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MICROPROPAGATION FOR PRODUCTION
    OF QUALITY BANANA PLANTING
             MATERIAL

     SPEAKER
 Mr. AMOL V. JAMALE
Reg. No: J4-00905-2011
PGIABM, JAU, JUNAGADH




                                   1
CONTENT

   Introduction.
   Why do micropropagation?
   Advantages of micropropagation.
   General steps of micropropagation.
   Varieties grown in India.
   Economic of micropropagated banana.
   SWOT analysis of micropropagation.
   Government schems and incentives.
   Conclusion.



                                          2
INTRODUCTION
      Banana is a globally important fruit crop with 97.5 million tones of
       production.

      India produces about 26.217 million tones of Banana from an area of
       0.709 Mha., with an average productivity of 37.0 mt/ha.

      Banana occupy 20% area among the total area under crop in India.

      Micropropagation is refers to rapid asexual in vitro multiplication of
       a desired plant of banana.

      In India only 7 percent area under the tissue culture plantlets and
       remaining 93percent propagated by sucker.

      New entrepreneurs having sound scope in production of banana
       micropropagated plantlets.

Source :- www.apcoab.org                                                        3
LEADING BANANA PRODUCING COUNTRIES




Source: National Horticulture Board (NHB) 2009-10
                                                    4
Indian Production
State wise Production of Banana in          of Banana
India




Source: National Horticulture Board (NHB) 2009-10       5
DISTRICT WISE ESTIMATED AREA, PRODUCTION &
   PRODUCTIVITY OF BANANA IN GUJARAT YEAR 2010-11
 AREA IN HECTORS, PRODUCTION IN M.T., PRODUCTIVITY M.T./HA. GUJARAT
                          STATE
Sr.                             Area        Productio Productivi
No.
          Name of District
                                            n         ty
 1    Bharuch                   15200       990280      65.15
 2    Anand                     14045       877391      62.47
 3    Baroda                    9390        569130      60.61
 4    Narmada                   6000        384000      64.00
 5    Junagadh                  1800        81000       45.00
 6    Bhavnagar                 1600        88000       55.00
 7    Tapi                      1600        88000       55.00
 8    Kutch                     1000        52690       52.69
 9    Baroda                    9390        569130      60.61
 10   Kheda                     806         36270       45.00
 11   Valsad                    770         43120       56.00
 12   Navsari                   460         25760       56.00
 13   Panchmahal                300         9150        30.50
 14   Sabarkantha               204         6149        30.14
Source:- agri.gujarat.Gov. in                                     6
WHAT IS MICROPROPAGATION ?



A whole plant can be regenerated from a small tissue or
plant cells in a suitable culture medium under controlled
environment. The plantlets so produced are called tissue-
culture raised plants.




                                                            7
WHY DO MICROPROPAGATION ?



   A single explant can be multiplied into several thousand plants in
    less than a year – this allows fast commercial propagation of new
    cultivars.

   Once established, a plant tissue culture line can give a continuous
    supply of young plants throughout the year.

   In plants prone to virus diseases, virus free explants (new
    meristem tissue is usually virus free) can be cultivated to provide
    virus free plants.




                                                                          8
CONT.…



     Plant ‘tissue banks’ can be frozen, then regenerated through
      tissue culture.

     Plant cultures in approved media are easier to export than are
      soil-grown plants, as they are pathogen free and take up little
      space (most current plant export is now done in this manner).




                                                                        9
LIST OF BANANA AND PLANTAIN DISEASES
Bacterial diseases
Bacterial wilt                                       Pseudomonas
                                      solanacearum
Finger tip rot (gumming)
                                      Pseudomonas spp
Rhizome rot                                                   Erwinia
                                      carotovora
Fungal diseases
Anthracnose                                               Colletotrichum
                                      musae
Black cross                                                Phyllachora
                                      musicola
Black leaf streak                                        Mycosphaerella
                                      fijiensis
Black root rot                                               Rosellinia
                                      bunodes
Crown rot                                                Verticillium
                                        theobromae
 Source:- Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia                                10
ADVANTAGES OF MICROPROPAGATION


1.Rapid multiplication

2.Requirement of limited mother stock

3.Product uniformity

4.Season independent production

5.Agronomic advantages

6.Plant exchange

7.High returns




                                        11
Source : Cadila pharmaceuticals limited   12
STAGE 0 : SELECTION AND MAINTENANCE OF STOCK
        PLANTS FOR CULTURE INITIATION

                 EXPLANT

         SHOOT TIPS FROM YOUNG
                SUCKER

        APICAL MERISTEM (1-2 Cm3)


         SURFACED STERILIZATION



                                               13
STAGE- I : INITIATION AND ESTABLISHMENT OF
                   ASEPTIC CULTURE




Source: Jain Irrigation Systems Ltd              14
INITIATION




             15
STAGE –II : MULTIPLICATION OF SHOOT




                                      16
STAGE -III: ROOTING




                      17
STAGE –IV: ACCLIMATIZATION / HARDENING




                                         18
SECONDARY HARDENING

Plants transferred to nursery bags

Kept for 6 to 8 weeks under 50%
              shade


      Regular foliar sprays


Variation if observed is discarded


Plant ready for sale (1 feet height)

                                       19
FACTORS AFFECTING PLANT MICROPROPAGATION


    1.   Growth Media

    2.   Environmental Factors

    3.   Explants Source

    4.   Genetics




                                           20
BANANA PLANTS READY FOR SALE




                               21
IDEAL TISSUE CULTURE RAISED PLANT

An ideal tissue culture raised plant should:

   Be 30 cm in        height and have a pseudostem
    circumference of 5.0-6.0 cm after 60 days of total
    hardening.

   Have 4-5 photosynthetically active leaves and inter-foliar
    space must be not less than 5.0 cm.

   Have approximately 25-30 more than 15 cm active roots
    at the end of secondary hardening.


                                                                 22
CONT….

   Be free from any visual symptoms of leaf spot, pseudostem
    rot and physical deformations;

   Be free from root pathogens like Erwinia, nematode lesions
    and root knots.

   Random checking of roots is essential to ensure health of
    plantation.




                                                              23
PROJECTED MULTIPLICATION RATE OF BANANA UNDER
    OF TISSUE CULTURE FROM A SINGLE EXPLANT
Particulars Stage   Generation   Duration (days)    No. of plants

    Initiation                        25                  1
   Subculture          1st            50                  3
      stages           2nd           75-80                12
                       3rd          100-110               48
                       4th          125-130              192
                       5th          175-180              760
                       6th          200-210             3,040
                       7th          225-230            12,160
    Rooting                         255-260           11-12000
    Primary                         270-280        11,500-11,000*
   hardening
   Secondary                        310-320        10,000-10,500*
   hardening
Shukla S. 2008                                                  24
Hand




         Finger




Source: Jain Irrigation Systems Ltd   25
SUCKERS                TISSUE CULTURE




Source: Jain Irrigation                26
COMPARATIVE INCOME FROM TISSUE-CULTURE AND
             SUCKER-PROPAGATED BANANAS
Sl.         Parameters              TC        Sucker     Comparison
No                               propagated propagated   percentage
                                  bananas    bananas

1 Mean yield (bunches/ha)          2,663      2,416          -
2 Mean price received (/bunch)     94.47      76.42          -
3 Value of main product (/ha)     2,51,573   184,630         -
4 Value of by-product (/ha)         1729      2,518          -
5 Gross income (/ha)              2,53,302   187,149        26%
6 Total expenses (/ha)            1,41,040   108,294        23%
7 Net income (/ha)                1,12,262    78,855        30%
8 Cost of production per bunch     52.31      43.78          -
9 Net income per bunch             42.16      32.64          -
Source: Hanumantharya et al. (2009)                               27
VARIETIES GROWN IN INDIA

State            Varieties grown
Maharashtra      Grand naine, safed velchi, (AB), Dwarf Cavedish, Shindhuri,
                 Ardhapuri, Lalvelchi (Mysore), Rajeli (Plantain).
Gujarat          Grand naine, Dwarf Cavedish, Lactan, Harichal, Gandevi
                 Selection.
Tamil nadu       Grand naine, matti, sevvazhai (red banana), ney poovan,
                 robusta poovan (mysore), sthali (silk), virupakshi (pome),
                 pachanadan, nedran, sakkai.
Andhra Pradesh   Grand naine, Dwarf Cavedish, robusta.
Assam            Jahaji, borjahaji, manjahaji, robusta, honda, chenichampa,
                 alpan, malbhoj (silk), jatikol (mysore) manohar, bhimkol.
Bihar            Dwarf Cavedish, chinai, chenichampa, alpan (mysore), malbhoj
                 (silk), gauria .
Karnataka        Grand naine, Dwarf Cavedish, poovan (mysore), robusta , elakki
                 bale.
Kerala           Njali poovan, red banana, nendran (plantain), palayankondan
                 (mysore) poovan silk, monthan.
West bengal      Amrit sagar, giant governor, lacton, mortman (silk), champa 28
PRODUCTION CAPACITY OF TISSUE CULTURE COMPANIES
                   IN INDIA

State            Company Name                        Production Capacity
                                                     (millions per annum)
Gujarat          Cadila Pharmaceuticals Ltd.                 10.00
                 Shaili Biotech (P) Ltd.                     6.00
                 Sarjan Biotech Pvt. Ltd.                    5.00
                 Arcadia Agro                                3.60
Maharashtra      Jain Irrigation Systems Ltd.                60.00
                 Rise N Shine Biotech Pvt. Ltd.              15.00
                 Gargi Biotek Pvt. Ltd.                      15.00
                 H.U Gugle Agro Biotech Co.                   5.00
                 Seema Biotech                                2.00
Andhra Pradesh   Godrej Agrovet Ltd.                          5.00
                 Anantha Biotechnologies                      3.50
                 A.G. Bioteck Laboratories (India)            3.00
                 Ltd.
                 Agri Vitro Tech Laboratories                 3.00
                 Brookfileds Biotech Pvt. Ltd.                1.50    29
CONT….
      Tamil Nadu        SPIC Agro Biotech Centre        7.00
                         Growmore Bioteh Ltd.           10.00
     Uttarakhand        Aryave Biotech Pvt. Ltd.        2.00
     Uttar Pradesh   Tissue Culture Facility, Biotech   0.60
                                  Park
       Haryana             Sheel Biotech Ltd.           6.00
     West Bengal       Boinchi Bioplants Pvt. Ltd.      2.00
                      Vedic Synergy Biotech. Ltd.       7.00
                     Elegant Flower Company Pvt.        1.50
                                 Ltd.
      Karnataka            Lakshmi Biotech              3.00
                       Green Earth Biotech. Ltd.        3.00
                       Lab and Biotech Pvt. Ltd.        3.00
                          Shri Ramco Biotech            5.0
                          K.F. Biotech Pvt Ltd.         3.00
      Chattisgarh    Aditya Biotech Lab & Research      1.00
                                 Pvt Ltd.
                            Devleela Biotechs           1.00
                                                                30
Shukla S. 2008
MARKET PROJECTIONS FOR TISSUE CULTURE BANANA
                 PLANTS IN INDIA

                         Year
                         2004-05         2007-08        2010-11
                         (million)       (million)      (million)
Anticipated   Volume       27.50          64.00          80.00

              Value       330.00         768.00         960.00
                       @`Rs. 12/plant @`Rs. 12/plant @`Rs. 12/plant
  Actual      Volume       30.00          51.00

              Value       2750           765.00
                       @`Rs. 15/plant @`Rs. 15/plant




Sources : Survey report of DBT 2005                              31
AREA UNDER TISSUE CULTURE AND SUCKER
               PROPAGATED BANANAS



                           Area(Mha)   Percentage



   Tissue culture          0.053       7


   Sucker propagated       0.709       93


   Total                   0.770       100


source : www.apcoab.org.                            32
ESTABLISHMENT OF COMMERCIAL PLANT TISSUE
              CULTURE UNIT
        COMPONENTS:

    1)   STORAGE ROOM FOR CHEMICALS.

    2)   MEDIA PREPARATION ROOM.

    3)   WASHING ROOM.

    4)   INOCULATION ROOM.

    5)   GROWTH ROOM.

    6)   GREEN HOUSE.



                                           33
ECONOMICS OF STARTING PTC BUSINESS
           WITH THE MINIMAL INVESTMENT

   Capacity 3 lakh plantlets per annum
CAPITAL                              (Rs. lakhs)
INVESTMENT


Fixed assets                            10.10



Working capital(3                       3.63
month)


Total                                   13.73      34




                                                   34
D. MEANS OF FINANCE

Debt                                     10.25


Equity                                   3.63


Total                                    13.73


Debt : Equity                             3:2


Rate of interest on loans                17%

                                                 35
CONT….

(I) Cost of Production (per annum) (Rs. lakhs)


Recurring cost                           14.52


Depreciation (@10%)                       0.80


Interest (@17%)                           1.31


Total                                    16.63
                                                 36
CONT….
(II) Turnover

Total plantlets                    3 lakhs
Selling price                      Rs. 8 per plant
Total turnover                     Rs. 24 lakhs
Net profit                         Rs. 7.37 lakhs
% Profit on sales                  30%
IRR                                19%
Return on investment               56%
Source : DBT Government of India                    37
NEED FOR CERTIFICATION OF MICROPROPAGATED
               RAISED PLANTS


       Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Government of India has
     established National Certification System for Tissue Culture
     Raised Plants (NCS TCP).

    Regulate genetic fidelity as authorized vide the Gazette of India
     Notification dated 10th March 2006 of Ministry of Agriculture
     under section 8 of the Seeds Act, -1966.




                                                                     38
ACCREDITATION OF LABORATORIES AND
          CERTIFICATION OF PRODUCTION FACILITY
                    TC Certification
Application        Authority
  Application                                       Tissue Culture
Test            Accreditation/Certification
                                                    Production
Laboratory      Unit                                Facility

                   Accreditation/Certification
 Site visit                  Panel
                                                              Site
  visit                            Evaluation
                                   Report
                 Accreditation/Certification Unit



                 Certified TC Production Facility



                    Accreditation /Certificates
                                                                 39
PROCESS FOR CERTIFICATION TISSUE CULTURE OF
              RAISED PLANTS
         Certified TC Production Facility
            Application              Site visit

           Accredited Test Laboratory

                Testing of Samples

                     Test Report

                                     Positive


         Certificate of Quality (CQ-TCP)

                                                  40
FEE STRUCTURE FOR CERTIFICATION OF TISSUE
             CULTURE PRODUCTION FACILITIES
                                 (FIGURES IN RS.)
                     Small-scale        Medium-scale       Large-scale
                     companies          companies          companies
                     (Up to 1 million   (1 to 3 million    (>3 million
                     plantlets/annum)   plantlets/annum)   plantlets/annu
                                                           m)

Registration fee     1000               1000               1000



Inspection and       1000               3000               5000
report preparation



Processing and       5000               5000               5000
Certification


PERIOD OF VALIDITY OF CERTIFICATION IS TWO YEARS                       41
LABELING BANANA-TISSUE CULTURE (BTC)

        BTC shall be supplied in containers. A cloth-lined label of 12cm x 6 cm
containing following information shall be affixed on the container
Crop                                               Banana          Label No. :
Variety
Class of material                                  : BTC
Lot No.                                            :Batch
Accredited test laboratory
and certification reference note

Date of certification
Production Agency :
(Name and address)

  Source:-Biotech consortium India Ltd.New delhi
                                                                           42
GOVERNMENT SCHEMES AND INCENTIVES

   Agricultural and Processed food       products   Export
    Development Authority (APEDA).

   National Horticulture Board (NHB).

   Department of Biotechnology (DBT).

   Small Farmers Agri business Consortium (SFAC).

   State Level Incentives.

   Financial Assistance by Banks.


                                                              43
AGRICULTURAL AND PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS
  EXPORT DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY (APEDA)




    50% subsidy is given for the development of infrastructure.

    Financial assistance is also given for strengthening quality control
     facilities and implementation of ISO 9000.




                                                                        44
NATIONAL HORTICULTURE BOARD (NHB)



      For setting up of a new tissue culture lab there is a
    provision for project cost with a maximum limit of Rs. 25 lakh
    per project.

   NHB also has a scheme for providing subsidy for cultivation
    under controlled climate condition in poly houses, green
    houses, net houses, etc.




                                                                     45
DEPARTMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY (DBT)


    DBT has supported 150 projects so far for development of
    micropropagation related protocols for about 50plant species.

    DBT established National Certification System for Tissue
    Culture Raised Plants vide the Gazette of India Notification
    dated 10th March 2006 of Ministry of Agriculture under
    section 8 of the Seeds Act, 1966




                                                                    46
SMALL FARMERS AGRI BUSINESS CONSORTIUM (SFAC)




          SFAC under the Ministry of Agriculture give soft loans up
       to 50 lakhs for setting up of small tissue culture labs by
       cooperative societies formed by small scale farmers.




                                                                       47
STATE LEVEL INCENTIVES



       The states of Karnataka, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Andhra
    Pradesh are giving financial assistance of 20% on investments
    for setting tissue culture labs under the new agro industrial
    policy.




                                                                    48
FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE BY BANKS




       Some nationalized banks like Canara Bank has opened a
    special cell for financing high tech agriculture projects.

     National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development
    (NABARD) under its refinancing scheme has supported some 30
    projects with 32% subsidy on investment




                                                                  49
MICROPROPAGATION OF BANANA SWOT ANALYSIS


 STRENGTH:
    Agro climetic conditoin is suitable for tissue culture banana
     Cultivation

    Bunches are uniform, big finger size and average 140-150
     fingers per bunch.

    Financing institution are also interested to finance of
     commercial production of banana tissue culture.




                                                                     50
WEAKNESS



     It requires more investment in initial stage.

     It is relatively sophisticated technology than suckers. and need
      to be well equipped with knowledge and skills.




                                                                     51
OPPORTUNITY


     Heavy market demand with good price.

     The enterpreneur could get subsidy and credit facilities .




                                                                   52
THREATS


       There will be heavy damage to the plant if there is cyclone and
        hailstorm.

       Complete watch and ward is necessary for discriminates for
        storing bunches.

       Heavy winter during bunch initiation period reduces the bunch
        size and occurrence of throat choke disease.




                                                                      53
CONCLUSION

   India is being looked upon by the world as the main technology
    base for production and supply of economically important plant
    varieties.
   The plant tissue culture technology has been very successful
    as an industry and has greatly contributed to successful
    agriculture and Indian farmers are becoming aware about the
    propagation of tissue culture because of high yielding
    productivity. But, only 7 percent area of banana in India is under
    tissue culture plantation.
   New entrepreneurs having sound scope in production of
    banana micropropagated plantlets, will get 7.37 lakh from 3
    lakh plantlets per annum.

                                                                   54
55

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micro propagation of banana

  • 1. MICROPROPAGATION FOR PRODUCTION OF QUALITY BANANA PLANTING MATERIAL SPEAKER Mr. AMOL V. JAMALE Reg. No: J4-00905-2011 PGIABM, JAU, JUNAGADH 1
  • 2. CONTENT  Introduction.  Why do micropropagation?  Advantages of micropropagation.  General steps of micropropagation.  Varieties grown in India.  Economic of micropropagated banana.  SWOT analysis of micropropagation.  Government schems and incentives.  Conclusion. 2
  • 3. INTRODUCTION  Banana is a globally important fruit crop with 97.5 million tones of production.  India produces about 26.217 million tones of Banana from an area of 0.709 Mha., with an average productivity of 37.0 mt/ha.  Banana occupy 20% area among the total area under crop in India.  Micropropagation is refers to rapid asexual in vitro multiplication of a desired plant of banana.  In India only 7 percent area under the tissue culture plantlets and remaining 93percent propagated by sucker.  New entrepreneurs having sound scope in production of banana micropropagated plantlets. Source :- www.apcoab.org 3
  • 4. LEADING BANANA PRODUCING COUNTRIES Source: National Horticulture Board (NHB) 2009-10 4
  • 5. Indian Production State wise Production of Banana in of Banana India Source: National Horticulture Board (NHB) 2009-10 5
  • 6. DISTRICT WISE ESTIMATED AREA, PRODUCTION & PRODUCTIVITY OF BANANA IN GUJARAT YEAR 2010-11 AREA IN HECTORS, PRODUCTION IN M.T., PRODUCTIVITY M.T./HA. GUJARAT STATE Sr. Area Productio Productivi No. Name of District n ty 1 Bharuch 15200 990280 65.15 2 Anand 14045 877391 62.47 3 Baroda 9390 569130 60.61 4 Narmada 6000 384000 64.00 5 Junagadh 1800 81000 45.00 6 Bhavnagar 1600 88000 55.00 7 Tapi 1600 88000 55.00 8 Kutch 1000 52690 52.69 9 Baroda 9390 569130 60.61 10 Kheda 806 36270 45.00 11 Valsad 770 43120 56.00 12 Navsari 460 25760 56.00 13 Panchmahal 300 9150 30.50 14 Sabarkantha 204 6149 30.14 Source:- agri.gujarat.Gov. in 6
  • 7. WHAT IS MICROPROPAGATION ? A whole plant can be regenerated from a small tissue or plant cells in a suitable culture medium under controlled environment. The plantlets so produced are called tissue- culture raised plants. 7
  • 8. WHY DO MICROPROPAGATION ?  A single explant can be multiplied into several thousand plants in less than a year – this allows fast commercial propagation of new cultivars.  Once established, a plant tissue culture line can give a continuous supply of young plants throughout the year.  In plants prone to virus diseases, virus free explants (new meristem tissue is usually virus free) can be cultivated to provide virus free plants. 8
  • 9. CONT.…  Plant ‘tissue banks’ can be frozen, then regenerated through tissue culture.  Plant cultures in approved media are easier to export than are soil-grown plants, as they are pathogen free and take up little space (most current plant export is now done in this manner). 9
  • 10. LIST OF BANANA AND PLANTAIN DISEASES Bacterial diseases Bacterial wilt Pseudomonas solanacearum Finger tip rot (gumming) Pseudomonas spp Rhizome rot Erwinia carotovora Fungal diseases Anthracnose Colletotrichum musae Black cross Phyllachora musicola Black leaf streak Mycosphaerella fijiensis Black root rot Rosellinia bunodes Crown rot Verticillium theobromae Source:- Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 10
  • 11. ADVANTAGES OF MICROPROPAGATION 1.Rapid multiplication 2.Requirement of limited mother stock 3.Product uniformity 4.Season independent production 5.Agronomic advantages 6.Plant exchange 7.High returns 11
  • 12. Source : Cadila pharmaceuticals limited 12
  • 13. STAGE 0 : SELECTION AND MAINTENANCE OF STOCK PLANTS FOR CULTURE INITIATION EXPLANT SHOOT TIPS FROM YOUNG SUCKER APICAL MERISTEM (1-2 Cm3) SURFACED STERILIZATION 13
  • 14. STAGE- I : INITIATION AND ESTABLISHMENT OF ASEPTIC CULTURE Source: Jain Irrigation Systems Ltd 14
  • 16. STAGE –II : MULTIPLICATION OF SHOOT 16
  • 19. SECONDARY HARDENING Plants transferred to nursery bags Kept for 6 to 8 weeks under 50% shade Regular foliar sprays Variation if observed is discarded Plant ready for sale (1 feet height) 19
  • 20. FACTORS AFFECTING PLANT MICROPROPAGATION 1. Growth Media 2. Environmental Factors 3. Explants Source 4. Genetics 20
  • 21. BANANA PLANTS READY FOR SALE 21
  • 22. IDEAL TISSUE CULTURE RAISED PLANT An ideal tissue culture raised plant should:  Be 30 cm in height and have a pseudostem circumference of 5.0-6.0 cm after 60 days of total hardening.  Have 4-5 photosynthetically active leaves and inter-foliar space must be not less than 5.0 cm.  Have approximately 25-30 more than 15 cm active roots at the end of secondary hardening. 22
  • 23. CONT….  Be free from any visual symptoms of leaf spot, pseudostem rot and physical deformations;  Be free from root pathogens like Erwinia, nematode lesions and root knots.  Random checking of roots is essential to ensure health of plantation. 23
  • 24. PROJECTED MULTIPLICATION RATE OF BANANA UNDER OF TISSUE CULTURE FROM A SINGLE EXPLANT Particulars Stage Generation Duration (days) No. of plants Initiation 25 1 Subculture 1st 50 3 stages 2nd 75-80 12 3rd 100-110 48 4th 125-130 192 5th 175-180 760 6th 200-210 3,040 7th 225-230 12,160 Rooting 255-260 11-12000 Primary 270-280 11,500-11,000* hardening Secondary 310-320 10,000-10,500* hardening Shukla S. 2008 24
  • 25. Hand Finger Source: Jain Irrigation Systems Ltd 25
  • 26. SUCKERS TISSUE CULTURE Source: Jain Irrigation 26
  • 27. COMPARATIVE INCOME FROM TISSUE-CULTURE AND SUCKER-PROPAGATED BANANAS Sl. Parameters TC Sucker Comparison No propagated propagated percentage bananas bananas 1 Mean yield (bunches/ha) 2,663 2,416 - 2 Mean price received (/bunch) 94.47 76.42 - 3 Value of main product (/ha) 2,51,573 184,630 - 4 Value of by-product (/ha) 1729 2,518 - 5 Gross income (/ha) 2,53,302 187,149 26% 6 Total expenses (/ha) 1,41,040 108,294 23% 7 Net income (/ha) 1,12,262 78,855 30% 8 Cost of production per bunch 52.31 43.78 - 9 Net income per bunch 42.16 32.64 - Source: Hanumantharya et al. (2009) 27
  • 28. VARIETIES GROWN IN INDIA State Varieties grown Maharashtra Grand naine, safed velchi, (AB), Dwarf Cavedish, Shindhuri, Ardhapuri, Lalvelchi (Mysore), Rajeli (Plantain). Gujarat Grand naine, Dwarf Cavedish, Lactan, Harichal, Gandevi Selection. Tamil nadu Grand naine, matti, sevvazhai (red banana), ney poovan, robusta poovan (mysore), sthali (silk), virupakshi (pome), pachanadan, nedran, sakkai. Andhra Pradesh Grand naine, Dwarf Cavedish, robusta. Assam Jahaji, borjahaji, manjahaji, robusta, honda, chenichampa, alpan, malbhoj (silk), jatikol (mysore) manohar, bhimkol. Bihar Dwarf Cavedish, chinai, chenichampa, alpan (mysore), malbhoj (silk), gauria . Karnataka Grand naine, Dwarf Cavedish, poovan (mysore), robusta , elakki bale. Kerala Njali poovan, red banana, nendran (plantain), palayankondan (mysore) poovan silk, monthan. West bengal Amrit sagar, giant governor, lacton, mortman (silk), champa 28
  • 29. PRODUCTION CAPACITY OF TISSUE CULTURE COMPANIES IN INDIA State Company Name Production Capacity (millions per annum) Gujarat Cadila Pharmaceuticals Ltd. 10.00 Shaili Biotech (P) Ltd. 6.00 Sarjan Biotech Pvt. Ltd. 5.00 Arcadia Agro 3.60 Maharashtra Jain Irrigation Systems Ltd. 60.00 Rise N Shine Biotech Pvt. Ltd. 15.00 Gargi Biotek Pvt. Ltd. 15.00 H.U Gugle Agro Biotech Co. 5.00 Seema Biotech 2.00 Andhra Pradesh Godrej Agrovet Ltd. 5.00 Anantha Biotechnologies 3.50 A.G. Bioteck Laboratories (India) 3.00 Ltd. Agri Vitro Tech Laboratories 3.00 Brookfileds Biotech Pvt. Ltd. 1.50 29
  • 30. CONT…. Tamil Nadu SPIC Agro Biotech Centre 7.00 Growmore Bioteh Ltd. 10.00 Uttarakhand Aryave Biotech Pvt. Ltd. 2.00 Uttar Pradesh Tissue Culture Facility, Biotech 0.60 Park Haryana Sheel Biotech Ltd. 6.00 West Bengal Boinchi Bioplants Pvt. Ltd. 2.00 Vedic Synergy Biotech. Ltd. 7.00 Elegant Flower Company Pvt. 1.50 Ltd. Karnataka Lakshmi Biotech 3.00 Green Earth Biotech. Ltd. 3.00 Lab and Biotech Pvt. Ltd. 3.00 Shri Ramco Biotech 5.0 K.F. Biotech Pvt Ltd. 3.00 Chattisgarh Aditya Biotech Lab & Research 1.00 Pvt Ltd. Devleela Biotechs 1.00 30 Shukla S. 2008
  • 31. MARKET PROJECTIONS FOR TISSUE CULTURE BANANA PLANTS IN INDIA Year 2004-05 2007-08 2010-11 (million) (million) (million) Anticipated Volume 27.50 64.00 80.00 Value 330.00 768.00 960.00 @`Rs. 12/plant @`Rs. 12/plant @`Rs. 12/plant Actual Volume 30.00 51.00 Value 2750 765.00 @`Rs. 15/plant @`Rs. 15/plant Sources : Survey report of DBT 2005 31
  • 32. AREA UNDER TISSUE CULTURE AND SUCKER PROPAGATED BANANAS Area(Mha) Percentage Tissue culture 0.053 7 Sucker propagated 0.709 93 Total 0.770 100 source : www.apcoab.org. 32
  • 33. ESTABLISHMENT OF COMMERCIAL PLANT TISSUE CULTURE UNIT  COMPONENTS: 1) STORAGE ROOM FOR CHEMICALS. 2) MEDIA PREPARATION ROOM. 3) WASHING ROOM. 4) INOCULATION ROOM. 5) GROWTH ROOM. 6) GREEN HOUSE. 33
  • 34. ECONOMICS OF STARTING PTC BUSINESS WITH THE MINIMAL INVESTMENT  Capacity 3 lakh plantlets per annum CAPITAL (Rs. lakhs) INVESTMENT Fixed assets 10.10 Working capital(3 3.63 month) Total 13.73 34 34
  • 35. D. MEANS OF FINANCE Debt 10.25 Equity 3.63 Total 13.73 Debt : Equity 3:2 Rate of interest on loans 17% 35
  • 36. CONT…. (I) Cost of Production (per annum) (Rs. lakhs) Recurring cost 14.52 Depreciation (@10%) 0.80 Interest (@17%) 1.31 Total 16.63 36
  • 37. CONT…. (II) Turnover Total plantlets 3 lakhs Selling price Rs. 8 per plant Total turnover Rs. 24 lakhs Net profit Rs. 7.37 lakhs % Profit on sales 30% IRR 19% Return on investment 56% Source : DBT Government of India 37
  • 38. NEED FOR CERTIFICATION OF MICROPROPAGATED RAISED PLANTS  Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Government of India has established National Certification System for Tissue Culture Raised Plants (NCS TCP).  Regulate genetic fidelity as authorized vide the Gazette of India Notification dated 10th March 2006 of Ministry of Agriculture under section 8 of the Seeds Act, -1966. 38
  • 39. ACCREDITATION OF LABORATORIES AND CERTIFICATION OF PRODUCTION FACILITY TC Certification Application Authority Application Tissue Culture Test Accreditation/Certification Production Laboratory Unit Facility Accreditation/Certification Site visit Panel Site visit Evaluation Report Accreditation/Certification Unit Certified TC Production Facility Accreditation /Certificates 39
  • 40. PROCESS FOR CERTIFICATION TISSUE CULTURE OF RAISED PLANTS Certified TC Production Facility Application Site visit Accredited Test Laboratory Testing of Samples Test Report Positive Certificate of Quality (CQ-TCP) 40
  • 41. FEE STRUCTURE FOR CERTIFICATION OF TISSUE CULTURE PRODUCTION FACILITIES (FIGURES IN RS.) Small-scale Medium-scale Large-scale companies companies companies (Up to 1 million (1 to 3 million (>3 million plantlets/annum) plantlets/annum) plantlets/annu m) Registration fee 1000 1000 1000 Inspection and 1000 3000 5000 report preparation Processing and 5000 5000 5000 Certification PERIOD OF VALIDITY OF CERTIFICATION IS TWO YEARS 41
  • 42. LABELING BANANA-TISSUE CULTURE (BTC) BTC shall be supplied in containers. A cloth-lined label of 12cm x 6 cm containing following information shall be affixed on the container Crop Banana Label No. : Variety Class of material : BTC Lot No. :Batch Accredited test laboratory and certification reference note Date of certification Production Agency : (Name and address) Source:-Biotech consortium India Ltd.New delhi 42
  • 43. GOVERNMENT SCHEMES AND INCENTIVES  Agricultural and Processed food products Export Development Authority (APEDA).  National Horticulture Board (NHB).  Department of Biotechnology (DBT).  Small Farmers Agri business Consortium (SFAC).  State Level Incentives.  Financial Assistance by Banks. 43
  • 44. AGRICULTURAL AND PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS EXPORT DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY (APEDA)  50% subsidy is given for the development of infrastructure.  Financial assistance is also given for strengthening quality control facilities and implementation of ISO 9000. 44
  • 45. NATIONAL HORTICULTURE BOARD (NHB)  For setting up of a new tissue culture lab there is a provision for project cost with a maximum limit of Rs. 25 lakh per project.  NHB also has a scheme for providing subsidy for cultivation under controlled climate condition in poly houses, green houses, net houses, etc. 45
  • 46. DEPARTMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY (DBT)  DBT has supported 150 projects so far for development of micropropagation related protocols for about 50plant species.  DBT established National Certification System for Tissue Culture Raised Plants vide the Gazette of India Notification dated 10th March 2006 of Ministry of Agriculture under section 8 of the Seeds Act, 1966 46
  • 47. SMALL FARMERS AGRI BUSINESS CONSORTIUM (SFAC)  SFAC under the Ministry of Agriculture give soft loans up to 50 lakhs for setting up of small tissue culture labs by cooperative societies formed by small scale farmers. 47
  • 48. STATE LEVEL INCENTIVES  The states of Karnataka, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh are giving financial assistance of 20% on investments for setting tissue culture labs under the new agro industrial policy. 48
  • 49. FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE BY BANKS  Some nationalized banks like Canara Bank has opened a special cell for financing high tech agriculture projects.  National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) under its refinancing scheme has supported some 30 projects with 32% subsidy on investment 49
  • 50. MICROPROPAGATION OF BANANA SWOT ANALYSIS STRENGTH:  Agro climetic conditoin is suitable for tissue culture banana Cultivation  Bunches are uniform, big finger size and average 140-150 fingers per bunch.  Financing institution are also interested to finance of commercial production of banana tissue culture. 50
  • 51. WEAKNESS  It requires more investment in initial stage.  It is relatively sophisticated technology than suckers. and need to be well equipped with knowledge and skills. 51
  • 52. OPPORTUNITY  Heavy market demand with good price.  The enterpreneur could get subsidy and credit facilities . 52
  • 53. THREATS  There will be heavy damage to the plant if there is cyclone and hailstorm.  Complete watch and ward is necessary for discriminates for storing bunches.  Heavy winter during bunch initiation period reduces the bunch size and occurrence of throat choke disease. 53
  • 54. CONCLUSION  India is being looked upon by the world as the main technology base for production and supply of economically important plant varieties.  The plant tissue culture technology has been very successful as an industry and has greatly contributed to successful agriculture and Indian farmers are becoming aware about the propagation of tissue culture because of high yielding productivity. But, only 7 percent area of banana in India is under tissue culture plantation.  New entrepreneurs having sound scope in production of banana micropropagated plantlets, will get 7.37 lakh from 3 lakh plantlets per annum. 54
  • 55. 55