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Methods of Grain Storage
By
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD.
Assistant Professor (Entomology)
JSACAT
Affiliated to Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
• Post-harvest losses account for about 10% of total food grains due to unscientific storage,
insects, rodents, micro-organisms etc.,
• Total food grain production in india is 311 million tonnes and storage is 145 mt. In India,
annual storage losses have been estimated 14 mt worth of Rs. 7,000 crore in which insects
alone account for nearly Rs. 1,300 crores.
• In India out of the total production, about 30% is marketable surplus
• Remaining 70% is retained and stored by farmers for consumption, seed, feed. Hence,
grower need storage facility to hold a portion of produce to sell when the marketing price
is favourable
• Traders and Co-operatives at market centres need storage structures to hold grains when
the transport facility is inadequate
Grain storage in India
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
 Even though government and semi-government organizations like
 Food Corporation of India (FCI)
 Central Warehousing Corporation (CWC)
 State Warehousing Corporations (SWC) etc. are storing the grains in
scientific ways and the storage losses are minimum, their total storage
capacity is very less (3-5% of total production)
 Comparatively farmers and traders store higher quantity of grains and the
extent of loss is on the high side because they store the grains not on scientific
basis
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
CONVENTIONAL STORAGE STRUCTURES IMPROVED RURAL-LEVEL STORAGE STRUCTURES
1. Bamboo Structures
2. Mud and earthen structures
3. Wooden structures
4. Brick structures
5. Underground structures
6. Miscellaneous plant materials
7. Metal corrugated G.I. sheets
8. Hessian cloth bags
9. Gunny bags
1. Bitumen/ coal tar drum
2. Hapur bin/ Kothis
3. Udaipur bin
4. Stone bin
5. Bamboo bin
6. Baked clay bin
STORAGE STRUCTURES
7. PKV bin
8. Pusa bin
9. Pusa Cubicle
10. Pusa Kothar
11. Metal bins
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Split bamboo woven in the form of a cylinder
with wide base and narrow mouth
Paddy, wheat and sorghum
5 quintals
Life 4-5 years.
Weight loss due to insect attack is 5 % in paddy
and 15 % in sorghum.
Bamboo Structures
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Clay, straw and cow dung- 3:3:1.
Earthen structures are made, sun dried and
then burnt in fire
Paddy, wheat, sorghum, oil seeds and pulses
5 - 10 quintals
Life 8 - 10 years. During rainy season develop
cracks and moisture absorption followed by
insect infestation and mould infection.
Mud and earthen structures
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Local wood is used.
At the top - 30cm x 20 cm inlet
At the bottom - 30cm x 15cm outlet is
provided
Paddy - 10 quintals
Life - 15- 20 years. Neither airtight nor
moisture proof.
Wooden structures
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Rectangular, structures built as part of the
house, with brick in cement having a wall
thickness of 40 –50 cm.
At the top 50x 50 cm inlet and at bottom 15 x15
cm outlet is provided.
Paddy, sorghum and wheat
25 - 30 quintals
Disadvantage
High initial cost, not insect and moisture
proof.
Brick structures
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Circular pits vary from 100 – 400cm in depth and
50 – 100cm dia at neck and 250 – 300cm at the
bottom.
For filling and emptying there is an opening at the
top. Before filling the sides and bottom are packed
with straw and husk. After filling the pit is again
covered with straw and stone, then finally with mud.
Cereals
100 – 200 quintals
Safe against insects but, loss of seed viability and
handling difficulties made it out of date
Underground structures
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Stems wound like a bin and
sides are plastered with mud
and cow dung
Miscellaneous plant materials
Bottle gourd shells
Paddy straw is spun in
the form of rope to
varying diameter
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Sheets of about 3 m high are held
vertically along one edge and edges
of the other sheets are overlapped
and bolted to each other.
Thus the temporary structure is
completed with many such sheets.
They are covered on the top with the
plain G.I. sheets.
Various types of grains
Size - Vary
Structure - Temporary
Metal corrugated G.I. sheets
Hessian cloth bags
Gunny bags
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Improved rural-level storage structures
An metal bin, low cost with high technical
performance.
These bins are of 520 mm dia and 900 mm
height. They can store 1.5 q of wheat and
1.2q of Bengal gram.
Bitumen/ coal tar drum
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Circular bins of 2, 5, 7.2 and 10 q
capacities and have potential to
meet requirements of even large
farmers.
Hapur bin/ Kothis
Uttar Pradesh
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
•These bins are made out of used coal tar
drums.
•These can stock 1.3 q of wheat and maize.
•These bins can be made to have more airtight
lid if the drum outlet end is given small cut to
unload the bitumen.
•These bins are suitable for storing of food
grains for short duration and can be adopted by
small farmers.
Udaipur bin
Rajasthan
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
•Stone bin is made of locally
available 40 mm thick stone slabs
with dimensions of 680 mm x 1200
mm with square cross-section.
•The inlet and outlet are made of
asbestos. This bin has a capacity of
3.8 q.
Stone bin (Chittore bin)
Andra Pradesh
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
•These bins are made of two walls of
bamboo with polythene lining in between
and have varying capacities.
•These bins are suitable for short –
duration storage and can be adopted by
small and marginal farmers.
Bamboo bin
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
•Baked clay bin of 7q capacity (paddy) is made of 16 burnt
rings jointed by mud plaster; cement mortar and cow dung
coatings one after another.
•The ends of the rings are made in such a manner that they
fit into each other.
•These rings are kept on a polythene sheet covered and
plastered platform of brick mansory and cement sand
mortar.
Baked clay bin
•An outlet is provided for the discharge of the grain.
•The top is covered with a mild steel lid. Because of the low cost and good performance these
are particularly useful for small and marginal farmers who do not store their produce for
longer duration.
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
•Made from green bamboo splits into
suitable sizes.
•The tunnel, outlet flap valve and
complete stand can be fabricated in a
workshop.
1 – Lid
2 – Storage bin
3 – Discharge cone
4 – Rat guard
5 – Tripod stand
Private kranken versicherung (PKV) bin
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Pusa bin
•It is a modification of the ordinary mud storage structure
commonly used in villages. To provide moisture proof and
airtight conditions, polyethylene film of 700 gauge
thickness has been embedded at the top, bottom and on all
the sides of the mud bin. The embedding process provides
mechanical support and safety to polyethylene film.
•The construction with burnt bricks up to 45 cm height
makes the structure rat proof as well. The bin is
constructed with un burnt bricks on burnt bricks or
concrete floor to avoid rat burrowing. The grain and seed
both remain safe in the bin for more than one year with
proper precautions.
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
•This is a room like structure ( 3.95 x 3.15 x 2.60 m), a modification of Pusa
bin to provide large storage capacity of 24 tonnes on a platform of 3.73 m x
2.93 m x 0.07 m is made with unburnt bricks on a concrete floor (except 22
cm of outer sides with burnt bricks).
•A polyethylene sheet is placed on this platform and another platform of
similar dimension is made with unburnt bricks.
•The 22 cm thick inner walls are constructed upto 2.6 m height. A wooden
frame of 1.89m x 1.06 m for door is fixed in the front side of 3.95 m wall.
•The roof can be made by wooden beam placed at 15 cm distance and
covered with unburnt bricks.
Pusa Cubicle
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
•Presently storage is practiced in small
compartments of a room (5.3 m x 2 m x 4 m)
called kothar.
•The roof is constructed with the help of wooden
poles and mud slabs, leaving three filling holes
each of 0.5 m x 0.5 m size.
•Two out lets of G.I. sheets of 15 cm dia. are fitted
at the floor wall on the front side.
Pusa Kothar
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
•Bins made of steel/ Aluminum are used for storage of
grains outside the house.
•These bins are fire and moisture proof.
•The bins have long durability and produced on
commercial scale.
•The capacity ranges from 1 to 10 tons.
•Silos are huge bins made with steel/ aluminum or
concrete.
•Usually steel and aluminum bins are circular in shape.
•The capacity of silo ranges from 500 to 4000 tons. A
silo has facilities for loading and unloading grains.
Metal bins
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)

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Methods of grain storage Structures in India.pdf

  • 1. Methods of Grain Storage By Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. Assistant Professor (Entomology) JSACAT Affiliated to Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
  • 2. • Post-harvest losses account for about 10% of total food grains due to unscientific storage, insects, rodents, micro-organisms etc., • Total food grain production in india is 311 million tonnes and storage is 145 mt. In India, annual storage losses have been estimated 14 mt worth of Rs. 7,000 crore in which insects alone account for nearly Rs. 1,300 crores. • In India out of the total production, about 30% is marketable surplus • Remaining 70% is retained and stored by farmers for consumption, seed, feed. Hence, grower need storage facility to hold a portion of produce to sell when the marketing price is favourable • Traders and Co-operatives at market centres need storage structures to hold grains when the transport facility is inadequate Grain storage in India Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 3.  Even though government and semi-government organizations like  Food Corporation of India (FCI)  Central Warehousing Corporation (CWC)  State Warehousing Corporations (SWC) etc. are storing the grains in scientific ways and the storage losses are minimum, their total storage capacity is very less (3-5% of total production)  Comparatively farmers and traders store higher quantity of grains and the extent of loss is on the high side because they store the grains not on scientific basis Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 4. CONVENTIONAL STORAGE STRUCTURES IMPROVED RURAL-LEVEL STORAGE STRUCTURES 1. Bamboo Structures 2. Mud and earthen structures 3. Wooden structures 4. Brick structures 5. Underground structures 6. Miscellaneous plant materials 7. Metal corrugated G.I. sheets 8. Hessian cloth bags 9. Gunny bags 1. Bitumen/ coal tar drum 2. Hapur bin/ Kothis 3. Udaipur bin 4. Stone bin 5. Bamboo bin 6. Baked clay bin STORAGE STRUCTURES 7. PKV bin 8. Pusa bin 9. Pusa Cubicle 10. Pusa Kothar 11. Metal bins Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 5. Split bamboo woven in the form of a cylinder with wide base and narrow mouth Paddy, wheat and sorghum 5 quintals Life 4-5 years. Weight loss due to insect attack is 5 % in paddy and 15 % in sorghum. Bamboo Structures Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 6. Clay, straw and cow dung- 3:3:1. Earthen structures are made, sun dried and then burnt in fire Paddy, wheat, sorghum, oil seeds and pulses 5 - 10 quintals Life 8 - 10 years. During rainy season develop cracks and moisture absorption followed by insect infestation and mould infection. Mud and earthen structures Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 7. Local wood is used. At the top - 30cm x 20 cm inlet At the bottom - 30cm x 15cm outlet is provided Paddy - 10 quintals Life - 15- 20 years. Neither airtight nor moisture proof. Wooden structures Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 8. Rectangular, structures built as part of the house, with brick in cement having a wall thickness of 40 –50 cm. At the top 50x 50 cm inlet and at bottom 15 x15 cm outlet is provided. Paddy, sorghum and wheat 25 - 30 quintals Disadvantage High initial cost, not insect and moisture proof. Brick structures Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 9. Circular pits vary from 100 – 400cm in depth and 50 – 100cm dia at neck and 250 – 300cm at the bottom. For filling and emptying there is an opening at the top. Before filling the sides and bottom are packed with straw and husk. After filling the pit is again covered with straw and stone, then finally with mud. Cereals 100 – 200 quintals Safe against insects but, loss of seed viability and handling difficulties made it out of date Underground structures Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 10. Stems wound like a bin and sides are plastered with mud and cow dung Miscellaneous plant materials Bottle gourd shells Paddy straw is spun in the form of rope to varying diameter Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 11. Sheets of about 3 m high are held vertically along one edge and edges of the other sheets are overlapped and bolted to each other. Thus the temporary structure is completed with many such sheets. They are covered on the top with the plain G.I. sheets. Various types of grains Size - Vary Structure - Temporary Metal corrugated G.I. sheets Hessian cloth bags Gunny bags Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 13. An metal bin, low cost with high technical performance. These bins are of 520 mm dia and 900 mm height. They can store 1.5 q of wheat and 1.2q of Bengal gram. Bitumen/ coal tar drum Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 14. Circular bins of 2, 5, 7.2 and 10 q capacities and have potential to meet requirements of even large farmers. Hapur bin/ Kothis Uttar Pradesh Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 15. •These bins are made out of used coal tar drums. •These can stock 1.3 q of wheat and maize. •These bins can be made to have more airtight lid if the drum outlet end is given small cut to unload the bitumen. •These bins are suitable for storing of food grains for short duration and can be adopted by small farmers. Udaipur bin Rajasthan Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 16. •Stone bin is made of locally available 40 mm thick stone slabs with dimensions of 680 mm x 1200 mm with square cross-section. •The inlet and outlet are made of asbestos. This bin has a capacity of 3.8 q. Stone bin (Chittore bin) Andra Pradesh Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 17. •These bins are made of two walls of bamboo with polythene lining in between and have varying capacities. •These bins are suitable for short – duration storage and can be adopted by small and marginal farmers. Bamboo bin Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 18. •Baked clay bin of 7q capacity (paddy) is made of 16 burnt rings jointed by mud plaster; cement mortar and cow dung coatings one after another. •The ends of the rings are made in such a manner that they fit into each other. •These rings are kept on a polythene sheet covered and plastered platform of brick mansory and cement sand mortar. Baked clay bin •An outlet is provided for the discharge of the grain. •The top is covered with a mild steel lid. Because of the low cost and good performance these are particularly useful for small and marginal farmers who do not store their produce for longer duration. Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 19. •Made from green bamboo splits into suitable sizes. •The tunnel, outlet flap valve and complete stand can be fabricated in a workshop. 1 – Lid 2 – Storage bin 3 – Discharge cone 4 – Rat guard 5 – Tripod stand Private kranken versicherung (PKV) bin Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 20. Pusa bin •It is a modification of the ordinary mud storage structure commonly used in villages. To provide moisture proof and airtight conditions, polyethylene film of 700 gauge thickness has been embedded at the top, bottom and on all the sides of the mud bin. The embedding process provides mechanical support and safety to polyethylene film. •The construction with burnt bricks up to 45 cm height makes the structure rat proof as well. The bin is constructed with un burnt bricks on burnt bricks or concrete floor to avoid rat burrowing. The grain and seed both remain safe in the bin for more than one year with proper precautions. Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 21. •This is a room like structure ( 3.95 x 3.15 x 2.60 m), a modification of Pusa bin to provide large storage capacity of 24 tonnes on a platform of 3.73 m x 2.93 m x 0.07 m is made with unburnt bricks on a concrete floor (except 22 cm of outer sides with burnt bricks). •A polyethylene sheet is placed on this platform and another platform of similar dimension is made with unburnt bricks. •The 22 cm thick inner walls are constructed upto 2.6 m height. A wooden frame of 1.89m x 1.06 m for door is fixed in the front side of 3.95 m wall. •The roof can be made by wooden beam placed at 15 cm distance and covered with unburnt bricks. Pusa Cubicle Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 22. •Presently storage is practiced in small compartments of a room (5.3 m x 2 m x 4 m) called kothar. •The roof is constructed with the help of wooden poles and mud slabs, leaving three filling holes each of 0.5 m x 0.5 m size. •Two out lets of G.I. sheets of 15 cm dia. are fitted at the floor wall on the front side. Pusa Kothar Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 23. •Bins made of steel/ Aluminum are used for storage of grains outside the house. •These bins are fire and moisture proof. •The bins have long durability and produced on commercial scale. •The capacity ranges from 1 to 10 tons. •Silos are huge bins made with steel/ aluminum or concrete. •Usually steel and aluminum bins are circular in shape. •The capacity of silo ranges from 500 to 4000 tons. A silo has facilities for loading and unloading grains. Metal bins Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)