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Medicolegal Aspects of Wounds
Dr Thana Ram Patel
Assistant Professor
Department of General Surgery ,
Dr SN Medical college Jodhpur
injury
• Medical definition - An injury or a wound
means a dissolution or disruption of the
anatomical continuity of any of the tissues of
the body.
• Legal definition - Under section 44 IPC, an
injury, is defined as any harm whatever
illegally caused to any person in body, mind,
reputation, or property.
Classification of injuries
• Three Major Classes of Injuries
• 1.medical ( Aetiological)—cause or genesis of
the injuries. (mechanical, thermal, chemical,
electrical/ lightening, radiation)
• 2. Legal (based on the penal code
definitions), nature of injury in two forms
i.e., simple or grievous injuries.
• 3. Medicolegal—based on the manner and
time of causation.
Medical (Etiological) classification
Mechanical injury
• The main factors responsible for a mechanical
injury are:
• (1) force,
• (2) area over which it acts,
• (3) specific effect of the force, and
• (4) time taken over which the kinetic energy is
transferred.
Mechanical injury - classification
• Depending on how they are caused, e.g. by blunt force, sharp weapon, or
firearm, they are classified as follows. Simple names which are used in
evidence are shown in parenthesis:
• A blunt force (eg ground)
• 1. Abrasions (scratches, grazes, imprint or pressure marks)
• 2. Bruises (contusions)
• 3. Lacerations (splits, tears)
• 4. Fractures
• B sharp force
• 1.cutting weapon
• light (surgical blade) - Incised wounds (cuts)
• heavy (chopper , axe)- chop
• 2. pointed weapon (pencil , screwdriver) -Stab wounds
• C. Firearm injuries (gunshot)
Abrasions
• Abrasions (scratches, grazes, imprint or
pressure marks)
Abrasions
• Medicolegal aspects: Important points to
consider in evaluation of abrasions include:
• 1. Site of impact and possibility of internal injury
• 2. Identification of the object causing the injury
• 3. Cause of injury
• 4. Direction of injury
• 5. Time of injury
• 6. Possibility of infection, and
• 7. Confusion with burns
Bruises(contusions)
• They are of less value than abrasions because:
• a. They may not appear at the site of injury due
to gravitational shifting of blood.
• b. A deep bruise may take hours or one or two
days to appear, or may not appear externally at
all.
• c. Its size may not correspond to the severity of
violence due to continued extravasation.
• d. They do not indicate the direction of force.
Bruises
• Medicolegal aspects: Bruises provide
information in regard to:
• 1. Identification of the object causing the
injury in some cases
• 2. Degree of violence
• 3. Cause of injury
• 4. Time of injury, and
• 5. Possibility of infection.
Contused (lacerated) wound
Cut (incised) wound
• Incised wounds on palm indicate defence
injuries.
• Multiple superficial incised wounds on
accessible parts of the body indicate
fabricated injuries.
Stab(punctured)
firearm
Legal classification
• Grieveous injury
• 1. Emasculation (cutting of off the penis, castration, or causing loss
of power of erection due to spinal injury).
• 2. Permanent privation of the sight of either eye.
• 3. Permanent privation of the hearing of either ear.
• 4. Privation of any member (part, organ, limb) or joint.
• 5. Destruction or permanent impairing of powers of any member or
joint.
• 6. Permanent disfiguration of head or face.
• 7. Fracture or dislocation of a bone or a tooth.
• 8. Any hurt which endangers life, or which causes the sufferer to be,
during the space of 20 days, in severe bodily pain, or unable to
follow his daily routine. Section 319 IPC defines hurt as bodily pain,
disease, or infirmity, caused to any person.
Medicolegal classification
• This is based on the manner of occurrence of the
wounds, (Injury patterns)
• deliberate harm eg assault
• self-harm - Self-inflicted wounds (factitious injuries,
forged or fabricated wounds, or invented injuries)
• Defence wounds
• Therapeutic wounds (surgical wounds or sutured
wounds) -injection marks (puncture wounds), surgical
incisions (tracheostomy), stabs (pleural/peritoneal
drainage), etc.
• accident.
Injury patterns
• battered child syndrome—injuries of different ages and in
different stages of healing;
• gunshot wound residue pattern suggesting range of firing;
• The occurrence of stab wounds in a paired pattern suggests
the use of a two-pronged sharp weapon, such as a fork,
pair of scissors, etc.
• The injury pattern, e.g. only on one side of the body
(accidental lacerations), or on bony prominences (fall), or
not consistent with the scene in context with all available
information may indicate a sequence of events leading to a
proper conclusion regarding the cause and manner of
death
Injury report
• Injury report is a type of medicolegal
certificate (MLC) includes
• Consent
• Identification mark
• Finding including Medical (Etiological)
aspects, Legal aspects, Medicolegal aspects
• Investigation reports
medico legal aspects of wound - forensic medicine

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medico legal aspects of wound - forensic medicine

  • 1. Medicolegal Aspects of Wounds Dr Thana Ram Patel Assistant Professor Department of General Surgery , Dr SN Medical college Jodhpur
  • 2. injury • Medical definition - An injury or a wound means a dissolution or disruption of the anatomical continuity of any of the tissues of the body. • Legal definition - Under section 44 IPC, an injury, is defined as any harm whatever illegally caused to any person in body, mind, reputation, or property.
  • 3. Classification of injuries • Three Major Classes of Injuries • 1.medical ( Aetiological)—cause or genesis of the injuries. (mechanical, thermal, chemical, electrical/ lightening, radiation) • 2. Legal (based on the penal code definitions), nature of injury in two forms i.e., simple or grievous injuries. • 3. Medicolegal—based on the manner and time of causation.
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7. Mechanical injury • The main factors responsible for a mechanical injury are: • (1) force, • (2) area over which it acts, • (3) specific effect of the force, and • (4) time taken over which the kinetic energy is transferred.
  • 8. Mechanical injury - classification • Depending on how they are caused, e.g. by blunt force, sharp weapon, or firearm, they are classified as follows. Simple names which are used in evidence are shown in parenthesis: • A blunt force (eg ground) • 1. Abrasions (scratches, grazes, imprint or pressure marks) • 2. Bruises (contusions) • 3. Lacerations (splits, tears) • 4. Fractures • B sharp force • 1.cutting weapon • light (surgical blade) - Incised wounds (cuts) • heavy (chopper , axe)- chop • 2. pointed weapon (pencil , screwdriver) -Stab wounds • C. Firearm injuries (gunshot)
  • 9.
  • 10. Abrasions • Abrasions (scratches, grazes, imprint or pressure marks)
  • 11.
  • 12. Abrasions • Medicolegal aspects: Important points to consider in evaluation of abrasions include: • 1. Site of impact and possibility of internal injury • 2. Identification of the object causing the injury • 3. Cause of injury • 4. Direction of injury • 5. Time of injury • 6. Possibility of infection, and • 7. Confusion with burns
  • 13.
  • 14. Bruises(contusions) • They are of less value than abrasions because: • a. They may not appear at the site of injury due to gravitational shifting of blood. • b. A deep bruise may take hours or one or two days to appear, or may not appear externally at all. • c. Its size may not correspond to the severity of violence due to continued extravasation. • d. They do not indicate the direction of force.
  • 15.
  • 16.
  • 17. Bruises • Medicolegal aspects: Bruises provide information in regard to: • 1. Identification of the object causing the injury in some cases • 2. Degree of violence • 3. Cause of injury • 4. Time of injury, and • 5. Possibility of infection.
  • 18.
  • 20.
  • 21. Cut (incised) wound • Incised wounds on palm indicate defence injuries. • Multiple superficial incised wounds on accessible parts of the body indicate fabricated injuries.
  • 22.
  • 24.
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28. Legal classification • Grieveous injury • 1. Emasculation (cutting of off the penis, castration, or causing loss of power of erection due to spinal injury). • 2. Permanent privation of the sight of either eye. • 3. Permanent privation of the hearing of either ear. • 4. Privation of any member (part, organ, limb) or joint. • 5. Destruction or permanent impairing of powers of any member or joint. • 6. Permanent disfiguration of head or face. • 7. Fracture or dislocation of a bone or a tooth. • 8. Any hurt which endangers life, or which causes the sufferer to be, during the space of 20 days, in severe bodily pain, or unable to follow his daily routine. Section 319 IPC defines hurt as bodily pain, disease, or infirmity, caused to any person.
  • 29. Medicolegal classification • This is based on the manner of occurrence of the wounds, (Injury patterns) • deliberate harm eg assault • self-harm - Self-inflicted wounds (factitious injuries, forged or fabricated wounds, or invented injuries) • Defence wounds • Therapeutic wounds (surgical wounds or sutured wounds) -injection marks (puncture wounds), surgical incisions (tracheostomy), stabs (pleural/peritoneal drainage), etc. • accident.
  • 30. Injury patterns • battered child syndrome—injuries of different ages and in different stages of healing; • gunshot wound residue pattern suggesting range of firing; • The occurrence of stab wounds in a paired pattern suggests the use of a two-pronged sharp weapon, such as a fork, pair of scissors, etc. • The injury pattern, e.g. only on one side of the body (accidental lacerations), or on bony prominences (fall), or not consistent with the scene in context with all available information may indicate a sequence of events leading to a proper conclusion regarding the cause and manner of death
  • 31.
  • 32. Injury report • Injury report is a type of medicolegal certificate (MLC) includes • Consent • Identification mark • Finding including Medical (Etiological) aspects, Legal aspects, Medicolegal aspects • Investigation reports