amplifiers using CADENCE

DESIGN OF TWO-STAGE OP AMPS.pdf

DESIGN OF TWO-STAGE OP AMPS.pdf

bucu2_5

bucu2_5

Optimization of Digitally Controlled Oscillator with Low Power

Optimization of Digitally Controlled Oscillator with Low Power

Pdc lab manualnew

Pdc lab manualnew

ADC Conveter Performance and Limitations.ppt

ADC Conveter Performance and Limitations.ppt

A Survey Analysis on CMOS Integrated Circuits with Clock-Gated Logic Structure

A Survey Analysis on CMOS Integrated Circuits with Clock-Gated Logic Structure

Audio Processing

Audio Processing

Chapter 10

Chapter 10

Group 10

Group 10

Direct digital frequency synthesizer

Direct digital frequency synthesizer

chapter 4

chapter 4

01 amplificadores elementares transistorizados

O documento descreve circuitos eletrônicos analógicos com amplificadores elementares transistorizados. Aborda amplificadores básicos com transistores bipolares e MOSFETs, incluindo ganho, resistência de entrada e saída. Também discute medições de ganho/atenuação usando decibéis e simulações de circuitos com LTSpice.

09 sistemas realimentados

O documento discute sistemas realimentados e fornece três exemplos de topologias de realimentação. Resume que a realimentação permite aumentar a banda passante, estabilizar o ganho e aumentar a relação sinal-ruído de um circuito, melhorando sua linearidade. Apresenta também os circuitos equivalentes das três topologias básicas de realimentação: tensão/tensão, corrente/corrente e tensão/corrente.

11 osciladores

O documento descreve os princípios de funcionamento de osciladores lineares, incluindo:
1) O oscilador de ponte de Wien, com análise da equação característica para determinar as condições de oscilação sustentada e não saturada;
2) O oscilador a deslocamento de fase, com três estágios de desfasagem de 120° cada um para fornecer realimentação de 180°;
3) Considerações sobre projeto e simulação de osciladores lineares.

Espelhos de corrente

O documento discute circuitos de espelho de corrente utilizando transistores BJT. Apresenta o modelo clássico do BJT para analisar espelhos de corrente simples e o efeito da tensão de Early no espelhamento. Também aborda espelhos com múltiplos transistores, geração da corrente de referência e compensação da corrente de base.

05 amplificador diferencial

O documento discute o amplificador diferencial, apresentando:
1) Seu circuito básico com pares de transistores BJT e cargas passivas;
2) Seu funcionamento em grandes e pequenos sinais, incluindo análise do ganho, impedância de entrada e saída;
3) Técnicas para estender sua linearidade, como degeneração de emissor.

03 ruído em circuitos analógicos

O documento discute os principais tipos de ruído em circuitos eletrônicos analógicos, incluindo ruído térmico, flicker e shot noise. Explica como o ruído é gerado nos principais componentes como resistores, MOSFETs e BJTs e como é caracterizado usando densidade espectral de potência. Também aborda como o ruído afeta a relação sinal-ruído de um circuito.

01 amplificadores elementares transistorizados

01 amplificadores elementares transistorizados

09 sistemas realimentados

09 sistemas realimentados

11 osciladores

11 osciladores

Espelhos de corrente

Espelhos de corrente

05 amplificador diferencial

05 amplificador diferencial

03 ruído em circuitos analógicos

03 ruído em circuitos analógicos

Advanced control scheme of doubly fed induction generator for wind turbine us...

This paper describes a speed control device for generating electrical energy on an electricity network based on the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) used for wind power conversion systems. At first, a double-fed induction generator model was constructed. A control law is formulated to govern the flow of energy between the stator of a DFIG and the energy network using three types of controllers: proportional integral (PI), sliding mode controller (SMC) and second order sliding mode controller (SOSMC). Their different results in terms of power reference tracking, reaction to unexpected speed fluctuations, sensitivity to perturbations, and resilience against machine parameter alterations are compared. MATLAB/Simulink was used to conduct the simulations for the preceding study. Multiple simulations have shown very satisfying results, and the investigations demonstrate the efficacy and power-enhancing capabilities of the suggested control system.

Mechanical Engineering on AAI Summer Training Report-003.pdf

Mechanical Engineering PROJECT REPORT ON SUMMER VOCATIONAL TRAINING
AT MBB AIRPORT

LLM Fine Tuning with QLoRA Cassandra Lunch 4, presented by Anant

Slides for the 4th Presentation on LLM Fine-Tuning with QLoRA Presented by Anant, featuring DataStax Astra

IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Society as a Graduate Student Member

IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Society as a Graduate Student Member

一比一原版(CalArts毕业证)加利福尼亚艺术学院毕业证如何办理

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Redefining brain tumor segmentation: a cutting-edge convolutional neural netw...

Medical image analysis has witnessed significant advancements with deep learning techniques. In the domain of brain tumor segmentation, the ability to
precisely delineate tumor boundaries from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
scans holds profound implications for diagnosis. This study presents an ensemble convolutional neural network (CNN) with transfer learning, integrating
the state-of-the-art Deeplabv3+ architecture with the ResNet18 backbone. The
model is rigorously trained and evaluated, exhibiting remarkable performance
metrics, including an impressive global accuracy of 99.286%, a high-class accuracy of 82.191%, a mean intersection over union (IoU) of 79.900%, a weighted
IoU of 98.620%, and a Boundary F1 (BF) score of 83.303%. Notably, a detailed comparative analysis with existing methods showcases the superiority of
our proposed model. These findings underscore the model’s competence in precise brain tumor localization, underscoring its potential to revolutionize medical
image analysis and enhance healthcare outcomes. This research paves the way
for future exploration and optimization of advanced CNN models in medical
imaging, emphasizing addressing false positives and resource efficiency.

CEC 352 - SATELLITE COMMUNICATION UNIT 1

SATELLITE COMMUNICATION

学校原版美国波士顿大学毕业证学历学位证书原版一模一样

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3:国家专业人才认证中心颁发入库证书
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Transformers design and coooling methods

Transformer Design

官方认证美国密歇根州立大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样

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cnn.pptx Convolutional neural network used for image classication

Convolutional Neural Network used for image classification

Unit-III-ELECTROCHEMICAL STORAGE DEVICES.ppt

Batteries -Introduction – Types of Batteries – discharging and charging of battery - characteristics of battery –battery rating- various tests on battery- – Primary battery: silver button cell- Secondary battery :Ni-Cd battery-modern battery: lithium ion battery-maintenance of batteries-choices of batteries for electric vehicle applications.
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22CYT12-Unit-V-E Waste and its Management.ppt

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Embedded machine learning-based road conditions and driving behavior monitoring

Car accident rates have increased in recent years, resulting in losses in human lives, properties, and other financial costs. An embedded machine learning-based system is developed to address this critical issue. The system can monitor road conditions, detect driving patterns, and identify aggressive driving behaviors. The system is based on neural networks trained on a comprehensive dataset of driving events, driving styles, and road conditions. The system effectively detects potential risks and helps mitigate the frequency and impact of accidents. The primary goal is to ensure the safety of drivers and vehicles. Collecting data involved gathering information on three key road events: normal street and normal drive, speed bumps, circular yellow speed bumps, and three aggressive driving actions: sudden start, sudden stop, and sudden entry. The gathered data is processed and analyzed using a machine learning system designed for limited power and memory devices. The developed system resulted in 91.9% accuracy, 93.6% precision, and 92% recall. The achieved inference time on an Arduino Nano 33 BLE Sense with a 32-bit CPU running at 64 MHz is 34 ms and requires 2.6 kB peak RAM and 139.9 kB program flash memory, making it suitable for resource-constrained embedded systems.

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Advanced control scheme of doubly fed induction generator for wind turbine us...

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官方认证美国密歇根州立大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样

官方认证美国密歇根州立大学毕业证学位证书原版一模一样

cnn.pptx Convolutional neural network used for image classication

cnn.pptx Convolutional neural network used for image classication

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Unit-III-ELECTROCHEMICAL STORAGE DEVICES.ppt

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22CYT12-Unit-V-E Waste and its Management.ppt

Embedded machine learning-based road conditions and driving behavior monitoring

Embedded machine learning-based road conditions and driving behavior monitoring

- 1. Introdução ao Projeto de CI´s de Sinais MistosJader A. De Lima UFSC, 2012 Prescalers, Sintetizadores de Frequencia, Lógica Diferencial CML Prof. Jader A. De Lima
- 2. Introdução ao Projeto de CI´s de Sinais MistosJader A. De Lima UFSC, 2012 Synchronous vs. asynchronous counters Synchronous counters • consume large power • represent large CLOAD to oscillator • race problems Ex: if Q2 is slower to go to 0 than Q1 to go to 1, the output of the AND gate experiences glitches.
- 3. Introdução ao Projeto de CI´s de Sinais MistosJader A. De Lima UFSC, 2012 • delay almost constant between the input clock and the output at the divided frequency (NOT proportional to no. of flip-flops)
- 4. Introdução ao Projeto de CI´s de Sinais MistosJader A. De Lima UFSC, 2012
- 5. Introdução ao Projeto de CI´s de Sinais MistosJader A. De Lima UFSC, 2012 Asynchronous counters • forward/backward counting • power consumption is reduced, as each stage operates at half frequency of previous stage
- 6. Introdução ao Projeto de CI´s de Sinais MistosJader A. De Lima UFSC, 2012 • delay is however added between the input clock and the output at the divided frequency (proportional to no. of flip-flops)
- 7. Introdução ao Projeto de CI´s de Sinais MistosJader A. De Lima UFSC, 2012 Programmable dividers (modulus-8 with backwards counting from Q3Q2Q1 =111 to 000) Basic principle: to preset counter to a initial state P and detect final state F by means of an ‘end-of-count’ EOC logic ⇒ the counter counts down between P and F • limitation is max fin as correct operation is guaranteed if EOC signal presets the counter before the next clock edge arrives
- 8. Introdução ao Projeto de CI´s de Sinais MistosJader A. De Lima UFSC, 2012 PRESCALERS resolution: F1 Frequency Synthesizers
- 9. Introdução ao Projeto de CI´s de Sinais MistosJader A. De Lima UFSC, 2012 i) High-frequency operation is attained when logic function is kept simple i) simplest dividers divide by fixed numbers ⇒ programmable divider could have a fixed-modulus high-speed divider as first stage • If a pre-settable modulus-P divider follows a modulus-N prescaler, overall frequency division ratio is NxP. • the input frequency has to be lowered exactly by P to keep same resolution ⇒ implies narrowing the PLL loop bandwidth, which may be undesirable!
- 10. Introdução ao Projeto de CI´s de Sinais MistosJader A. De Lima UFSC, 2012 resolution degraded: P x F1
- 11. Introdução ao Projeto de CI´s de Sinais MistosJader A. De Lima UFSC, 2012 Pulse Swallowing Technique • If S input pulses are swallowed the output period becomes longer by S reference periods ⇒ overall frequency division-ratio is M = (NP + S), which can be varied in unity steps by changing S M1= (NP + S) M2= (NP + S+1) ⇒ ∆M = M2 – M1 = 1 (same resolution without prescaling!)
- 12. Introdução ao Projeto de CI´s de Sinais MistosJader A. De Lima UFSC, 2012 • at beginning of counting, N+1 factor is selected in dual-modulus prescaler (OUT = 1) • P and S count in parallel, with P > S • when S overflows, set = 1 and OUT → 0 • N factor is selected in dual-modulus prescaler • it remains like that until P overflows and OUT → 1 • cycle is restarted. high-speed A= (N+1) A= N total counts of Fout is a full F1 cycle: S x (N+1) + (P-S)N SN + S + PN – SN PN + S = M asynchronous counter
- 13. Introdução ao Projeto de CI´s de Sinais MistosJader A. De Lima UFSC, 2012 total counts of Fout is a full F1 cycle: S x (N+1) + (P-S)N SN + S + PN – SN PN + S = M P > S
- 14. Introdução ao Projeto de CI´s de Sinais MistosJader A. De Lima UFSC, 2012 Ex 1 (using pulse swallowing): • frequency synthesizer in 2400–2480 MHz ISM band • 1 MHz channel spacing ⇒ division factor (M = NP + S ) between 2400–2480 Design steps: i)choice of the modulus N (dual-modulus prescaler), P (program counter) and S (swallow counter), with P > S ii)assume that only S can vary to simplify channel-select logic. iii)make either N or N + 1 a power of two iv)choose S as low as possible so that P > S is a minimum
- 15. Introdução ao Projeto de CI´s de Sinais MistosJader A. De Lima UFSC, 2012 Assuming initially S varies between 1 and 81 (to cover 81 possible division ratios) then P > 81: 6.29 81 2399 P SM N == − < Choosing N = 16 ⇒ 149 16 2399 N SM P == − = and P > S
- 16. Introdução ao Projeto de CI´s de Sinais MistosJader A. De Lima UFSC, 2012 MMIN = (Pmin × N) + Smin = ((N +1) × N) + 1 = N2 + N + 1 MMAX = (Pmax × N) + Smax Pmax and Smax are determined by the size of P and S counters. MMIN-MMAX: range over which it is possible to change N in discrete integer steps. M = (P × N) + S
- 17. Introdução ao Projeto de CI´s de Sinais MistosJader A. De Lima UFSC, 2012 Ex2: assume that prescaler is programmed to N/N+1 = 32/33 S counter: 6 bits means S can be 26 – 1 = 63 P counter: 13 bits means P can be 213 – 1 = 8191 MMIN = N2 + N +1 = 1057 MMAX = (Pmax × N) + Smax = (8191 × 32) + 63 = 262175 If F1 = 10KHz and P = 6000; S =40 FOUT_MIN = 1.057GHz FOUT_MAX = 2.62GHz FOUT = F1 (PN + S) = 10KHz (6000x32+40)=1.92040GHz FOUT1 = F1 (PN + S+1)= 10KHz (6000x32+41)=1.92041GHz ∆FOUT = 10KHz
- 18. Introdução ao Projeto de CI´s de Sinais MistosJader A. De Lima UFSC, 2012 • The main building block of the before-described counters is the D- type level-triggered latch (Differential) CMOS Current Mode Logic - (D)CML • CK swing has to be wide enough (VTH + VGO) to turn on pMOS. Since CK has a finite slope, this implies a certain delay before the latch is able to sense at CK transition ⇒ Differential CML for high-speed processing Conventional CMOS
- 19. Introdução ao Projeto de CI´s de Sinais MistosJader A. De Lima UFSC, 2012 • CML is based on the use of differential stages • tail current is switched between two branches by CK • a regenerative pair holds the data when CK is low • loads can be triode-operating or diode-connected PMOS.
- 20. Introdução ao Projeto de CI´s de Sinais MistosJader A. De Lima UFSC, 2012 Single-Ended vs Differential Common-Mode disturbances disappear in the differential output
- 21. Introdução ao Projeto de CI´s de Sinais MistosJader A. De Lima UFSC, 2012 • small ∆Vin already develops full VOUT
- 22. Introdução ao Projeto de CI´s de Sinais MistosJader A. De Lima UFSC, 2012 CML x CMOS Pros: i)reduced voltage swing (VGO against VGO + VTH of CMOS stages) ⇒ less delay before input sensing ⇒ higher speed ii)current-steering operation: current drained from supply less variable iii)differential circuits are immune to coupled disturbances; they reject disturbances coming from substrate and power supply due to other blocks Cons: i)larger area ii)2 “wires” per signal iii)higher consumption
- 23. Introdução ao Projeto de CI´s de Sinais MistosJader A. De Lima UFSC, 2012 - Emitter-Coupled Logic (origin)
- 24. Introdução ao Projeto de CI´s de Sinais MistosJader A. De Lima UFSC, 2012 - Emitter-Coupled Logic
- 25. Introdução ao Projeto de CI´s de Sinais MistosJader A. De Lima UFSC, 2012 CML AND / NAND gates
- 26. Introdução ao Projeto de CI´s de Sinais MistosJader A. De Lima UFSC, 2012 CML OR / NOR gates
- 27. Introdução ao Projeto de CI´s de Sinais MistosJader A. De Lima UFSC, 2012
- 28. Introdução ao Projeto de CI´s de Sinais MistosJader A. De Lima UFSC, 2012