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Nitin Lohani
Asst. professor
University of petroleum and energy studies
Introduction
 Mechanical working of metal is defined as an

intentional deformation of metals plastically under the
action of externally applied force.
Mechanical working of metals is described as:
1.
Hot working
2. Cold working
Recrystallization Temperature
 Recrystallization is a process in which at a certain

temperature range , a new equiaxed & stress free grains
are formed .
 Recrystallization temperature is generally defined as
temperature at which complete recrystallization
occurs within approximately one hour.
Hot Working
 The working of metal above the recrystallization

temperature is called hot working .
 Hot working of metal has following advantage :
1. The porosity of metal largely eliminated .
2. The grain structure of metal is refined .
3. The mechanical properties such as toughness,
ductility improved .
4. The deformation of metal is easy.
Disadvantages..
 It requires expensive tools
 It produces poor surface finish

 Close tolerances cannot be maintained
Cold working
 The working of metal below their recrystallization

temperature is known as cold working .
Advantages of cold working :
1. Residual stresses set up in the metal
2. Strength and hardness of metal are increased.
3. Surface finish improved .
4. Close dimensional tolerances maintained.
Disadvantages …
 Cold working distorted the material
 Requires much higher pressures than hot working .
Metal forming processes
 Rolling
 Forging

 Extrusion
 Tube and Wire Drawing
 Deep Drawing

 Punching and Blanking (due to similarity to Deep

Drawing)
Sequence of operations
Forging
 Forging is the process in which the work piece is

shaped by compressive forces applied through the
various dies and tools .
 It is one of the oldest metal working metal working
metals .
 Simple forging can be performed with a heavy hand
hammer and anvil.
 Typically forged product are bolts and rivets ,
connecting rods , shafts for turbine etc.
Continue…..
 Forging may be done at room temperature (cold

forging) or at elevated temperature(warm or hot
forging),
Hot forging
It consists of heating the metal and then the pressure is
applied to form it into desired shapes and sizes.
The following processes are commonly used for hot
forging :
1. Hammer or smith forging : it is also known as open
die forging .
because it involves the compression of the billet
between flat dies with no constraint on the spread of
the metal.
Open die forging…….
Continue…
 Press forging: Hammer forging dissipates large

amount of energy near surface of metal. So when a
large section of high quality is required , then press
forging used.
 The press operates by hydraulic or by mechanical
means such as crank or screw.
Press forging….
Upset forging
 This process involves increasing the diameter of the

end of a bar of metal by compressing its length.
 This process was developed to form heads on bolts ,
rivets etc.
Continue…
 Drop or die forging: Smith forging is not suitable for

the production of large number of identical forging.
 For this drop forging used (closed die forming)
 This consist of hammering heated bars or billets of

steels into closed impression dies.
 Upper die fastened to the ram the lower die is fastened
to the anvil.
Advantages :
1. Relatively good utilization of material.
2. Good dimensional accuracy.
Closed die forging……
Cold forging
 The cold forging is also called swaging.
 In this process , the metal is allowed to flow in

predetermined shape according to design of dies , by a
compressive force or impact
 Some cold forging process:
1. Sizing
2. Cold heading : the process is extensively used for making
bolts ,rivets and other similar headed parts , this is done
on cold header machine
Equipment must be able to withstand the high pressure
Cold heading….
Continue…..
 Rotary swaging : this method is used for reducing the

diameters of round bars and tubes by rotating dies ,
which open and close rapidly on the work.End of rods
reduced in size by a combination of pressure and
impact.
Extrusion
 In Extrusion Process, a billet is forced through a Die, in a

manner similar to squeezing toothpaste from tube.

 Typical products made by extrusion are tubing's having

various cross-sections, structural and architectural shapes.
Extrusion(Direct)
Extrusion (Indirect)
 In indirect Extrusion metal flows to the direction

opposite to the ram motion
 This require less force as compare to the direct process
because there is no friction between the billet and
inside wall of container.
Drawing
 In Drawing, the cross-section of a round rod, or wire is

typically reduced by pulling it through a die.
Drawing…
Drawing……..
 examples of wire drawing are :
1.

2.

High carbon steel wires for springs
wires for musical instruments.
Sheet metal
 Products of sheet metal forming processes are all

around us ; they include metal desks , file cabinets,
car bodies, beverage cans.
 Deep Drawing:

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Mechanical working of metals

  • 1. Nitin Lohani Asst. professor University of petroleum and energy studies
  • 2. Introduction  Mechanical working of metal is defined as an intentional deformation of metals plastically under the action of externally applied force. Mechanical working of metals is described as: 1. Hot working 2. Cold working
  • 3. Recrystallization Temperature  Recrystallization is a process in which at a certain temperature range , a new equiaxed & stress free grains are formed .  Recrystallization temperature is generally defined as temperature at which complete recrystallization occurs within approximately one hour.
  • 4. Hot Working  The working of metal above the recrystallization temperature is called hot working .  Hot working of metal has following advantage : 1. The porosity of metal largely eliminated . 2. The grain structure of metal is refined . 3. The mechanical properties such as toughness, ductility improved . 4. The deformation of metal is easy.
  • 5. Disadvantages..  It requires expensive tools  It produces poor surface finish  Close tolerances cannot be maintained
  • 6. Cold working  The working of metal below their recrystallization temperature is known as cold working . Advantages of cold working : 1. Residual stresses set up in the metal 2. Strength and hardness of metal are increased. 3. Surface finish improved . 4. Close dimensional tolerances maintained.
  • 7. Disadvantages …  Cold working distorted the material  Requires much higher pressures than hot working .
  • 8. Metal forming processes  Rolling  Forging  Extrusion  Tube and Wire Drawing  Deep Drawing  Punching and Blanking (due to similarity to Deep Drawing)
  • 10.
  • 11. Forging  Forging is the process in which the work piece is shaped by compressive forces applied through the various dies and tools .  It is one of the oldest metal working metal working metals .  Simple forging can be performed with a heavy hand hammer and anvil.  Typically forged product are bolts and rivets , connecting rods , shafts for turbine etc.
  • 12. Continue…..  Forging may be done at room temperature (cold forging) or at elevated temperature(warm or hot forging),
  • 13. Hot forging It consists of heating the metal and then the pressure is applied to form it into desired shapes and sizes. The following processes are commonly used for hot forging : 1. Hammer or smith forging : it is also known as open die forging . because it involves the compression of the billet between flat dies with no constraint on the spread of the metal.
  • 15. Continue…  Press forging: Hammer forging dissipates large amount of energy near surface of metal. So when a large section of high quality is required , then press forging used.  The press operates by hydraulic or by mechanical means such as crank or screw.
  • 17. Upset forging  This process involves increasing the diameter of the end of a bar of metal by compressing its length.  This process was developed to form heads on bolts , rivets etc.
  • 18. Continue…  Drop or die forging: Smith forging is not suitable for the production of large number of identical forging.  For this drop forging used (closed die forming)  This consist of hammering heated bars or billets of steels into closed impression dies.  Upper die fastened to the ram the lower die is fastened to the anvil. Advantages : 1. Relatively good utilization of material. 2. Good dimensional accuracy.
  • 20. Cold forging  The cold forging is also called swaging.  In this process , the metal is allowed to flow in predetermined shape according to design of dies , by a compressive force or impact  Some cold forging process: 1. Sizing 2. Cold heading : the process is extensively used for making bolts ,rivets and other similar headed parts , this is done on cold header machine Equipment must be able to withstand the high pressure
  • 22. Continue…..  Rotary swaging : this method is used for reducing the diameters of round bars and tubes by rotating dies , which open and close rapidly on the work.End of rods reduced in size by a combination of pressure and impact.
  • 23. Extrusion  In Extrusion Process, a billet is forced through a Die, in a manner similar to squeezing toothpaste from tube.  Typical products made by extrusion are tubing's having various cross-sections, structural and architectural shapes.
  • 25. Extrusion (Indirect)  In indirect Extrusion metal flows to the direction opposite to the ram motion  This require less force as compare to the direct process because there is no friction between the billet and inside wall of container.
  • 26. Drawing  In Drawing, the cross-section of a round rod, or wire is typically reduced by pulling it through a die.
  • 28. Drawing……..  examples of wire drawing are : 1. 2. High carbon steel wires for springs wires for musical instruments.
  • 29. Sheet metal  Products of sheet metal forming processes are all around us ; they include metal desks , file cabinets, car bodies, beverage cans.  Deep Drawing: