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METADATA STANDARDS
Prepared by
Chakradhar Rana
Library Trainee
BP Central Library
NIT, Rourkela
Dt: 09.02.2016
CONTENT
 Metadata
 Purpose of Metadata
 Types of Metadata
 Functions of Metadata
 MARC Standard
 MARC 21
 MARC XML
 Dublincore Standard
 Dublincore Elements
 Qualified Dublincore
 Some Links
 Metadata Development Organization
Metadata
 Theterm "meta" comesfrom aGreek word that denotes
something of ahigher or morefundamental nature.
Metadataisthedatathat definesor describesother data.
 Theterm refersto any dataused to aid theidentification,
description and location of networked electronic resources.
 Theterm "metadata" wascoined in 1968 by Philip Bagley.
Definition:
 Metadata is structured information that describes,
explains, locates, shares, or otherwise makes it
easier to retrieve, use, or manage an information
resource.
5
Purposeof Metadata
Types of Metadata
 Descriptive metadata
ex: title, abstract, autho r, and keywo rds
 Structuralmetadata
ex: ho w pages are o rdered to fo rm chapters.
 Administrative metadata
-- Rightsmanagement metadata
(Copyright ownership, useprivileges, etc.)
- Preservation metadata
(Typically by/for owning agency: pricepaid,
Function of Metadata
 Reso urce Disco very
 Allowing resourcesto befound by relevant criteria;
 Identifying resources;
 Bringing similar resourcestogether;
 Distinguishing dissimilar resources;
 Giving location information
 Organizing Electro nic Reso urces
 Organizing linksto resourcesbased on audienceor topic.
 Building static webpages with the names and locations of the
resources, hardcoded in theHTML.
 Building thesewebpagesdynamically from metadatastored in the
databases.
 Facilitating Intero perability
 Describing a resource with metadata allows it to be
understood by both humans and machines to promote
interoperability.
 Using defined metadata schemes, shared transfer protocols,
and crosswalks between schemes, resources across the
network can besearched moreseamlessly.
 Cross-system search, e.g., using Z39.50 protocol;
 Metadataharvesting, e.g., OAI protocol
 DigitalIdentificatio n
 Elementsfor standard numbers, e.g., ISBN
 Thelocation of adigital object may also begiven using:
 afilename
 aURL
 some persistent identifiers, e.g., PURL (Persistent URL);
DOI (Digital Object Identifier)
 Combined metadata to act as a set of identifying data,
differentiating one object from another for validation
purposes.
 Archiving and Preservatio n
 Digital information is fragileand can becorrupted or
altered;
 It may become unusable as storage technologies
change.
• Metadata is key to ensuring that resources will survive
and continue to be accessible into the future. Archiving
and preservation requirespecial elements:
 to track thelineageof adigital object,
 to detail itsphysical characteristics, and
 to document its behavior in order to emulate it in
futuretechnologies
METADATA STANDARDS
12
MARC
 Machine-ReadableCataloging standard
 developed by American computer scientist HenrietteAvram in
1960s
 By 1971, MARC for matshad becomethenational standard
for dissemination of bibliographic data in theUnited States,
and the international standard by 1973
 Thereareseveral versionsof MARC in usearound theworld,
likeU.S. and Canadian MARC formats, UKMARC and
UNIMARC format etc..
 Two syntax expressions
 MARC 21
 MARCXML
MARC 21
 MARC 21 formatsarefor therepresentation and
communication of bibliographic and related information in
machine-readableform
 Threeelements:
- therecord structure
e.g., Information InterchangeFormat (ANSI Z39.2)
and Format for Information Exchange (ISO 2709)
- the content designation
- thedata content of therecord
e.g, AACR, LCSH, NLM Classification
14
MARC 21 Scope
 Bibliographic Data
books, serials, computer files, maps, music, visual materials,
mixed material etc…
 HoldingsData
call number, shelf location, volumesheld & so forth…
 Authority Data
names, titles, name/titlecombinations, subjects, seriesetc…
 Classification Data
classification numbers, associated captions, hierarchies
 Community Information
events, programs, services, people, organizations
MARC 21 in XML –
MARCXML MARCXML isan XML schema based on thecommon MARC21
 standards.
  MARCXML wasdeveloped by the Library of Congress  in 2002,
and adopted by it and othersasameansof facilitating thesharing
of, and networked accessto, bibliographic information.
 varioussystemsallowsit to beused asan aggregation format, asit
isin softwarepackagessuch as MetaLib, though that package
mergesit into awider DTD specification.
[MetaLib is a federated search system developed by Ex Libris Group]
[DTDis a set of markup declarations that define a document type for
an SGML-family markup language (SGML, XML, HTML)]
MARC 21 in XML –
MARCXML
Established standard MARC 21 in an XML structure
- Takesadvantageof freely availableXML tools
Allowsfor interoperability with different XML
metadataschemas
Providescontinuity with current data
- XML exact equivalent of MARC (2709) record
- Lossless/roundtrip conversion to/from MARC 21 record
- Presentation using XML stylesheets
http://www.loc.gov/standards/marcxml
Mark Tagging System
 0xx- Control and fixed datafields
 1xx- Main Entries(Author)
 2xx- Title, Edition, Imprint
 3xx-Physical Description
 4xx- SeriesStatement
 5xx- Notes
 6xx- Subject entries
 7xx- Added entries(other than Subject or series)
 8xx- Added entries( Series)
 841+ Holding Information
 9xx- Locally defined information 18
000 01166cam 2200385 a 450
001 5054896
005 20041014084104.0
008 040213s2004 ilu b 001 0 eng
010 __ |a 2004003428
020 __ |a 0838908829
035 __ |a NYJH04-B3414
035 __ |a 5054896
040 __ |a DLC |c DLC |d DLC
050 00 |a Z666.5 |b .M48 2004
082 00 |a 025.3 |2 22
090 __ |a Z666.5 |b .M48 2004
245 00 |a Metadata in practice / |c Diane I. Hillmann, editor, Elaine L. Westbrooks,
editor.
260 __ |a Chicago : |b American Library Association, |c 2004.
263 __ |a 0406
300 __ |a xvii, 285 p. : |b ill. ; |c 23 cm.
504 __ |a Includes bibliographical references and index.
650 _0 |a Information organization.
650 _0 |a Metadata.
650 _0 |a Database management.
700 1_ |a Hillmann, Diane I. |q (Diane Ileana), |d 1948-
700 1_ |a Westbrooks, Elaine L.
710 2_ |a American Library Association.
Traditional Tagged MARC 21 Record Display
19
New Marc21 (Unicode) record display
20
Dublin Core
 In mid-1990s
 Meeting held in Dublin, Ohio in 1995 hosted by OCLC and NCSA
 Involvement from several sectors(libraries, museums, science, IT, etc…)
 Agreement reached on acoreset of metadataattributesfor resource
discovery
 Given thenameDublin Core(DC)
 DC iscommonly used in repositories
 Thecontinuing development of theDublin Coreand related specificationsis
managed by theDublin CoreMetadataInitiative(DCMI).
 DCMI supportsshared innovation in metadatadesign and best practices
acrossabroad rangeof purposesand businessmodels.
 Objective: To defineaset of elementsthat could beused by authorsto
describetheir own Web resourcesRegular annual conferencesheld
 Regular annual conferencesheld
See http://dublincore.org/>See http://dublincore.org/>
Advantages: Dublin Core
 International and cross-domain
 Developed viaan open review process
 Increased efficiency of thediscovery/retrieval of digital
objects
 Rich element set (qualified DC) providesaframework of
elementswhich will aid themanagement of information
 Easeof mapping to other metadatastandardspromotes
collaboration of cultural/educational information
Dublin Core- Simple
 Simpleto use
 All elementsareoptional/repeatable
 No order of elementsprescribed
 Interdisciplinary/International
 Promotessemantic interoperability
 Controlled vocabulary values may be
expressed, but not thesourcesof thevalues
Dublin CoreElements
24
 Fifteen elementsin SimpleDC
Ex.: SimpleDublin Core
<metadata>
<dc:title>Metadata in practice.</dc:title>
<dc:contributor>Hillmann, Diane I.</dc:contributor>
<dc:contributor>Westbrooks, Elaine L.</dc:contributor>
<dc:subject>Information organization</dc:subject>
<dc:subject>Metadata</dc:subject>
<dc:subject>Database management</dc:subject>
<dc:subject>Z666.5.M48 2004</dc:subject>
<dc:subject>025.3</dc:subject>
<dc:date>2004</dc:date>
<dc:format>285 p.</dc:format>
<dc:type>Text</dc:type
<dc:identifier>ISBN:0838908829</dc:identifier>
<dc:language>en</dc:language>
<dc:publisher>ALA Editions</dc:publisher>
</metadata>
“Qualified” Dublin Core
 Includes15 termsof theoriginal DC MetadataElement Set,
plusthreeadditional elements(Audience, Provenanceand
RightsHolder)
 Provides:
 A fuller set of propertieswith specific requirementsfor content
 A namespacethat includesall properties
 Explicit valuevocabulariescan bespecified
Ex.: Qualified Dublin Core
<metadata>
<dc:title xml:lang="en">Metadata in practice.</dc:title>
<dc:contributor>Hillmann, Diane I.</dc:contributor>
<dc:contributor>Westbrooks, Elaine L.</dc:contributor>
<dc:subject xsitype="LCSH">Information organization</dc:subject>
<dc:subject xsitype="LCSH">Metadata</dc:subject>
<dc:subject xsitype="LCSH">Database management</dc:subject>
<dc:subject xsitype="LCC">Z666.5.M48 2004</dc:subject>
<dc:subject xsitype="DDC">025.3</dc:subject>
<dc:date xsitype="W3CDTF">2004</dc:date>
<dcterms:extent>285 p.</dcterms:extent>
<dc:type xsitype="DCMIType">Text</dc:type>
<dc:identifier xsitype="URI">ISBN:0838908829</dc:identifier>
<dc:language xsitype="RFC3066">en</dc:language>
<dc:publisher>ALA Editions</dc:publisher>
<dcterms:audience>Librarians</dcterms:audience>
</metadata>
Links
MARC 21: http://lcweb.loc.gov/marc/marcdocz.html
MARCXML: http://www.loc.gov/marc/marcxml.html
Dublin Core: http://www.dublincore.org
METS: http://www.loc.gov/standards/mets
TEI: http://www.tei-c.org
EAD: http://www.loc.gov/ead
MODS: http://www.loc.gov/standards/mods
FGDC: http://www.fgdc.gov/metadata/meta_stand.html
MIX: http://www.loc.gov/standards/mix
ONIX: http://www.editeur.org/onix.html
RDF: http://www.w3.org/RDF
OCLC Research: http://www.oclc.org/research
MetadataDevelopment Organizations

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Metadata: A concept

  • 1. METADATA STANDARDS Prepared by Chakradhar Rana Library Trainee BP Central Library NIT, Rourkela Dt: 09.02.2016
  • 2. CONTENT  Metadata  Purpose of Metadata  Types of Metadata  Functions of Metadata  MARC Standard  MARC 21  MARC XML  Dublincore Standard  Dublincore Elements  Qualified Dublincore  Some Links  Metadata Development Organization
  • 3. Metadata  Theterm "meta" comesfrom aGreek word that denotes something of ahigher or morefundamental nature. Metadataisthedatathat definesor describesother data.  Theterm refersto any dataused to aid theidentification, description and location of networked electronic resources.  Theterm "metadata" wascoined in 1968 by Philip Bagley. Definition:  Metadata is structured information that describes, explains, locates, shares, or otherwise makes it easier to retrieve, use, or manage an information resource.
  • 4.
  • 5. 5
  • 7. Types of Metadata  Descriptive metadata ex: title, abstract, autho r, and keywo rds  Structuralmetadata ex: ho w pages are o rdered to fo rm chapters.  Administrative metadata -- Rightsmanagement metadata (Copyright ownership, useprivileges, etc.) - Preservation metadata (Typically by/for owning agency: pricepaid,
  • 8. Function of Metadata  Reso urce Disco very  Allowing resourcesto befound by relevant criteria;  Identifying resources;  Bringing similar resourcestogether;  Distinguishing dissimilar resources;  Giving location information  Organizing Electro nic Reso urces  Organizing linksto resourcesbased on audienceor topic.  Building static webpages with the names and locations of the resources, hardcoded in theHTML.  Building thesewebpagesdynamically from metadatastored in the databases.
  • 9.  Facilitating Intero perability  Describing a resource with metadata allows it to be understood by both humans and machines to promote interoperability.  Using defined metadata schemes, shared transfer protocols, and crosswalks between schemes, resources across the network can besearched moreseamlessly.  Cross-system search, e.g., using Z39.50 protocol;  Metadataharvesting, e.g., OAI protocol
  • 10.  DigitalIdentificatio n  Elementsfor standard numbers, e.g., ISBN  Thelocation of adigital object may also begiven using:  afilename  aURL  some persistent identifiers, e.g., PURL (Persistent URL); DOI (Digital Object Identifier)  Combined metadata to act as a set of identifying data, differentiating one object from another for validation purposes.
  • 11.  Archiving and Preservatio n  Digital information is fragileand can becorrupted or altered;  It may become unusable as storage technologies change. • Metadata is key to ensuring that resources will survive and continue to be accessible into the future. Archiving and preservation requirespecial elements:  to track thelineageof adigital object,  to detail itsphysical characteristics, and  to document its behavior in order to emulate it in futuretechnologies
  • 13. MARC  Machine-ReadableCataloging standard  developed by American computer scientist HenrietteAvram in 1960s  By 1971, MARC for matshad becomethenational standard for dissemination of bibliographic data in theUnited States, and the international standard by 1973  Thereareseveral versionsof MARC in usearound theworld, likeU.S. and Canadian MARC formats, UKMARC and UNIMARC format etc..  Two syntax expressions  MARC 21  MARCXML
  • 14. MARC 21  MARC 21 formatsarefor therepresentation and communication of bibliographic and related information in machine-readableform  Threeelements: - therecord structure e.g., Information InterchangeFormat (ANSI Z39.2) and Format for Information Exchange (ISO 2709) - the content designation - thedata content of therecord e.g, AACR, LCSH, NLM Classification 14
  • 15. MARC 21 Scope  Bibliographic Data books, serials, computer files, maps, music, visual materials, mixed material etc…  HoldingsData call number, shelf location, volumesheld & so forth…  Authority Data names, titles, name/titlecombinations, subjects, seriesetc…  Classification Data classification numbers, associated captions, hierarchies  Community Information events, programs, services, people, organizations
  • 16. MARC 21 in XML – MARCXML MARCXML isan XML schema based on thecommon MARC21  standards.   MARCXML wasdeveloped by the Library of Congress  in 2002, and adopted by it and othersasameansof facilitating thesharing of, and networked accessto, bibliographic information.  varioussystemsallowsit to beused asan aggregation format, asit isin softwarepackagessuch as MetaLib, though that package mergesit into awider DTD specification. [MetaLib is a federated search system developed by Ex Libris Group] [DTDis a set of markup declarations that define a document type for an SGML-family markup language (SGML, XML, HTML)]
  • 17. MARC 21 in XML – MARCXML Established standard MARC 21 in an XML structure - Takesadvantageof freely availableXML tools Allowsfor interoperability with different XML metadataschemas Providescontinuity with current data - XML exact equivalent of MARC (2709) record - Lossless/roundtrip conversion to/from MARC 21 record - Presentation using XML stylesheets http://www.loc.gov/standards/marcxml
  • 18. Mark Tagging System  0xx- Control and fixed datafields  1xx- Main Entries(Author)  2xx- Title, Edition, Imprint  3xx-Physical Description  4xx- SeriesStatement  5xx- Notes  6xx- Subject entries  7xx- Added entries(other than Subject or series)  8xx- Added entries( Series)  841+ Holding Information  9xx- Locally defined information 18
  • 19. 000 01166cam 2200385 a 450 001 5054896 005 20041014084104.0 008 040213s2004 ilu b 001 0 eng 010 __ |a 2004003428 020 __ |a 0838908829 035 __ |a NYJH04-B3414 035 __ |a 5054896 040 __ |a DLC |c DLC |d DLC 050 00 |a Z666.5 |b .M48 2004 082 00 |a 025.3 |2 22 090 __ |a Z666.5 |b .M48 2004 245 00 |a Metadata in practice / |c Diane I. Hillmann, editor, Elaine L. Westbrooks, editor. 260 __ |a Chicago : |b American Library Association, |c 2004. 263 __ |a 0406 300 __ |a xvii, 285 p. : |b ill. ; |c 23 cm. 504 __ |a Includes bibliographical references and index. 650 _0 |a Information organization. 650 _0 |a Metadata. 650 _0 |a Database management. 700 1_ |a Hillmann, Diane I. |q (Diane Ileana), |d 1948- 700 1_ |a Westbrooks, Elaine L. 710 2_ |a American Library Association. Traditional Tagged MARC 21 Record Display 19
  • 20. New Marc21 (Unicode) record display 20
  • 21. Dublin Core  In mid-1990s  Meeting held in Dublin, Ohio in 1995 hosted by OCLC and NCSA  Involvement from several sectors(libraries, museums, science, IT, etc…)  Agreement reached on acoreset of metadataattributesfor resource discovery  Given thenameDublin Core(DC)  DC iscommonly used in repositories  Thecontinuing development of theDublin Coreand related specificationsis managed by theDublin CoreMetadataInitiative(DCMI).  DCMI supportsshared innovation in metadatadesign and best practices acrossabroad rangeof purposesand businessmodels.  Objective: To defineaset of elementsthat could beused by authorsto describetheir own Web resourcesRegular annual conferencesheld  Regular annual conferencesheld See http://dublincore.org/>See http://dublincore.org/>
  • 22. Advantages: Dublin Core  International and cross-domain  Developed viaan open review process  Increased efficiency of thediscovery/retrieval of digital objects  Rich element set (qualified DC) providesaframework of elementswhich will aid themanagement of information  Easeof mapping to other metadatastandardspromotes collaboration of cultural/educational information
  • 23. Dublin Core- Simple  Simpleto use  All elementsareoptional/repeatable  No order of elementsprescribed  Interdisciplinary/International  Promotessemantic interoperability  Controlled vocabulary values may be expressed, but not thesourcesof thevalues
  • 24. Dublin CoreElements 24  Fifteen elementsin SimpleDC
  • 25. Ex.: SimpleDublin Core <metadata> <dc:title>Metadata in practice.</dc:title> <dc:contributor>Hillmann, Diane I.</dc:contributor> <dc:contributor>Westbrooks, Elaine L.</dc:contributor> <dc:subject>Information organization</dc:subject> <dc:subject>Metadata</dc:subject> <dc:subject>Database management</dc:subject> <dc:subject>Z666.5.M48 2004</dc:subject> <dc:subject>025.3</dc:subject> <dc:date>2004</dc:date> <dc:format>285 p.</dc:format> <dc:type>Text</dc:type <dc:identifier>ISBN:0838908829</dc:identifier> <dc:language>en</dc:language> <dc:publisher>ALA Editions</dc:publisher> </metadata>
  • 26.
  • 27. “Qualified” Dublin Core  Includes15 termsof theoriginal DC MetadataElement Set, plusthreeadditional elements(Audience, Provenanceand RightsHolder)  Provides:  A fuller set of propertieswith specific requirementsfor content  A namespacethat includesall properties  Explicit valuevocabulariescan bespecified
  • 28. Ex.: Qualified Dublin Core <metadata> <dc:title xml:lang="en">Metadata in practice.</dc:title> <dc:contributor>Hillmann, Diane I.</dc:contributor> <dc:contributor>Westbrooks, Elaine L.</dc:contributor> <dc:subject xsitype="LCSH">Information organization</dc:subject> <dc:subject xsitype="LCSH">Metadata</dc:subject> <dc:subject xsitype="LCSH">Database management</dc:subject> <dc:subject xsitype="LCC">Z666.5.M48 2004</dc:subject> <dc:subject xsitype="DDC">025.3</dc:subject> <dc:date xsitype="W3CDTF">2004</dc:date> <dcterms:extent>285 p.</dcterms:extent> <dc:type xsitype="DCMIType">Text</dc:type> <dc:identifier xsitype="URI">ISBN:0838908829</dc:identifier> <dc:language xsitype="RFC3066">en</dc:language> <dc:publisher>ALA Editions</dc:publisher> <dcterms:audience>Librarians</dcterms:audience> </metadata>
  • 29. Links MARC 21: http://lcweb.loc.gov/marc/marcdocz.html MARCXML: http://www.loc.gov/marc/marcxml.html Dublin Core: http://www.dublincore.org METS: http://www.loc.gov/standards/mets TEI: http://www.tei-c.org EAD: http://www.loc.gov/ead MODS: http://www.loc.gov/standards/mods FGDC: http://www.fgdc.gov/metadata/meta_stand.html MIX: http://www.loc.gov/standards/mix ONIX: http://www.editeur.org/onix.html RDF: http://www.w3.org/RDF OCLC Research: http://www.oclc.org/research
  • 30.