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Selection of bearings
Function of bearings:
 Support   the loads exerted on the
  shaft
 Locate the shaft in position
  – Radially
  – Axially
Type of bearings:

  •Sliding contact bearings


  •Rolling contact bearings
Sliding contact bearings
     W              W




                        Hydraulic oil


 Hydrodynamic      Hydrostatic
   bearings         bearings
Rolling contact bearings:

  • Ball bearings
       Single row ball bearing
       Double row ball bearing
       Self alignment ball bearing
       Angular contact ball bearing
       Thrust ball bearing
  • Roller contact bearings
      Taper roller bearing
      Straight roller bearing
      Conical roller bearing
      Concave roller bearing
      Thrust roller bearing
      Needle bearings
Ball bearing

               Roller bearing
                            Spherical roller
                             thrust bearing
                                            Radial tapered
                                             roller bearing     Ball
                                                               thrust   Roller thrust
                                                              bearing     bearing
Classification of bearing load
   The loading on bearings can be
    classified into three groups:

   Solely radial loading

   Solely axial loading

   Combined radial and axial loading
The Bearing series




      Extra   Light   Medium   Heavy
      light
Standardisation of ball bearings :


• Series Designation
                           6309
• Light : 200
• Medium: 300   Bearing type
                                   Bore diameter

• Heavy : 400            Series number
Main parts of a typical ball bearing
          Ball          Ball retainer




     Inner ring

                            Outer ring
Selection of ball bearings:

•The bearing must be of the series best suited
to the installation, in regard to both:
   •capacity and
   •dimensions.
•The type of bearing selected must be suitable
for the type of imposed load,
   •radial,
   •thrust or
   •combined.
•The size of the bearing must be such as to give
the required length of service with sufficient
assurance.
Selection of ball bearing
   Bearings have to resist some combination of
    radial and thrust loads.
   Combined load must be reduced to an equivalent
    radial load
   In general the equivalent load Fe may be computed
    by the equation:
                                   Fe  XF r YF a

             Type of bearing   Y    X

             Deep groove            1

             Angular contact

             Self aligning
Selection of ball bearing
 Experiments have shown that the life of a
  ball bearing is a function of the load it
  carries.
                          Cd 3
.                 Ln =            ( )
                          Fe
    – Cd: dynamic specific capacity of bearing.
    – Ln: Life of bearing in millions of revolution.
    – Fe : Equivalent load
   The above equation can be rewritten as
                                         1/3
                     C d = Fe L n
Bearing life
                                                                                              Life in working
                                     Class of machine                                               hours
    Instruments and apparatus that are used only seldom. Demonstration apparatus,
1
    mechanisms for operating sliding doors
2   Aircraft engines                                                                            1000 - 2000

    Machines used for short periods or intermittently and whose brake down would not
    have serious consequences; hand tools, lifting tackles in workshops, hand operated
3                                                                                               4000 - 8000
    machines, generally agricultural machines, cranes in erecting shops, domestic
    machines
    Machines working intermittently and where breakdown would have serious
4   consequences. Auxiliary machines in power stations, conveyor plant for flow                 8000 - 12000
    production, lifts cranes for piece goods; machine tools used infrequently
    Machine for use 8 hours per day and fully utilized: stationary electric motors, general
5                                                                                              12000 - 20000
    purpose gear units.
    Machine for use 8 hours per day and fully utilized: machines for engineering industry
6                                                                                              20000 - 30000
    generally: cranes for bulk goods, ventilating fans, countershafts
    Machines for continuous use 24 hours per day: Separators, compressors, pumps, mine
7   hoist, stationary electric machines, machines in continuous operations on board naval      40000 - 60000
    ships
    Machines required to work with high degree of reliability 24 hours per day: pulp and
8   paper machinery; public power plants, mine pumps, pumps in water works, machinery         100000 - 200000
    in continuous operation on board merchant ships
Factor of safety
                                                                Safety
                                                              factor, life
                Safety factor, life of 5 to 10 years
Load                                                          of 10 to 20
conditions                                                       years

               Intermittent   10 hours per day   Continuous   Continuous


Steady load    0.5 ----- 1          1.5              2             3
Light shock    1 ------- 2          2.5              3             4
Moderate       2 ------- 3          3.5              4             5
 shock
Severe shock   3-------- 4          4.5              5             6
Over-all dimensions of radial ball bearings
  SAE      Bore of inner race (d)   Outside diameter D mm          Width B (mm)
 Bearing                             200      300      400      200      300      400
 Number     mm             in
                                    series   series   series   series   series   series
                                                       ……                         ……

                                                       ……                         ……

                                                       ……                         ……
Installation of ball bearings:
    The shaft must be designed to take
     the inner ring (race)., see fig. (6.7)
    A suitable mounting must be
     designed for the outer ring (race).
    Lubrication must be provided for the
     bearing
    Methods of sealing the lubricant and
     preventing penetration of foreign
     matter must be provided.
Fastening ball bearing to a shaft
Example2
   A shaft is supported by two bearings. One of the
    bearings carries a radial load of 1200 lb and an axial
    load of 600 lb with minor shocks. The shaft runs at
    230 rpm and operates 10 hours per day for 5 days per
    week. Select a suitable ball bearing with a service life
    of 2 years if the diameter of the shaft can be varied
    between 3 1 6 and 3 1 inch.
               15
                        2


Fr = 1200 lb
Fa = 500 lb
              Minor shock
Speed = 230 rpm
Operating hours =10/day
Working days = 5/week
Years = 2
SELECT FACTOR OF SAFETY
  Factor of safety = 2.5
  Fe = XFr+ Yfa                                          Safety
                                                       factor, life
Load = 1.5 X 1200 +factor, life of 5 to 10 years
                 Safety 1 X 600
                                                       of 10 to 20
     = 2100 lb
conditions                                                years
  Service lifeType of bearing hours per day Continuous Continuous
                (Ln)
               Intermittent 10      Y       X

Steady load    Deep----- 1
               0.5 groove        1.5        1   2           3
 Ln =
Light shock     1 ------- 2
               Angular contact   2.5            3           4
Moderate      2 ------- 3
             Self aligning       3.5            4           5
  shock
Severe shock 3-------- 4         4.5            5           6
       3 15
         16
            <d< 3 1 inch
                  2

    101.01<d<88.9 mm
 From tables
 Select deep grove ball bearing

 SAE219 with dynamic capacity 17600

 Bore diameter = 95 mm
Dissassebly

              Assembly

            Manufacturing




Thank You

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MET 304 Bearing selection

  • 2. Function of bearings:  Support the loads exerted on the shaft  Locate the shaft in position – Radially – Axially
  • 3. Type of bearings: •Sliding contact bearings •Rolling contact bearings
  • 4. Sliding contact bearings W W Hydraulic oil Hydrodynamic Hydrostatic bearings bearings
  • 5. Rolling contact bearings: • Ball bearings Single row ball bearing Double row ball bearing Self alignment ball bearing Angular contact ball bearing Thrust ball bearing • Roller contact bearings Taper roller bearing Straight roller bearing Conical roller bearing Concave roller bearing Thrust roller bearing Needle bearings
  • 6. Ball bearing Roller bearing Spherical roller thrust bearing Radial tapered roller bearing Ball thrust Roller thrust bearing bearing
  • 7. Classification of bearing load  The loading on bearings can be classified into three groups:  Solely radial loading  Solely axial loading  Combined radial and axial loading
  • 8. The Bearing series Extra Light Medium Heavy light
  • 9. Standardisation of ball bearings : • Series Designation 6309 • Light : 200 • Medium: 300 Bearing type Bore diameter • Heavy : 400 Series number
  • 10. Main parts of a typical ball bearing Ball Ball retainer Inner ring Outer ring
  • 11. Selection of ball bearings: •The bearing must be of the series best suited to the installation, in regard to both: •capacity and •dimensions. •The type of bearing selected must be suitable for the type of imposed load, •radial, •thrust or •combined. •The size of the bearing must be such as to give the required length of service with sufficient assurance.
  • 12. Selection of ball bearing  Bearings have to resist some combination of radial and thrust loads.  Combined load must be reduced to an equivalent radial load  In general the equivalent load Fe may be computed by the equation:  Fe XF r YF a Type of bearing Y X Deep groove 1 Angular contact Self aligning
  • 13. Selection of ball bearing  Experiments have shown that the life of a ball bearing is a function of the load it carries. Cd 3 . Ln = ( ) Fe – Cd: dynamic specific capacity of bearing. – Ln: Life of bearing in millions of revolution. – Fe : Equivalent load  The above equation can be rewritten as 1/3 C d = Fe L n
  • 14. Bearing life Life in working Class of machine hours Instruments and apparatus that are used only seldom. Demonstration apparatus, 1 mechanisms for operating sliding doors 2 Aircraft engines 1000 - 2000 Machines used for short periods or intermittently and whose brake down would not have serious consequences; hand tools, lifting tackles in workshops, hand operated 3 4000 - 8000 machines, generally agricultural machines, cranes in erecting shops, domestic machines Machines working intermittently and where breakdown would have serious 4 consequences. Auxiliary machines in power stations, conveyor plant for flow 8000 - 12000 production, lifts cranes for piece goods; machine tools used infrequently Machine for use 8 hours per day and fully utilized: stationary electric motors, general 5 12000 - 20000 purpose gear units. Machine for use 8 hours per day and fully utilized: machines for engineering industry 6 20000 - 30000 generally: cranes for bulk goods, ventilating fans, countershafts Machines for continuous use 24 hours per day: Separators, compressors, pumps, mine 7 hoist, stationary electric machines, machines in continuous operations on board naval 40000 - 60000 ships Machines required to work with high degree of reliability 24 hours per day: pulp and 8 paper machinery; public power plants, mine pumps, pumps in water works, machinery 100000 - 200000 in continuous operation on board merchant ships
  • 15. Factor of safety Safety factor, life Safety factor, life of 5 to 10 years Load of 10 to 20 conditions years Intermittent 10 hours per day Continuous Continuous Steady load 0.5 ----- 1 1.5 2 3 Light shock 1 ------- 2 2.5 3 4 Moderate 2 ------- 3 3.5 4 5 shock Severe shock 3-------- 4 4.5 5 6
  • 16. Over-all dimensions of radial ball bearings SAE Bore of inner race (d) Outside diameter D mm Width B (mm) Bearing 200 300 400 200 300 400 Number mm in series series series series series series …… …… …… …… …… ……
  • 17. Installation of ball bearings:  The shaft must be designed to take the inner ring (race)., see fig. (6.7)  A suitable mounting must be designed for the outer ring (race).  Lubrication must be provided for the bearing  Methods of sealing the lubricant and preventing penetration of foreign matter must be provided.
  • 19. Example2  A shaft is supported by two bearings. One of the bearings carries a radial load of 1200 lb and an axial load of 600 lb with minor shocks. The shaft runs at 230 rpm and operates 10 hours per day for 5 days per week. Select a suitable ball bearing with a service life of 2 years if the diameter of the shaft can be varied between 3 1 6 and 3 1 inch. 15 2 Fr = 1200 lb Fa = 500 lb Minor shock Speed = 230 rpm Operating hours =10/day Working days = 5/week Years = 2
  • 20. SELECT FACTOR OF SAFETY Factor of safety = 2.5 Fe = XFr+ Yfa Safety factor, life Load = 1.5 X 1200 +factor, life of 5 to 10 years Safety 1 X 600 of 10 to 20 = 2100 lb conditions years Service lifeType of bearing hours per day Continuous Continuous (Ln) Intermittent 10 Y X Steady load Deep----- 1 0.5 groove 1.5 1 2 3 Ln = Light shock 1 ------- 2 Angular contact 2.5 3 4 Moderate 2 ------- 3 Self aligning 3.5 4 5 shock Severe shock 3-------- 4 4.5 5 6
  • 21. 3 15 16 <d< 3 1 inch 2  101.01<d<88.9 mm  From tables  Select deep grove ball bearing  SAE219 with dynamic capacity 17600  Bore diameter = 95 mm
  • 22. Dissassebly Assembly Manufacturing Thank You