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Introduction     Framework         Tools        Application   Conclusions




                                Melinda
               Methods and tools for Web data Interlinking


                             François Schare

                              December 
                              @ STI Innsbruck
Introduction             Framework   Tools   Application   Conclusions




      1    Introduction

      2    Framework

      3    Tools

      4    Application

      5    Conclusions
Introduction       Framework         Tools         Application      Conclusions


Publishing datasets on the Web



      Four publication principles
        1 Resources are identied by URIs.

        2 URIs are dereferenceable.

        3 When a URI is dereferenced, a description of the identied

          resource should be returned, ideally adapted through content
          negotiation.
        4 Published Web datasets must contain links to other Web

          datasets.
Introduction        Framework         Tools     Application   Conclusions


Interlinking datasets

      Links are contained in specic datasets

        http://www.example.org/linkset/DBPedia-MB
         a void:Linkset ;
         void:target http://www.dpbedia.org;
         void:target http://www.musicbrainz.org;

      http://www.example.org/linkset/DBPedia-MB

        http://www.dbpedia.org/resource/
         Johann_Sebastian_Bach
        owl:sameAs
        http://www.musicbrainz.org/artist/
         24f1766e-9635-4d58-a4d4-9413f9f98a4c .
Introduction   Framework   Tools   Application   Conclusions


Web Data Cloud
Introduction            Framework         Tools         Application       Conclusions


Goodie : Open Data's coming up




               data.gov, US Data Act
               data.gov.co.uk, Sir TBL on the track
               Other intitiatives around : from the EU, Open Data intitiatives
Introduction            Framework        Tools         Application      Conclusions


What do we do ?




               We propose a framework capturing the various data
               interlinking methods
               We study existing tools and position them in the framework
               We propose an architecture allowing to articulate ontology
               alignment and interlinking tools
Introduction      Framework           Tools          Application      Conclusions


General approach




                                 owl :sameAs

               URI1                                            URI2
                              Data interlinking

                      Fig.: The data interlinking problem.
Introduction      Framework             Tools             Application      Conclusions


Manual resource alignement




                                   owl :sameAs

               URI1                                                 URI2
                                URI transformation
                              Fig.: URI transformation.
Introduction          Framework              Tools           Application       Conclusions


Matching identiers - Exemple



                                    owl:sameAs


               http://www.lastfm.fr/music/      http://dbpedia.org/resource/
               Johann+Sebastian+Bach            Johann_Sebastian_Bach



                                    URI alignment


                           Fig.: URI transformation exemple
Introduction         Framework          Tools          Application        Conclusions


Datasets sharing a common ontology



                                    owl :sameAs
                                     Resource
                URI1                matching of                  URI2
                                 datasets described
                                    by the same
                                      ontology
                                         O1
        Fig.: Matching two datasets described according to the same ontology.
Introduction     Framework              Tools              Application   Conclusions


Datasets sharing a common ontology - Exemple

                                   mo:MusicArtist
                                type               type
                DBPedia                                   Musicbrainz
                            URI1                        URI2
                      first     last            first          last

                Johann-                    Jean-
                Sebastian        Bach      Sébastien           Bach




                             Resource matching algorithm,
                             datasets described according
                             to a common ontology


               Fig.: Matching data sharing a common ontology
Introduction          Framework          Tools         Application        Conclusions


Matching datasets having heterogeneous ontologies



                                     owl :sameAs
                                      Resource
                URI1                 matching of                 URI2
                                  datasets described
                                     by dierent
                                      ontologies
                 O1               Implicit alignment                 O2

               Fig.: Two datasets matched using an implicit alignment.
Introduction         Framework                Tools                Application          Conclusions


Exemple



                      OpenCyc                                       Musicbrainz

               Classical Music Performer                           mo:MusicArtist

                     type                                                        type

                         URI1                                            URI2
                                 English ID             givenname

                                                      Jean-Sébastien
                                 Johann
                                 Sebastian                 name
                                 Bach                    Bach
Introduction          Framework          Tools          Application         Conclusions


General interlinking framework


                                     owl :sameAs

                URI1                                              URI2

                                   Data interlinking

                 O1                   Alignment                       O2

                                  Ontology matching
      Fig.: General framework for data interlinking involving ontology matching.
Introduction        Framework           Tools           Application     Conclusions


Processes and specications




                                 process         result
                   instance link specication   linkset
                     class       matcher      alignment
               Tab.: Matching process, interlinks, and their results.
Introduction            Framework        Tools         Application      Conclusions


Analysis criterion


      Degree of Automation
               Is the tool completely automatic ?
               Does the tool need to be parametrized by the user ? What kind
               of parameters (data matching techniques, ontology
               alignment) ?
      Used matching techniques
         String matching ?
         External functions (values conversion, data transformations) ?
         Similarity propagation ?
         Other techniques ?
      Domain : Is the tool specic for a given domain ?
Introduction            Framework         Tools         Application        Conclusions


Analysis criterion

      Ontologies
               Does the tool take into account ontologies associated to the
               datasets ?
               Does the tool allow to interlink datasets described according
               to dierent ontologies ?
               In the case the ontologies dier, does the tool perform
               ontology alignment ?
      Output
          What does the tool produce in output ?
          Does the tool propose to merge the two input datasets ?
      Postprocessing Does the tool perform any post-processing
      operations ?
Introduction        Framework         Tools          Application       Conclusions


Six interlinking tools



         RKB-CRS Coreference resolution service of the RKB RDF
                     Knowledge Base.
       LD-mapper Interlinking tool for the music ontology MO.
      ODD Linker Interlinking tool based on SQL record matching.
           RDF-AI Interlinking and data fusion tool.
      Silk et Silk LSL Interlinking tool and link specication language.
      Knofuss architecture Outil Interlinking and data fusion tool with
                     ontology alignment.
Introduction             Framework             Tools           Application           Conclusions


Six interlinking tools

                                         owl:sameAs

               URI 1                                                         URI 2

                                Resource comparison method

                                                   LD-Mapper
                                ODD-Linker
                                                   RKB-CRS

                                    Implicit       Explicit
               O1                Alignment         Alignment                  O2
                              Silk
                             RDF-AI                      Knofuss
                                          Ontology
                                          Matching
                                           System


                       Fig.: Tools positioned in the dened framework
Introduction              Framework                   Tools               Application              Conclusions


 Application
       Let us consider a link specication between DBPedia and
       Geonames :

                                                          Interlink id=cities
Silk
                                                              LinkTypeowl:sameAs/LinkType
  Prefix id=rdfs namespace=
                                                              SourceDataset dataSource=dbpedia var=a
          http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema# /
                                                                RestrictTo
  Prefix id=dbpedia namespace=
                                                                   ?a rdf:type dbpedia:City
          http://dbpedia.org/ontology/ /
                                                                /RestrictTo
  Prefix id=gn namespace=
                                                              /SourceDataset
          http://www.geonames.org/ontology# /
                                                              TargetDataset dataSource=geonames var=b
                                                                RestrictTo
  DataSource id=dbpedia
                                                                  ?b rdf:type gn:P
    EndpointURIhttp://demo_sparql_server1/sparql
                                                                /RestrictTo
    /EndpointURI
                                                              /TargetDataset
    Graphhttp://dbpedia.org/Graph
                                                              LinkCondition
  /DataSource
                                                                AVG
                                                                  Compare metric=jaroSimilarity
  DataSource id=geonames
                                                                    Param name=str1 path=?a/rdfs:label /
    EndpointURIhttp://demo_sparql_server2/sparql
                                                                    Param name=str2 path=?b/gn:name /
    /EndpointURI
                                                                  /Compare
    Graphhttp://sws.geonames.org//Graph
                                                                  Compare metric=numSimilarity
  /DataSource
                                                                    Param name=num1
                                                                           path=?a/dbpedia:populationTotal /
  Thresholds accept=0.9 verify=0.7 /
                                                                    Param name=num2 path=?b/gn:population /
  Output acceptedLinks=accepted_links.n3
                                                                  /Compare
      verifyLinks=verify_links.n3
                                                                /AVG
      mode=truncate /
                                                              /LinkCondition
                                                           /Interlink
                                                          /Silk
Introduction              Framework                   Tools              Application               Conclusions


Application
      The alignment implicitely contained in the link specication.
                                                            align:map [ :map2 a align:Cell;
                                                                 align:entity1 [ a align:Property;
                                                                   edoal:and dbpedia:populationTotal.
:dbp-geo a align:Alignment;                              edoal:and [ a edoal:PropertyDomainRestriction;
   align:onto1 http://dbpedia.org/ontology/;              edoal:domain dbpedia:City.
   align:onto2 http://www.geonames.org/ontology#;      ];
   align:map [ :map1 a align:Cell;                               align:entity2 [ a align:Property;
      align:entity1 dbpedia:City;                                  edoal:and gn:population;
      align:entity2 gn:P;                                edoal:and [ a edoal:PropertyDomainRestriction;
      align:relation align:subsumedBy.                      edoal:domain gn:P. ];
   ];                                                            align:relation align:equivalent.
   align:map [ :map2 a align:Cell;                            ];
      align:entity1 dbpedia:populationTotal;                  align:map [ :map2 a align:Cell;
      align:entity2 gn:population;                               align:entity1 [ a align:Property;
      align:relation align:equivalent.                             edoal:and rdfs:label.
   ];                                                    edoal:and [ a edoal:PropertyDomainRestriction;
   align:map [ :map3 a align:Cell;                          edoal:domain dbpedia:City.
      align:entity1 rdfs:label;                          ];
      align:entity2 gn:name;                                     align:entity2 [ a align:Property;
      align:relation align:equivalent.                             edoal:and gn:name;
   ].                                                    edoal:and [ a edoal:PropertyDomainRestriction;
                                                            edoal:domain gn:P. ];
                                                                 align:relation align:equivalent.
                                                              ].
Introduction              Framework                   Tools   Application   Conclusions


Application

      Using the alignment, the link specication can be simplied.
        UseAlignment rdf:resource=#dbp-geo /

        Interlink id=cities
          LinkTypeowl:sameAs/LinkType
          LinkCell rdf:resource=#map1 /
          LinkCondition
            AVG
              Compare metric=jaroSimilarity
                CellParam rdf:resource=#map2 /
              /Compare
              Compare metric=numSimilarity
                CellParam rdf:resource=#map3 /
              /Compare
            /AVG
          /LinkCondition

          Thresholds accept=0.9 verify=0.7 /
          Output acceptedLinks=accepted_links.n3
            verifyLinks=verify_links.n3
            mode=truncate /
        /Interlink
Introduction            Framework        Tools         Application       Conclusions


Conclusions


               We propose a framework for data interlinking on the Web of
               data.
               We have presented existing tools and positioned them wrt the
               framework.
               We propose a simplication of the interlinking task and
               demonstrate it on an example.
      Our current work goes towards more interoperability for link
      specications :
           Is it possible to construct more generic link specications ? ie
           attached to datasets or ontologies
           Is it possible to automatically nd out the key properties
           allowing to identify matching pairs ?
Introduction            Framework        Tools         Application       Conclusions


For more




               http://melinda.inrialpes.fr
               François Schare et Jérôme Euzenat. Linked data meets
               ontology matching : enhancing data interlinking through
               ontology alignments. (submitted WWW'2010).

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Melinda: Methods and tools for Web Data Interlinking

  • 1. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Melinda Methods and tools for Web data Interlinking François Schare December  @ STI Innsbruck
  • 2. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions 1 Introduction 2 Framework 3 Tools 4 Application 5 Conclusions
  • 3. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Publishing datasets on the Web Four publication principles 1 Resources are identied by URIs. 2 URIs are dereferenceable. 3 When a URI is dereferenced, a description of the identied resource should be returned, ideally adapted through content negotiation. 4 Published Web datasets must contain links to other Web datasets.
  • 4. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Interlinking datasets Links are contained in specic datasets http://www.example.org/linkset/DBPedia-MB a void:Linkset ; void:target http://www.dpbedia.org; void:target http://www.musicbrainz.org; http://www.example.org/linkset/DBPedia-MB http://www.dbpedia.org/resource/ Johann_Sebastian_Bach owl:sameAs http://www.musicbrainz.org/artist/ 24f1766e-9635-4d58-a4d4-9413f9f98a4c .
  • 5. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Web Data Cloud
  • 6. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Goodie : Open Data's coming up data.gov, US Data Act data.gov.co.uk, Sir TBL on the track Other intitiatives around : from the EU, Open Data intitiatives
  • 7. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions What do we do ? We propose a framework capturing the various data interlinking methods We study existing tools and position them in the framework We propose an architecture allowing to articulate ontology alignment and interlinking tools
  • 8. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions General approach owl :sameAs URI1 URI2 Data interlinking Fig.: The data interlinking problem.
  • 9. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Manual resource alignement owl :sameAs URI1 URI2 URI transformation Fig.: URI transformation.
  • 10. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Matching identiers - Exemple owl:sameAs http://www.lastfm.fr/music/ http://dbpedia.org/resource/ Johann+Sebastian+Bach Johann_Sebastian_Bach URI alignment Fig.: URI transformation exemple
  • 11. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Datasets sharing a common ontology owl :sameAs Resource URI1 matching of URI2 datasets described by the same ontology O1 Fig.: Matching two datasets described according to the same ontology.
  • 12. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Datasets sharing a common ontology - Exemple mo:MusicArtist type type DBPedia Musicbrainz URI1 URI2 first last first last Johann- Jean- Sebastian Bach Sébastien Bach Resource matching algorithm, datasets described according to a common ontology Fig.: Matching data sharing a common ontology
  • 13. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Matching datasets having heterogeneous ontologies owl :sameAs Resource URI1 matching of URI2 datasets described by dierent ontologies O1 Implicit alignment O2 Fig.: Two datasets matched using an implicit alignment.
  • 14. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Exemple OpenCyc Musicbrainz Classical Music Performer mo:MusicArtist type type URI1 URI2 English ID givenname Jean-Sébastien Johann Sebastian name Bach Bach
  • 15. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions General interlinking framework owl :sameAs URI1 URI2 Data interlinking O1 Alignment O2 Ontology matching Fig.: General framework for data interlinking involving ontology matching.
  • 16. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Processes and specications process result instance link specication linkset class matcher alignment Tab.: Matching process, interlinks, and their results.
  • 17. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Analysis criterion Degree of Automation Is the tool completely automatic ? Does the tool need to be parametrized by the user ? What kind of parameters (data matching techniques, ontology alignment) ? Used matching techniques String matching ? External functions (values conversion, data transformations) ? Similarity propagation ? Other techniques ? Domain : Is the tool specic for a given domain ?
  • 18. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Analysis criterion Ontologies Does the tool take into account ontologies associated to the datasets ? Does the tool allow to interlink datasets described according to dierent ontologies ? In the case the ontologies dier, does the tool perform ontology alignment ? Output What does the tool produce in output ? Does the tool propose to merge the two input datasets ? Postprocessing Does the tool perform any post-processing operations ?
  • 19. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Six interlinking tools RKB-CRS Coreference resolution service of the RKB RDF Knowledge Base. LD-mapper Interlinking tool for the music ontology MO. ODD Linker Interlinking tool based on SQL record matching. RDF-AI Interlinking and data fusion tool. Silk et Silk LSL Interlinking tool and link specication language. Knofuss architecture Outil Interlinking and data fusion tool with ontology alignment.
  • 20. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Six interlinking tools owl:sameAs URI 1 URI 2 Resource comparison method LD-Mapper ODD-Linker RKB-CRS Implicit Explicit O1 Alignment Alignment O2 Silk RDF-AI Knofuss Ontology Matching System Fig.: Tools positioned in the dened framework
  • 21. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Application Let us consider a link specication between DBPedia and Geonames : Interlink id=cities Silk LinkTypeowl:sameAs/LinkType Prefix id=rdfs namespace= SourceDataset dataSource=dbpedia var=a http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema# / RestrictTo Prefix id=dbpedia namespace= ?a rdf:type dbpedia:City http://dbpedia.org/ontology/ / /RestrictTo Prefix id=gn namespace= /SourceDataset http://www.geonames.org/ontology# / TargetDataset dataSource=geonames var=b RestrictTo DataSource id=dbpedia ?b rdf:type gn:P EndpointURIhttp://demo_sparql_server1/sparql /RestrictTo /EndpointURI /TargetDataset Graphhttp://dbpedia.org/Graph LinkCondition /DataSource AVG Compare metric=jaroSimilarity DataSource id=geonames Param name=str1 path=?a/rdfs:label / EndpointURIhttp://demo_sparql_server2/sparql Param name=str2 path=?b/gn:name / /EndpointURI /Compare Graphhttp://sws.geonames.org//Graph Compare metric=numSimilarity /DataSource Param name=num1 path=?a/dbpedia:populationTotal / Thresholds accept=0.9 verify=0.7 / Param name=num2 path=?b/gn:population / Output acceptedLinks=accepted_links.n3 /Compare verifyLinks=verify_links.n3 /AVG mode=truncate / /LinkCondition /Interlink /Silk
  • 22. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Application The alignment implicitely contained in the link specication. align:map [ :map2 a align:Cell; align:entity1 [ a align:Property; edoal:and dbpedia:populationTotal. :dbp-geo a align:Alignment; edoal:and [ a edoal:PropertyDomainRestriction; align:onto1 http://dbpedia.org/ontology/; edoal:domain dbpedia:City. align:onto2 http://www.geonames.org/ontology#; ]; align:map [ :map1 a align:Cell; align:entity2 [ a align:Property; align:entity1 dbpedia:City; edoal:and gn:population; align:entity2 gn:P; edoal:and [ a edoal:PropertyDomainRestriction; align:relation align:subsumedBy. edoal:domain gn:P. ]; ]; align:relation align:equivalent. align:map [ :map2 a align:Cell; ]; align:entity1 dbpedia:populationTotal; align:map [ :map2 a align:Cell; align:entity2 gn:population; align:entity1 [ a align:Property; align:relation align:equivalent. edoal:and rdfs:label. ]; edoal:and [ a edoal:PropertyDomainRestriction; align:map [ :map3 a align:Cell; edoal:domain dbpedia:City. align:entity1 rdfs:label; ]; align:entity2 gn:name; align:entity2 [ a align:Property; align:relation align:equivalent. edoal:and gn:name; ]. edoal:and [ a edoal:PropertyDomainRestriction; edoal:domain gn:P. ]; align:relation align:equivalent. ].
  • 23. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Application Using the alignment, the link specication can be simplied. UseAlignment rdf:resource=#dbp-geo / Interlink id=cities LinkTypeowl:sameAs/LinkType LinkCell rdf:resource=#map1 / LinkCondition AVG Compare metric=jaroSimilarity CellParam rdf:resource=#map2 / /Compare Compare metric=numSimilarity CellParam rdf:resource=#map3 / /Compare /AVG /LinkCondition Thresholds accept=0.9 verify=0.7 / Output acceptedLinks=accepted_links.n3 verifyLinks=verify_links.n3 mode=truncate / /Interlink
  • 24. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions Conclusions We propose a framework for data interlinking on the Web of data. We have presented existing tools and positioned them wrt the framework. We propose a simplication of the interlinking task and demonstrate it on an example. Our current work goes towards more interoperability for link specications : Is it possible to construct more generic link specications ? ie attached to datasets or ontologies Is it possible to automatically nd out the key properties allowing to identify matching pairs ?
  • 25. Introduction Framework Tools Application Conclusions For more http://melinda.inrialpes.fr François Schare et Jérôme Euzenat. Linked data meets ontology matching : enhancing data interlinking through ontology alignments. (submitted WWW'2010).