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(A Govt. of India Enterprises)
MAHARAJA BIR BIKRAM AIRPORT
Agartala, Tripura 799009
PROJECT REPORT ON SUMMER VOCATIONAL TRAINING
AT MBB AIRPORT
(13/05/2024 – 12/06/2024)
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
AGARTALA, TRIPURA
SUBMITTED BY:- TUSHAR DEB
ENROLLMENT NUMBER:- 21UME003
BRANCH:- MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
AIRPORT AUTHORITY OF INDIA
(A Govt. of India Enterprises)
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that TUSHAR DEB, B.Tech (7th
semester), reg.
no: 2113461 of the department of mechanical engineering of
National Institute of Technology, Agartala, Tripura has successfully
completed this industrial training from 13/05/2024 to 12/06/2024
under my close supervision. During the training period he has
successfully submitted report on “Industrial training at AIRPORT
AUTHORITY OF INDIA” related to various subjects at Maharaja
Bir Bikram Airport, Agartala. While during the training period in
AIRPORT AUTHORITY OF INDIA, trainee TUSHAR DEB was
seen to be punctual, sincere and hardworking and his behavior is
very good. We wish him all success in life.
Mentor
Training Co-ordinator
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude and appreciation to all
those who have contributed to the successful completion of my
training at MBB Airport. This training would not have been
possible without the support, guidance, and assistance of numerous
individuals and organizations.
First and foremost, I extend my sincere thanks to the authorities at
MBB Airport, Agartala, Tripura for granting me permission to
conduct this training and providing me with access to the necessary
resources.
I also take this opportunity to express my deep appreciation to our
guide and mentor Mr. Amit Kumar Layek (AGM, ENGG-E,
MBB Airport) for his exemplary guidance, monitoring and
constant encouragement throughout the training period.
I am also grateful to all the staff member of MBB airport for
providing academic inputs, and valuable information in respective
fields throughout the training period.
Sincerely
TUSHAR DEB
4th
Year, 7th
semester B.Tech. Mechanical
Engineering National Institute of Technology
Agartala, Tripura
 Table of Contents
Sl. No Description Page No.
1. Introduction 1-2
2. MT Pool 3-8
3. Fire Station & Fire
Station Vehicles
9-14
4. Fire Fighting
System
15-18
5. HVAC Plant 19-24
6. Operational Area
Overview
25-38
7. Air Conditioning in
Terminal Building
39-43
8. BHS System 44-47
9. ATC Services 48-53
11. Conclusion 54
12. References 55
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1. INTRODUCTION
:- Airport Authority of India is a schedule -A ‘MINI RATNA'.
Category-1 Central public sector Enterprise owned by the Government of India
under the Ministry of Civil Aviation, founded on 1st
April 1995. Airports Authority
of India (AAI) is responsible for creating, upgrading, maintaining, and managing
civil aviation infrastructure in India. It provides Communication Navigation
Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) services over the Indian
airspace and adjoining oceanic areas. AAI currently manages a total of 137 airports,
including 34 international airports, 10 Customs Airports, 81 domestic airports, and
23 Civil enclaves at Defence airfields. AAI also has ground installations at all
airports and 25 other locations to ensure the safety of aircraft operations. AAI
covers all major air routes over the Indian landmass via 29 Radar installations at 11
locations along with 700 VOR/DVOR installations co-located with Distance
Measuring Equipment (DME). 52 runways are provided with Instrument landing
system (ILS) installations with Night Landing Facilities at most of these airports
and an Automatic Message Switching System at 15 Airports.
 Major Ongoing Projects
AAI's implementation of the Automatic Dependence Surveillance System (ADSS)
at Kolkata and Chennai Air Traffic Control Centers, made India the first country to
use this technology in the Southeast Asian region thus enabling Air Traffic Control
over oceanic areas using satellite mode of communication. Performance Based
Navigation (PBN) procedures have already been implemented at Mumbai, Delhi
and Ahmedabad Airports. AAI is implementing the GAGAN project in
technological collaboration with the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO).
The navigation signals thus received from the GPS will be augmented to achieve
the navigational requirement of aircraft. The first phase of the technology
demonstration system was completed in February 2008.
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 About Maharaja Bir Bikram Airport
MBB Airport (IATA: IXA, ICAO: VEAT) is an
international airport located in Agartala, the capital
of the state of Tripura in India. It is administered by
the Airports Authority of India (AAI). The main
organization for air traffic controlling is
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).
According to the norms of ICAO Airports are
divided into three categories- International, Domestic and Custom airport.
MBB Airport earlier known as Agartala Airport is situated 12 kilometres (7 miles)
northwest of Agartala. It is the second busiest airport in North-East India after Lokpriya
Gopinath Bordoloi Airport and 29th busiest airport in India. It is the third international
airport in North-East India, after
Lokpriya Gopinath Bordoloi Airport
and Imphal Airport.
The AAl has undertaken 438 crore
(US$61 million) project to upgrade
the airport to provide world-class
facilities. The State Government has
already provided 72 acres (29 ha)
land to AAI to build a new terminal
building, runway and other
necessary infrastructure. The
upgrade is expected to be completed by 2025, out of which the new terminal is
completed, and it was inaugurated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 4 January
2022.
The current integrated terminal of the airport has 20 check-in counters, six parking
bays, four aerobridges, conveyor belts and passenger-friendly modern facilities and
amenities like In- Line Baggage System (ILBS), Escalators, Lifts, etc. In addition to the
new terminal building, a new parallel taxiway to the runway and two new hangars are
being built.
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2. MT Pool
The MT (Motor Transport) pool at Airport, is a crucial facility responsible for
the maintenance and management of various vehicles and equipment used for
airport operations. This includes vehicles for transportation, runway
maintenance, emergency response, and other support services. The MT pool
ensures that all vehicles are in optimal condition, ready for use at any time, and
comply with safety and regulatory standards.
Here's a detailed description of the MT pool vehicles & Zon Gun device
mentioned:
MT Pool Vehicles:
 Tata 207 Pick-up Truck:
The Tata 207 is a versatile pick-up truck widely used in various commercial and
industrial sectors, including airports. At Airport, the Tata 207 pick-up truck
serves several crucial roles:
i. Transportation of Goods and Personnel: The Tata 207 is used to transport
cargo, spare parts, and other essential items across the airport premises. Its robust
design and significant payload capacity make it ideal for carrying heavy loads.
Additionally, it can be used to transport
airport personnel to different locations
within the airport.
ii. Maintenance and Utility: This vehicle
aids in various maintenance tasks. Whether
it’s carrying tools and equipment for runway
maintenance or transporting materials for infrastructure repair, the Tata 207 is a
reliable workhorse.
iii. Emergency Response: In emergencies, the Tata 207 can be quickly
mobilized to transport equipment and personnel to the required location,
providing a rapid response capability for the airport's operational needs.
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The Tata 207’s durability, fuel efficiency, & low maintenance costs make it an
indispensable part of the MT pool at Airport.
Now, let's explore the functions of various components in a Tata 207 car, which
is given below:
a) Radiator: The radiator is a heat exchanger used to cool the
engine. It dissipates heat from the coolant that has absorbed
heat from the engine, thereby preventing the engine from
overheating. The cooled coolant is then recirculated back
into the engine.
b) Air Filter: The air filter cleans the air entering the engine by
removing dust, debris, and other contaminants. Clean air is
essential for optimal combustion, improving engine performance,
fuel efficiency, and reducing wear and tear on engine components.
c) Carburetor: The carburetor mixes air with fuel in the
correct ratio before it enters the engine's combustion
chambers. This mixture is critical for efficient combustion.
Carburetors are less common in modern vehicles, which
typically use fuel injection systems.
d) Piston: The piston is a cylindrical component that moves up
and down within the engine's cylinders. Its movement is driven by
the combustion of fuel and air, converting the chemical energy of
the fuel into mechanical energy that powers the vehicle.
e) Flywheel: The flywheel is a mechanical device attached to the
end of the crankshaft. It helps maintain engine stability by storing
rotational energy, smoothing out fluctuations in the engine's
speed, and ensuring a consistent rotational momentum.
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f) Turbocharger: A turbocharger increases engine power and
efficiency by forcing extra compressed air into the combustion
chamber. It utilizes exhaust gases to spin a turbine connected to a
compressor, which compresses the intake air.
g) Solenoid: A solenoid in a car acts as an electromechanical
switch. It is often used in the starter motor to engage the engine’s
flywheel. When the ignition switch is activated, the solenoid moves
a plunger to connect the starter motor to the flywheel, initiating the
engine start.
h) Battery: The battery stores electrical energy and provides power to
start the engine and operate electrical components like lights, wipers,
and the infotainment system. It is recharged by the alternator when the
engine is running.
i) Self-Starter: The self-starter, or starter motor, is an
electric motor that cranks the engine to start the
combustion process. When the ignition key is turned, the
starter motor engages the flywheel to turn the engine over.
j) Rectifier (AC to DC): The rectifier converts the AC power gen
generated by the alternator to DC power, which is used to charge the
battery and power the car’s electrical systems. This ensures all
electronic components and the battery receive the correct type of
electrical power.
These components collectively ensure the Tata 207 car operates efficiently, reliably, and
safely, contributing to its overall performance and longevity.
 WORKMASTER™ Tractor:
Tractors, are renowned for their reliability and efficiency in various agricultural and
industrial applications. At Airport, a tractor is likely utilized for:
i. Airfield Maintenance: The tractor is used for performing tasks such as snow
removal, grass cutting, and surface sweeping to maintain runway and taxiway
conditions. Ensuring clear and safe airfield operations.
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ii. Snow and Debris Clearance: In case of
debris or snow on the runway, the tractor can
be equipped with appropriate attachments to
clear the runway quickly, ensuring that flight
operations are not disrupted.
The versatility and robustness of tractors make
them an essential component of the airport’s
maintenance fleet.
 Runway Sweeper Truck:
Runway sweeper trucks are specialized vehicles designed to maintain runway
cleanliness and safety. At Airport, the runway sweeper-based truck plays a
crucial role in:
i. Debris Removal: The primary function of the runway sweeper is to remove
debris such as stones, metal fragments, and other foreign objects that can pose a
risk to aircraft during takeoff and
landing.
ii. Surface Cleaning: These trucks are
equipped with powerful brushes and
suction systems to clean the runway
surface thoroughly, ensuring that it
remains free of dust and dirt. This
helps maintain the friction levels of the
runway, essential for aircraft safety.
iii. Efficiency and Safety: Regular use of runway
sweeper trucks enhances the safety and efficiency
of airport operations by ensuring that the runway is
always in optimal condition, reducing the risk of
Foreign Object Damage (FOD) to aircraft.
The use of a runway sweeper-based truck is critical
for maintaining the high standards of safety &
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cleanliness required for airport runways.
 Runway Rubber Removal Truck:
A runway rubber removal machine-based truck is a specialized vehicle used to
remove rubber deposits from aircraft tires that accumulate on the runway surface.
At Airport, this truck is essential for:
i. Rubber Deposit Removal: Over time, rubber from aircraft tires can build up
on the runway, reducing its friction and effectiveness. This truck uses high-
pressure water or chemical agents to remove
these deposits, restoring the runway's
friction levels and ensuring safe takeoff and
landing conditions.
ii. Maintenance of Runway Performance:
Regular removal of rubber deposits is vital
for maintaining the runway's performance
characteristics. It ensures that the runway
provides the necessary grip for aircraft, especially during wet conditions.
iii. Extending Runway Life: By removing rubber deposits and maintaining the
runway surface, this truck helps extend the life of the runway, delaying the need
for expensive resurfacing projects.
The runway rubber removal machine-based truck is a key component in the
airport's maintenance strategy, ensuring the runway remains safe and effective
for aircraft operations.
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Zon Gun Device:
A Zon Gun, also known as a bird scaring device, is used at airports to deter birds
from the runway and surrounding areas. At Airport, the Zon Gun serves the
following purposes:
i. Bird Control: Birds can pose a significant threat to aircraft, particularly during
takeoff and landing. The Zon Gun produces loud noises that scare birds away
from the runway, reducing the risk of bird strikes.
ii. Enhancing Safety: By effectively controlling the bird population around the
airport, the Zon Gun helps enhance the overall safety of flight operations. Bird
strikes can cause significant damage to aircraft and endanger lives, making this
device an essential tool in airport wildlife management.
iii. Non-lethal Deterrent: The Zon Gun provides a humane way to manage bird
populations without harming them. It is a preferred method of bird control at
many airports due to its effectiveness and non-lethal approach.
The Zon Gun is an integral part of the airport's wildlife hazard management
program, ensuring that birds do not pose a risk to safe flight operations.
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3. Fire Station & Fire
Station Vehicles
Fire station vehicles at airports are specialized units designed to respond to a
variety of emergencies, with a primary focus on aircraft incidents and airport
operations. These vehicles are equipped to handle unique challenges that can
arise in an aviation environment. Here's an overview of Air Rescue and Fire
Fighting (ARFF) vehicles which is commonly found at airports:
Aircraft Rescue and Firefighting (ARFF) vehicles are specialized fire trucks
designed specifically for use at airports. In Maharaja Bir Bikram Airport, two
types of ARFF vehicles are used one is Rosenbauer Panther & another is
NAFFCO both vehicles have same functions. These vehicles are crucial for
ensuring rapid response to aircraft emergencies, such as crashes, fires, or other
incidents requiring immediate intervention. Here is an overview and detailed
specifications of ARFF vehicles typically found at airports:
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 Overview of ARFF Vehicles:
i. Purpose: ARFF vehicles are designed to respond quickly to aviation
emergencies, provide firefighting capabilities, and perform rescue operations.
Their primary function is to mitigate the consequences of aircraft accidents and
ensure passenger and crew safety.
ii. Design: These vehicles are engineered for high-speed performance, off-road
capability, and are equipped with advanced firefighting and rescue equipment.
They have a low center of gravity for stability and are built to operate under
extreme conditions.
iii. Capabilities: ARFF vehicles can carry large amounts of water, foam, and dry
chemical agents to combat various types of fires. They are also equipped with
specialized tools for cutting through aircraft fuselages and extricating passengers.
 Specifications of ARFF Vehicles:
ARFF vehicles are an essential component of airport safety infrastructure,
designed to respond to aviation emergencies with speed, efficiency, and
effectiveness. Their advanced firefighting capabilities, coupled with specialized
rescue equipment, ensure that they are well-prepared to handle the unique
challenges posed by aircraft incidents. By meeting stringent specifications and
incorporating the latest technology, ARFF vehicles play a critical role in
protecting lives and property at airports worldwide.
i) Type 1 (Rosenbauer Panther):
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ii) Type 2 (NAFFCO Fire Truck):
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4. Fire Fighting System
A firefighting system is an activity of prevention during a fire spread in building,
home or warehouse with the use of proper fire safety equipment like
extinguisher, hose reels, fire monitors, nozzles and hose pipes.
In Agartala Airport, there are 2 tanks (185KL, capacity each) which store water
for firefighting purpose. From there it goes to the basement. There is agate bulb
which stops the water flow if it flows rapidly. The water goes to every pipeline
but the knob of the pipeline opens only when it is required. There is a hydrant
pump which is used as a main pump to supply water at the time of emergency. If
the pressure of water goes below a certain level i.e., 7.5 kg, then the jockey pump
starts working. The jockey pump is mainly used to cover up the leakage and acts
as an auxiliary pump. For sprinkler, there are also 2 pumps-one is main pump
and another one is jockey pump.
⮚ JOCKEY PUMP: A jockey pump is a small pump connected to a fire
sprinkler system to maintain pressure in the sprinkler pipes. This is to ensure that
if a fire-sprinkler is activated, there will be a pressure drop, which will be sensed
by the fire pumps automatic controller, which will cause the fire pump to start
jockey pump works within a fire protection system like-
 Pressure Maintenance: The jockey pump operates continuously to
maintain a steady pressure in the fire sprinkler system. It keeps the system
pressurized within a specific range, typically between 100 and 140 pounds
per square inch (psi).
 System Monitoring: The jockey pump is equipped with pressure sensors
and monitoring devices that continuously monitor the pressure in the
sprinkler system. If the pressure drops below the set threshold, indicating a
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leak or pressure loss, the jockey pump will activate to restore the pressure to
the required level.
 HYDRANT PUMP: A hydrant pump, also known as a fire hydrant pump or
fire booster pump, is an essential component of a fire protection system that
provides a reliable water supply for firefighting operations. It is specifically
designed to enhance the water pressure and flow rate in the fire hydrant system,
enabling firefighters to access an adequate water source to extinguish fires.
connection point by which firefighters can tap into a water supply. It is a
component of active fire protection.
 BUTTERFLY VALVES: Butterfly valves for fire protection serve as control
valves that turn on or shut off the flow of water to the pipes serving fire
sprinkler or standpipe systems.
There is a DG (Diesel Generator) which is used as backup.
Butterfly valves are often used to control the water supply in fire protection
systems. They can be installed at the main water supply connection point to
regulate the flow of water into the system. By opening or closing the valve,
firefighters or system operators can control the water supply to various sections
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or zones of the fire protection network. Fire-fighting applications demand
reliable & durable components. Butterfly valves are known for their robust
construction and resistance to corrosion and wear. They are often made from
materials such as ductile iron, stainless steel, or high-performance polymers,
ensuring their longevity and ability to withstand harsh conditions over an
extended period.
 FIRE ALARM: Inside the new terminal building of the airport, there are 2
systems present:
 Conventional System (For comparatively small areas)
 Addressable System (For large areas)
There are 850 detectors, Detection of smoke detectors and heat detectors is also possible
here. If any accident happens, then firstly the ACs turn off, then the exhaust fans and after
that the lifts go off. Heat detectors are fire detection devices that are designed to sense the
presence of heat or a rapid rise in temperature, indicating the potential outbreak of a fire.
Unlike smoke detectors, which detect the presence of smoke particles, heat detectors
primarily respond to changes in temperature.
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i. FIM (Fault Isolator Module): It is used for isolation.
ii. CRM (Control Relay Module): It is used to give command to other systems like AC,
lift etc. In case of emergency.
iii. MCP (Manual Call Point): It is done manually in case of fire emergency.
In fire protection systems, both heat detectors and smoke detectors are often used together
for comprehensive fire detection. The selection of the appropriate type of detector depends
on the specific application, environment, and fire detection requirements. Fire alarm control
panels are used to integrate and monitor the signals from these detectors, triggering alarms
and initiating appropriate emergency response actions.
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5. HVAC Plant
HVAC stands for heating, ventilation and air conditioning. HVAC system is not
only heating and cooling of air but also concerned with maintaining the indoor
air quality (IAQ), Heating of air is done usually in winter and similarly cooling
of air is done in summer season.
HVAC system works on the principles of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and
heat transfer.
All these fields come into play in various components of HVAC. IACQ (Indoor
air quality) is the quality of air inside the terminal building as mostly related to
health and safe keeping of its occupants or items/goods placed. IAQ is changed
with inclusion or contamination with gases and uncontrolled mass & energy
transfer.
WORKING PRINCIPLE OF HVAC: In the background of HVAC
system, an HVAC water chiller produces chilled water which is then
circulated throughout the building or space upto cooling coils in air
handling units. Blowers move air on cooling coils which is then distributed
into various portions of space. In the background of HVAC system, an
HVAC water chiller produces chilled water or building for providing
comfort or preserving goods/items as per HVAC design. Air is distributed
through supply ducts and return air is collected in air handling units with
the help of return ducts. Chilled water and cooling water pumps provide
energy to keep the chilled and cooling water moving.
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An HVAC System may include the following basic components or units:
 HVAC water chillers
 Chilled water pumps
 Cooling water pumps
 Cooling towers
 Piping for chilled water and cooling water or condenser side water
 Valves for chilled water and cooling water sides
 Air Handling Units (AHUs), heating coils and cooling coils
 Ducts in ventilation system (supply ducts and return ducts)
 Fan Coil Units (FCUs) and thermostats
 HVAC diffusers and grills
 HVAC controls (instrumentation & control components) installed at
various locations
 HVAC software for building HVAC control or building management
system (BMS)
 An assembly of all above components forms an HVAC system.
 CHILLER:
A chiller is a type of refrigeration system
commonly used in large buildings, including
airports, to provide cooling for air conditioning,
process cooling, and other cooling applications. It
works by removing heat from a space or process
and transferring it to a separate medium, such as
water or air, which is then circulated to the desired
location.
In Agartala airport Water Cooled chillers are used.
Water cooled chillers are typically located in the
basement or the lowest floor of the building.
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 AIR HANDLING UNIT:
AHU stands for Air Handling
Unit. It is a central component of
the heating, ventilation, and air
conditioning (HVAC) system in a
building, including airports. The
AHU is responsible for circulating
and conditioning the air within the
building, ensuring a comfortable
and healthy indoor environment.
The working principle of an Air Handling Unit:
i. Air Intake:
 The AHU draws in outside air or recirculates indoor air through intake
dampers or vents.
 In the case of outside air intake, the air may pass through filters to
remove dust, particles, and pollutants before entering the AHU.
ii. Conditioning:
 The incoming air passes through various conditioning components
within the AHU to modify its temperature, humidity, and cleanliness.
 Heating: If heating is required, the air may pass over a heating coil,
where it is warmed by hot water, steam, or electric resistance.
 Cooling: If cooling is needed, the air flows over a cooling coil, which
removes heat and lowers the air temperature. The cooling coil is
typically connected to a chiller or cooling system.
 Humidification/Dehumidification: In some cases, the air may pass
through a humidifier or dehumidifier to adjust the humidity levels.
 Air Mixing: The AHU may include dampers or mixing sections to blend
outside air with recirculated indoor air to achieve the desired air quality
and temperature.
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iii. Filtration:
 Air filters within the AHU help remove dust, pollen, allergens, and other
particles from the air.
 Different types of filters, such as pre-filters and high-efficiency filters,
may be used to achieve the desired level of air cleanliness.
iv. Fan Operation:
 The AHU contains a fan or fans that help circulate the conditioned air.
 The fan draws the air through the conditioning components and pushes it
through the supply ductwork to distribute it to various zones or spaces
within the building.
 The speed of the fan can be controlled to adjust the airflow rate based on
the cooling or heating requirements.
v. Air Distribution:
 The conditioned air is distributed through a network of supply ducts to
different areas of the building, including terminal areas, concourses,
offices, and other occupied spaces.
 Air diffusers or grilles located in each zone release the conditioned air
into the space, ensuring proper air distribution and comfort.
vi. Exhaust:
 The AHU may also have provisions for extracting stale or contaminated
air from certain areas, such as restrooms or specific zones, to maintain
indoor air quality.
 Exhaust fans or ducts remove the air, which is then expelled to the
outside environment.
The AHU's operation is typically controlled by a Building Management System
(BMS) or HVAC control system. These systems monitor temperature,
humidity, air quality, and other parameters to maintain the desired conditions
within the building.
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 VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVE (VFD):
A variable frequency drive (VFD) is a type of motor controller that drives an
electric motor by varying the frequency and voltage of its power supply. The
VFD also has the capacity to control ramp-up and ramp-down of the motor
during start or stop, respectively. Variable frequency drives (VFD) enable control
of the speed of three phase motors which allows the
motor to be operated with variable current inputs. This
technology can be used in Heating, Ventilation and
Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems to lower fan
operating speeds, reducing energy consumption. The
client has expressed a need for a more effective means
of control for the operation of their two air handling
units which regulate airflow throughout their office
building located on a brewing facility campus.
Currently, the supply fans for both air handlers
(AHUs) operate at full capacity, regardless of
occupancy of the building. The implementation of
Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) on these supply
fans was explored due to the client's need for lower
operating cost for the HVAC system serving the
building studied by automating the Air Handler control. Using industry
simulation and estimating software, a VFD schedule was developed to determine
the capacity for operational cost savings for these two rooftop units, based on
occupancy of the building. During weekends and non-business hours during the
week, the power to the supply fans was modelled at lower percentages of the full
operational capacity. The results of this analysis show that the implementation of
VFDs on these two air handling units can reduce operational HVAC costs by
18%.
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 COOLING TOWER:
A cooling tower is a heat removal device that uses water to transfer process,
waste heat into the atmosphere. A water-cooling tower is used to cool water and
is a huge heat exchanger, expelling building heat into the atmosphere and
returning colder water to the chiller. A water- cooling tower receives warm water
from a chiller. This warm water is known as condenser water because it gets heat
in the condenser of the chiller.
The chiller is typically at a
lower level (in the basement).
The cooling tower's role is to
cool down the water, so it can
return to the chiller to pick up
more heat. Air conditioning
equipment and industrial
processes can generate heat in
the form of tons of hot water
that needs to be cooled down.
That's where an industrial
cooling tower comes in.
Overheated water flows
through the cooling tower
where it's recirculated and
exposed to cool, dry air. Heat leaves the recirculating cooling tower water
through evaporation. The colder water then re-enters the air conditioning
equipment or process to cool that equipment down, and the cooling cycle repeats
over and over again. When the warm condenser goes into the cooling tower, the
water is passed through some nozzles which spray the water into small droplets
across the fill, which increases the surface area of water and allows for better
heat loss thru greater evaporation. The purpose of the fan on top of the water-
cooling tower is to bring in air from the bottom of the tower and move it up and
out in the opposite direction of the warm condenser water at the top of the unit.
The air will carry the heat through evaporating water from the cooling tower into
the atmosphere.
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6. Operational Area
Overview
A) HT PANEL:
11 KV line is coming from the new power house and is connected to one of the
incomer terminals (incomer-1 and incomer-2) of the HT panel. Incomers are then
connected to the 12 KV, 630 A, OCB (Oil Circuit Breaker) and then connected to
the busbar. This busbar is farther connected to the OCB (12 KV and 630 A) and
then connected to the step-down transformer. After that the transformer is
connected to the non-essential panel through busbar.
Fig: Single line diagram
B)Transformer:
In old power house, two step-down transformers of 1.6 MVA rating is there (one
is working and another is standby). This transformer is shell type transformer and
type of the cooling is ONAN (Oil Natural Air Natural). One 11 KV incomer is
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coming from the new power house and connected to the primary side of the
transformer. As the transformer is step-down, it will reduce the voltage to 440
Volt. The secondary side of the transformer is connected to the non- essential
panel through busbar. Primary current of the transformer is 84 A and secondary
current is 2133.4 A. This transformer having explosion vent to remove the gases
from the tank.
C)Panels in Old Power House:
In old power house, mainly 2 types of panels are there: i) Essential Panel and ii)
Non- Essential Panel.
i) Non-Essential LT Panel: Non-essential panel is connected with the
secondary sides of the transformers through a bus duct and after that it is
connected to the busbar. Here 2500 A ACB (Air circuit Breaker) is used. It has
two busbars. Busbar 1 is connected with transformer 1 and Busbar 2 is connected
with transformer 2. Both the busbars are connected with bus coupler. This panel is
connected with AMF-1, spare, old Hanger, switch room, old power house, new
Tech Block Ac to supply the power. From that busbar different load is connected.
On-essential panel is connected with new essential panel through ug cable.
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Single line diagram of non-essential panel:
ii) Essential Panel: there are 2 essential panels: a) new essential panel and b) old
essential panel.
a) New Essential LT Panel: This panel is essential because it is connected with
the DG set. It also has 2busbar part. In one busbar it is connected with non-
essential panel and 750 KVA DG set and another busbar is connected with non-
essential panel and 380 KVA DG set and both the busbar is connected with bus
coupler. There 1250 A ACB (Air Circuit Breaker) is used. This new essential
panel is connected with UPS, High Mast, AHU, Spare, old essential panel, switch
room, new DOG kennel, CCR room.
Single line diagram of New essential LT panel:
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b) Old Essential LT Panel:
Feeders from AMF-3 and new essential panel are connected with the 2 busbars
of the Old essential LT panel through 800 A ACB (Air Circuit Breaker). These
busbars are interconnected with a bus coupler of 800A ACB. From this panel
power is supplied to the perimeter, spare, DVOR glide path, CCR, Apron Light,
switch room, pump house, NPH lighting etc. Single line diagram of Old essential
LT Panel:
D)DIESEL GENERATOR:
Diesel generators are very useful machines that produce electricity by burning
diesel fuel. These machines use a combination of an electric generator and a diesel
engine to generate electricity. Diesel generators convert some of the chemical
energy, contained by the diesel fuel, to mechanical energy through combustion.
 NECESSITY:
As the essential panel needs continuous supply a power cut, low load or grid
failure may cause interruption. To avoid these type of interruptions DG sets are
installed. There are one 750KVA and two 380KVA DG installed in Old power
house. Whenever power supply to Essential panel is required DG
automatically/manually starts to operate. The initial power required for DG to
start generation is distributed by DC batteries and needs 8 seconds to start its
generation.
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 UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY:
Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is a device that allows other devices to keep
running for at least a short time when incoming power is interrupted. As long as
utility power is flowing, it also replenishes and maintains the energy storage. It is a
device used to back-up a power supply to prevent devices and systems from power
supply problems, such as a power failure or lightning strikes.
A UPS converts input AC power to DC in order to charge the backup battery and
feed the Inverter. The inverter then converts this power back to AC and supplies the
load.
Whenever there is a power supply interruption DG starts its operation. It needs 8
seconds to start its generation. So, for that period of time UPS system supply
necessary power to CCR room.
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 TYPES OF UPS:
There are three types of uninterruptible power supplies: static, dynamic (rotary),
and hybrid. Static uses power electronic converters, dynamic uses electromagnetic
engines (generators and motor), and hybrid uses a combination of both static and
dynamic.
Based on configuration there are three major types of UPS system. They are online
double conversion, line-interactive and offline (also called standby and battery
backup). These UPS systems are defined by how power moves through the unit.
 Electric Room & Panel:
The electrical systems for airports require proper quality installations and
consideration for features usually not involved in other electrical installations. Each
airport is unique, and its electrical installation should be designed to provide
economic power and control, which is safe, reliable, and easily maintained.
Electrification inside an airport is strictly defined by ICAO standards, along with
generally applicable IEC and NFPA standards.
In Agartala MBB airport power house is equipped with 2 incomer line of 33kv one
from 79 Tilla and another from Durjoynagar, then tit stepped down to 11kv line by
4MVA transformer and via LT panel again it gets stepped down to 440V by 1.6
MVA transformers then by two feeders of each 9-run cable power goes through
Main Distribution Board to supply the power to all equipments and loads.
i) MDB (MAIN DISTRIBUTION BOARD):
Main distribution boards are used to distribute and control the power supply in large
buildings such as airport terminal building. The main distribution boards are
generally installed after the main power source like transformers and used to divide
the power feed into subsidiary outgoing feeders. Electric room is installed with 2
MDBs operating on 272V and they are interconnected via Tie Feeder. Each MDB is
connected with 5 SDB (Sub Distribution Board).
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ii) TIE FEEDER:
Tie feeder may connect two MDBs in parallel to provide stiffness or service
continuity for the load supplied from each distribution board. If only one MDB is in
working condition, then the tie feeder maintains the two parts of the system in
synchronism.
iii) CAPACITOR PANEL:
Capacitor Panels are special devices made to this end itself, as it verily increases the
power factor correction by a large magnitude. Normally the electric load running all
around a facility or residence is reactive in nature and can prevent in great losses.
iv) SDB (SUB DISTRIBUTION BOARD):
Each MDB is connected to one SDB section (one for ground floor and one for
basement) containing 5 SDBs operating on 236V. From SDBs power is supplied to
various sections like Lift and Escalator panel (contains 4 lifts and 4 escalators)
through dedicated panel, ELDB (Emergency Light Distribution Board) panel
(connected with UPS also for backup) etc.
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iv) LIFT & ESCALATOR PANEL:
It operates and supplies power to all 4 lifts and 4 escalators operating on 412V.ATS
panel is there that works as a coupler through which CT and MCCB is connected.
v) ELDB (EMERGENCY LIGHT DISTRIBUTION BOARD) PANEL:
This panel is responsible for supplying power from SDB to all lighting systems in
terminal building, conveyor belts, security checking area, international arrival gate
false ceiling light, private lounge and speakers etc. UPS panel is also connected to
supply power in case of power failure.
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Other panels such as Aerobridge Panel supplies power to 4 aero bridges, arrival and
departure section etc. and Retail Panel holds the control for retail shop and internal
fountains etc.
 RUNWAY:
The Maharaja Bir Bikram Airport of Agartala has a runway strip of about
2286 m long and 60 m wide in 18-36 directions. It has 7 taxiways (A, B, C,
D, E, F, G), 4 dumbles, 1 Isolation Bay and the Apron Area. The Runway is
equipped with different types of lights and sensors in order to help the
airplane land and take off with ease. The different types of lights that the
runway has been working with are as follows:
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A. Apron Lights.
B. Taxi Lights.
C. Runway Edge Lights.
D. Approach Lights.
E. Runway Threshold Lights.
F. Touch Down Lights.
 CONSTANT CURRENT REGULATION PANEL:
Constant current regulation panel is the main backbone for supplying power to the
Ground Lightning facilities which is mainly installed on the runway of the airport.
Constant Current Regulators (CCRs) are designed to supply precision output
current levels for series lighting circuits on airport runways and taxiways.
In CCR hall there is an incomer panel connected with the essential supply panel
(LV panel) from power house. From the incomer panel Constant Current Regulator
panels are getting 415 volts power supply. CCR panels for runway uses 2 phases
power supply and other CCR’s uses 1 phase. In CCR hall there are 2 CCR panels
for two circuits of lights installed in the runway, CCR 1-RWY-1 & CCR-2 RWY-2
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There are separate CCR panels installed for PAPI, APRON, APPROACH lights of
runway.
Another CCR is kept on standby. The load in the CCR is controlled from the ATC
tower according to the intensity of light required for landing of the flight.
In CCR we can monitor the output current corresponding to Selected Intensity.
i) HIGH MAST LIGHTING:
To illuminate a large area or site, normal lighting poles are not practical so high
mast lighting is used. It is the type of site lighting fixture mounted over at height.
Normally it contains a pole that ranges from 40 to 150 feet pole.
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ii) PERIMETER LIGHT:
Light that are installed near the boundary side are called perimeter light. These
lights are fed from old essential panel. During night they glow and associate pilots
so that they can easily distinguish between air side and the city side from during
landing. For these lights 6 panels are working which are fed from the old essential
panel. In every panel, all the perimeter light are connected in parallel.
A) APRON LIGHT:
The Area Where the airplane is being parked for the boarding and deboarding of the
passengers is known as the Apron Area. In order to illuminate the Apron area
Apron Lights are used which have very high intensity and they are placed on top of
the high mast which is around 50 to 60m high. This height depends on the position
of the light and how much area it needs to cover. These lights are also equipped
with a plate earthing system to protect them from any kind of high-power surge or
lightning.
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B) TAXI LIGHT:
The Taxi Lights are the high-intensity blue lights that are used in the Taxi Area.
The taxi Area is the path that joins the main runway strip with the Apron area. All
the Lights in the runway works on constant current which are regulated by CCR
(Constant Current Regulator).
C) RUNWAY EDGE LIGHT:
In the Runway strip, Runway Edge Lights are used in order to indicate the edges of
the runway strip to help the pilot to locate the runway strip edge easily. These are
high- intensity lights each of which is connected with the secondary winding of a
transformer and this way 2 circuits are connected. The distance between each light
is about 30m and between 2 circuit lights is about 60m.
D) APPROACH LIGHTS:
Approach Lights are those lights that help the pilot in visual landing, by looking at
the colour of these lights the pilot can understand his position, angle, and other
details thus helping the pilot during visual landing. The
Approach Light includes a special system of 4 lights
which is known as PAPI (Precision Approach Path
Indicator), it helps the pilot to know about his landing
angle, When the airplane has a landing angle of fewer
than 3 degrees then the pilot will see all the 4 lights in white colour but if the
landing angle is more than 3 degrees then the pilot will see all the 4 lights in red
colour and if the pilot has an angle of 3 degrees then the pilot will see 2 lights in
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white colour and 2 lights in red colour thus helping the pilot to know his position
during landing.
E) RUNWAY THRESHOLD AND END LIGHTS:
Threshold lights are green colour airfield lights, unidirectional type, installed at the
beginning of the part of a runway where aircraft can do touchdown. The threshold is
not a touchdown point yet. But this is the beginning of the 'safe-to-land' part of a
runway.
The Runway End Lights are used to identify the end point of the runway strip and it
should be visible to the pilot, these lights are visible to the pilot as red lights which
means the end of the runway strip.
F) TOUCH-DOWN LIGHTS:
Touchdown zone lights are installed on
some precision approach runways to indicate
the touchdown zone when landing under
adverse visibility conditions. They consist of
two rows of transverse light bars disposed
symmetrically about the runway centerline.
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7. Air Conditioning in
Terminal Building
The Air-Conditioning part of the Terminal Building is controlled by BMS
System. The CP and IPC codes in the BMS Panel controls the ON/OFF
command. In the Airport 2 and 4 number CP codes are in Water Flowing
condition.
 BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM:
All Buildings have some form of mechanical and electrical services in order to
provide the facilities necessary for maintaining a comfortable working environment.
BMS is a comprehensive system that controls and monitors various building
systems within the airport infrastructure. It is designed to ensure efficient
operations, safety, and comfort for passengers, staff, and other stakeholders. These
services have to be controlled by some means to ensure comfort conditions. Basic
controls take the form of manual switching, time clocks or temperature switches.
Here if Building Management System (BMS), is introduced, we are able to get a
comfortable working environment in an efficient way.
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A) ADVANTAGES OF USING BMS:
 Central controlling facility.
 Automate and take control of various operations manage all the systems.
 Coordinate the various systems.
 Provide a comfortable working environment in an efficient way.
 Its purpose is to control, monitor and optimize building services e.g.,
lighting, heating & cooling, security, audio-visual and entertainment
systems; ventilation and climate control; time & attendance control and
reporting
 With the usage of various building automation techniques, the energy
efficiency is possible.
 With the help of occupancy sensors provided in various areas of the building,
the service plants can be brought into operation only when needed and also
to the optimum, thereby leading to huge energy savings
 BMS improves quality of built environment, efficiency of workstation, while
allowing great saving in energy
 Security and life safety systems.
 With the introduction of various security and various life safety systems like
smart access control, smoke detector, fire alarm and fire sprinkler, the
environment can be made much easy and fear free to work with.
 It is difficult to get an optimum working environment only through design
for the whole year. Mechanical fans, desert coolers, air-conditioners etc.
supplement the indoor comfort to a great extent. But all these are operated
and controlled manually in general. At the same time some artificial
intelligent systems like Occupancy Sensors, Temperature Sensors etc. can be
used to sense the temperature increase and the presence of occupants to
decide comfort level required to achieve the optimum conditions.
B) BMS & ILLUMINATION SYSTEM:
Lighting up the building is an art. Without proper illumination the entire space will
look dull, creating an uncomfortable working space, Any how we cannot depend on
artificial lights alone. It will add up the running costs. Hence some methods to bring
natural light inside the habitable space shall be sort out.
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C) HVAC CONTROL:
The BMS monitors and controls the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning
systems in the airport. It regulates temperature, humidity, and air quality in different
areas, including terminals, lounges, offices, and other spaces. It optimizes energy
consumption while maintaining comfortable conditions.
D) LIGHTING CONTROL:
With the help of a light dimming device, it's possible to control the intensity of
lights especially when its requirement becomes less. This can be made possible by
suitably integrating the lighting systems with the BMS through sensors by which it
is also possible to turn off the lights automatically when it's not needed. Hence there
is the economy in using the building. Different control systems exist, again time-
based control and optimizer parameter-based where a level of illuminance or
particular use of lighting is required.
E) ZONES:
Lights are switched on corresponding to the use and layout of the lit areas, in order
to avoid lighting a large area if only a small part of it needs light.
F) SECURITY & ACCESS CONTROL:
The BMS integrates with the airport's security systems, such as CCTV cameras,
access control systems, and intrusion detection systems. It allows centralized
monitoring and control of security measures, including video surveillance, access
permissions, and alarm management.
G) FIRE DETECTION AND SUPPRESSION: ‘
The BMS includes fire detection sensors and alarm systems that provide early
warning in case of a fire emergency. It also integrates with fire suppression systems
like sprinklers or gas-based suppression systems to initiate appropriate actions when
necessary.
H) TIME CONTROL:
To switch on and off automatically in each zone to a preset schedule for light use.
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I) PASSIVE INFRA-RED (PIR) OCCUPANCY SENSING:
In areas which are occupied intermittently, occupancy sensors can be used to
indicate whether anybody is present or not, and switch the light on or off
accordingly.
J) LIGHT LEVEL MONITORING:
This consists of switching or dimming artificial lighting to maintain task- specific
light level measured by a 'photocell".
K) INTEGRATION WITH OTHER AIRPORT SYSTEMS:
The BMS can integrate with other airport management systems, such as flight
scheduling, baggage handling, and passenger flow management systems. This
integration allows for better coordination and optimization of overall airport
operations.
 OPEN AND CLOSED CONDITION OF PIPES AND FANs:
 Primary Pipes which are in Open Condition: 1 and 4
 Secondary Pipes which are in Open Condition: 1,2 and 3
 Condenser Pipes which are in Open Condition: 1 and 3
 CT (Current Transformers) Fans which are in working state: 3 and 4
 FUNCTIONS AND ACTIVITIES OF AHU (Air Handling Unit)
COMMAND:
 It gives the Auto-command.
 It shows the Run Status.
 It also shows the Filter Status.
 It operates the working of Fire Damper.
 It allots the Set Point.
 It also controls the Carbon Dioxide Sensor.
There are 18 AHUs in the basement (Numbering 1 to 18) and 8 AHUs in the
Mazzini (at the Top) which are Numbered from 19 to 26. AHU has a blower fit into
it which is Motor Operated.
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 FUNCTION OF BLOWER IN AHU (Air Handling Unit):
The Blower allows air from one end to a duct which is connected in arrival through
tin paths. It helps to avoid suffocation. It also contains 10% fresh air. The
temperature of the AHU is in between 34° to 35°.
 TYPES OF SENSORS PRESENT IN AHU IN AHU (Air Handling
Unit):
i) Filter Sensor: It signifies the amount of Oxygen and impurities present in
the filter.
ii) Filter Temperature Sensor: It returns and controls the temperature of the
AHU and maintains the temperature in between 23° to 24°.
iii) Fire Sensor: It is a sensor used to detect fire or any other related hazards. It
is present above the duct of the AHU. During fire valves will get closed to
stop supply of Oxygen.
The Water Pressure in AHU is maintained at 6kg per square cm. The valve present
in the AHU is about 15% to 20% open.
 SPECIFICATION OF THE CONTROL SYSTEM OF AHU (Air
Handling Unit): DDC 80 (AHU-1/AHU-5)
 FUNCTION OF EXHAUST PUMP:
i) It is used for the safety purpose during fire or related hazards.
ii) It also contains fan used for ventilation purpose.
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8. BAGGAGE HANDLING
SYSTEM (BHS)
Luggage on a baggage handling system conveyor belt Baggage handling is the
process of transporting passenger luggage from a check-in counter at a departure
airport, onto a plane cargo hold and then to a collection point at an arrival
airport.
A baggage handling system is made up of a number of different processes and
checks. BHS is designed to count bags, check weights of bags, balance loads,
screen suitcases for security reasons, transport bags through an airport conveyor
belt system and read bag information automatically.
A baggage handling system is a type of conveyor system installed in airports that
transports checked luggage from ticket counters to areas where the bags can be
loaded onto airplanes.
 FUNCTIONS OF BHS:
i) Detection of bag jams.
ii) Volume regulation (to ensure that input points are controlled to avoid
overloading system).
iii) Load balancing (to evenly distribute bag volume between conveyor sub-
systems).
iv) Bag counting.
v) Bag tracking.
vi) Redirection of bags via pusher or diverter.
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 FORMS:
i) Destination-coded vehicles (DCVs), unmanned carts propelled by linear
induction motors mounted to the tracks, can load and unload bags without
stopping.
ii) Automatic scanners scan the labels on the luggage.
iii) Conveyors equipped with junctions and sorting machines automatically
route the bags to the gate.
iv) A reliable, trouble-free way to realize a reduction of up to 30% in labour
costs.
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 MAIN JOBS:
A BHS has Three Main Jobs:
i) Move bags from the check-in area to the departure gate.
ii) Move bags from one gate to another during transfers.
iii) Move bags from the arrival gate to the baggage-claim area.
 HOW THE BAGGAGE HANDLING SYSTEM WORKS:
i) Arrange trolleys according to the flight's load.
ii) Check the security sticker of the baggage and segregate as per the
destination.
iii) The bag is sent through an X-Ray to check the types of baggage (i.e., hard
case, soft baggage, fragile baggage etc.) and then align.
iv) Reconcile baggage and load in trolleys.
v) Dispatch baggage to aircraft for loading.
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 CATEGORIES OF MISHANDLED BAGGAGE:
i) Delayed (put on a later flight).
ii) Damaged.
iii) Items missing from the baggage.
iv) Lost or missing in its entirety.
 WHY BAGS GET LOST:
There are a number of reasons a bag could get lost or delayed. Some common
ones are:
i) MISTAKEN IDENTITY: Someone could nab your bag thinking that it's
their own.
ii) CONNECTING FLIGHT: Your bag doesn't make it on the plane because
there isn't enough time between flights.
iii) LATE CHECK-IN: If you have to run to the terminal, your bag might not
have time to get on the plane.
iv) BAG TAG MIX-UPS: The bag tag can get tom off, or misread... and your
bag can get sent to the wrong place.
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9. ATC Services
Air traffic control (ATC) is a service provided by ground-based air traffic
controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and through a given section of
controlled airspace, and can provide advisory services to aircraft in non-
controlled airspace. The primary purpose of ATC worldwide is to prevent
collisions, organize and expedite the flow of air traffic, and provide information
and other support for pilots. In some countries, [examples needed] ATC plays a
security or defensive role, or is operated by the military.
Air traffic controllers monitor the location of aircraft in their assigned airspace
by radar and communicate with the pilots by radio. To prevent collisions, ATC
enforces traffic separation rules, which ensure each aircraft maintains a
minimum amount of empty space around it at all times. In many countries, ATC
provides services to all private, military, and commercial aircraft operating
within its airspace. Depending on the type
of flight and the class of airspace, ATC may
issue instructions that pilots are required to
obey, or advisories (known as flight
information in some countries) that pilots
may, at their discretion, disregard. The pilot
in command is the final authority for the
safe operation of the aircraft and may, in an
emergency, deviate from ATC instructions to the extent required to maintain safe
operation of their aircraft.
A VHF broadcasting system is being established at Agartala Airport for the
continuous distribution of vital information such as updated airside,
meteorological and navigational servicivility information etc. to pilot.
In case of bad weather or any other obstacles if the aircraft is unable to land to
the defined destination, ATC makes sure to inform and guide to the pilot the
safest destination for landing in accordance with the amount of fuel present in
the aircraft. In addition to the above procedures to ensure safe air traffic
separation call signs are used by ATC which are permanently allocated by ICAO
on request usually to scheduled flights. In general, the minimum visibility of
MBB Airport is 800m and the area control is beyond 20k ft.
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 METEOROLOGICAL DEPARTMENT:
Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) is the national agency in India, which
is responsible in all matters related to aviation meteorological services. Aviation
meteorological services are provided for national and international flights for the
safe and efficient operations in terms to take off landing and enroute forecasts.
Meteorological Department of MBB Airport reports about the weather
conditions such as heavy rain, low visibility, thunderstorm, turbulence,
crosswind at airport. Following are the information displayed on the MET
equipment setup.
 UTC
 WIND-DDDSS KNOT
 VISIBILITY-4500M
 CB CLOUD
 VECC-KOLKATA
 Read back instruction
 ETA
 ADP
 ARP
 TYPES OF AIRCRAFT:
 Light
 Medium
 Heavy
 Super Heavy 𝖾 Airbus 380 (which can lift a total weight of 136,000 Kg
along with Fuel Mass).
 MAXIMUM TAKE-OFF WEIGHT:
The maximum take-off mass (MTOM), often referred
to as maximum take-off weight (MTOW), of an aircraft
is a value defined by the aircraft manufacturer. It is the
maximum mass at which the aircraft is certified for
take-off due to structural or other limits.
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 Precision Approach Path Indicator:
The PAPI system is the current standard Visual Glide Slope Indicator
(VGSI) consisting of four light boxes arranged perpendicular to the edge of the
runway. It projects a pattern of red and white lights that provide visual approach
slope information. It should be in the range of 300m. They are total 4 (Four) in
number.
 DESCRIPTION ON SOME PARTS OF ATC:
i) Critical Aircraft: The critical aircraft is the most demanding aircraft type, or
grouping of aircraft with similar characteristics, that make regular use of the
airport. Regular use is 500 annual operations, including both itinerant and
local operations but excluding touch-and-go operations. An operation is either
a take-off or landing.
ii) Example: Airbus 321 for Agartala.
iii) ILS (Instrumental Landing System): In aviation, the instrument landing
system (ILS) is a precision radio navigation system that provides short-range
guidance to aircraft to allow them to approach a runway at night or in bad
weather. In its original form, it allows an aircraft to approach until it is 200
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feet (61 m) over the ground, within a 1⁄2 mile (800 m) of the runway. At that
point the runway should be visible to the pilot; if it is not, they perform a
missed approach.
v) Docking: A stand guidance system is a system which gives information to a
pilot attempting to park an aircraft at an airport stand, usually via visual
methods, leading to the term Visual Docking Guidance System (VDGS) and
also A-VDGS (the A standing for advanced) This allows them to remain clear
of obstructions and ensures that jetways can reach the aircraft.
 APPROACH & TERMINAL:
The Approach Control Unit
(APP) ensures safe, orderly
and timely traffic control of
aircraft that have just taken
off or are ready to land, based
on the relevant regulation
documentation, using radio
location and non-radio
location procedures. The
working process of APP
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includes the following steps:
i) Initial contact, the pilot informs the controller of receiving the ATIS
information which is either confirmed or updated by the controller. Then, the
controller advises the type of arrival (STAR, vectoring, etc.) and the expected
runway and type of approach (e.g., ILS, VOR/DME, RNAV, visual, etc.).
The STAR may have already been assigned by the previous ACC sector.
ii) Flying the arrival procedure, depending on the type of arrival, this may
involve few exchanges (in case of following a STAR) or be rather busy (in
case of vectoring). The purpose of this stage is to position the aircraft
appropriately for the execution of the final approach.
iii) The final approach, the controller clears the flight for the final approach and
specifies the type. Normally a report is expected by the pilot (e.g., for being
established on the ILS, for having the runway in sight and being able to land
visually, etc.).
iv) Transfer to the Tower. This is done when the APP controller considers the
aircraft is likely to complete the landing. In MBB Airport ADS-B is used in
place of Radar.
Terminal controllers are responsible for providing all ATC services within the
airspace. The traffic flow is broadly divided into departure-arrival over flights.
Terminal control is responsible for ensuring that aircraft are at an appropriate
altitude when they are handed off, and that aircraft arrive at a suitable rate for
landing.
 CNS:
Communication Navigation and Surveillance system for air traffic management
is a system which measures aircraft position from the ground's consist of the
following parts:
 LLZ-Localizer or 11Z provides runway guidance to aircraft.
 GP- Glide path provides vertical guidance to the pilots during approach
 LPDMES-Low Power Distance MEASURING Equipment transmits 100
watts of power and is used for approach navigation
 HPDMES-High Power Distance Measuring Equipment transmits
1000watts of power and maybe collocated with VORS to provide VOR
 DME service with low and high service volume with a radius up to 130nm
to support, enroute and terminal navigation.
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 DVOR-Doppler VOR is used to aid aircraft in determining their flight
position and direction in reference to their destination using VHF signals
between 30Mhz-3000Mhz sent from a radio beacon.
 NDB-They are used to aid and navigate vessels in aviation during their
approach
 TRANSMITTER & RECIEVER ROOM :
It can rightly be called as the heart of the ATC tower and communication as
without this room ATC tower and approach can't function. This setup consists of
3 pairs of transmitter and receivers i.e., Main pair, Standby (used when the main
pair fails) and I controller cavity (used when both main and standby fails) Filters
are used in tuning the frequency of the setup. Half of the cavity filters are tuned
to a frequency of 118.05Mhz and other half for 120. 4Mhz. The range of the
transmitter receiver setup is 180 Nautical miles and DATIS frequency is
128.8Mhz
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10. CONCLUSION
We have undergone 30 days training in Maharaja Bir Bikram
Airport under Airport Authority of India, where we have done a
vocational summer training which helped us to gather both
theoretical and practical knowledge.
Previously we knew that Airport is a place from which aircraft
operate that usually has paved runways and maintenance facilities
and often serves as a terminal. Now, we have come to know much
more about it through this training. We have learnt about the MT
Pool, HVAC Plant, fire station & fire station vehicles, firefighting,
operational area overview, baggage handling system, building
management system and many more. Above all we come to know
about the runway, runway lights, how the flight lands, how the
flights get direction by ATC tower.
This vocational training provided us with much more information
about the Airport Authority of India and will be much helpful for
our future.
55 | P a g e
11. REFERENCES
 https://www.aai.aero/en/airports/agartala
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airports_Authority_of_India
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maharaja_Bir_Bikram_Airport
International Civil Aviation Organization. (2019). Annex 14 to the
Convention on International Civil Aviation: Aerodromes. Retrieved from
https://www.icao.int/
Mechanical Engineering on AAI Summer Training Report-003.pdf

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Mechanical Engineering on AAI Summer Training Report-003.pdf

  • 1. (A Govt. of India Enterprises) MAHARAJA BIR BIKRAM AIRPORT Agartala, Tripura 799009 PROJECT REPORT ON SUMMER VOCATIONAL TRAINING AT MBB AIRPORT (13/05/2024 – 12/06/2024) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AGARTALA, TRIPURA SUBMITTED BY:- TUSHAR DEB ENROLLMENT NUMBER:- 21UME003 BRANCH:- MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
  • 2. AIRPORT AUTHORITY OF INDIA (A Govt. of India Enterprises) CERTIFICATE This is to certify that TUSHAR DEB, B.Tech (7th semester), reg. no: 2113461 of the department of mechanical engineering of National Institute of Technology, Agartala, Tripura has successfully completed this industrial training from 13/05/2024 to 12/06/2024 under my close supervision. During the training period he has successfully submitted report on “Industrial training at AIRPORT AUTHORITY OF INDIA” related to various subjects at Maharaja Bir Bikram Airport, Agartala. While during the training period in AIRPORT AUTHORITY OF INDIA, trainee TUSHAR DEB was seen to be punctual, sincere and hardworking and his behavior is very good. We wish him all success in life. Mentor Training Co-ordinator
  • 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude and appreciation to all those who have contributed to the successful completion of my training at MBB Airport. This training would not have been possible without the support, guidance, and assistance of numerous individuals and organizations. First and foremost, I extend my sincere thanks to the authorities at MBB Airport, Agartala, Tripura for granting me permission to conduct this training and providing me with access to the necessary resources. I also take this opportunity to express my deep appreciation to our guide and mentor Mr. Amit Kumar Layek (AGM, ENGG-E, MBB Airport) for his exemplary guidance, monitoring and constant encouragement throughout the training period. I am also grateful to all the staff member of MBB airport for providing academic inputs, and valuable information in respective fields throughout the training period. Sincerely TUSHAR DEB 4th Year, 7th semester B.Tech. Mechanical Engineering National Institute of Technology Agartala, Tripura
  • 4.  Table of Contents Sl. No Description Page No. 1. Introduction 1-2 2. MT Pool 3-8 3. Fire Station & Fire Station Vehicles 9-14 4. Fire Fighting System 15-18 5. HVAC Plant 19-24 6. Operational Area Overview 25-38 7. Air Conditioning in Terminal Building 39-43 8. BHS System 44-47 9. ATC Services 48-53 11. Conclusion 54 12. References 55
  • 5. 1 | P a g e 1. INTRODUCTION :- Airport Authority of India is a schedule -A ‘MINI RATNA'. Category-1 Central public sector Enterprise owned by the Government of India under the Ministry of Civil Aviation, founded on 1st April 1995. Airports Authority of India (AAI) is responsible for creating, upgrading, maintaining, and managing civil aviation infrastructure in India. It provides Communication Navigation Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) services over the Indian airspace and adjoining oceanic areas. AAI currently manages a total of 137 airports, including 34 international airports, 10 Customs Airports, 81 domestic airports, and 23 Civil enclaves at Defence airfields. AAI also has ground installations at all airports and 25 other locations to ensure the safety of aircraft operations. AAI covers all major air routes over the Indian landmass via 29 Radar installations at 11 locations along with 700 VOR/DVOR installations co-located with Distance Measuring Equipment (DME). 52 runways are provided with Instrument landing system (ILS) installations with Night Landing Facilities at most of these airports and an Automatic Message Switching System at 15 Airports.  Major Ongoing Projects AAI's implementation of the Automatic Dependence Surveillance System (ADSS) at Kolkata and Chennai Air Traffic Control Centers, made India the first country to use this technology in the Southeast Asian region thus enabling Air Traffic Control over oceanic areas using satellite mode of communication. Performance Based Navigation (PBN) procedures have already been implemented at Mumbai, Delhi and Ahmedabad Airports. AAI is implementing the GAGAN project in technological collaboration with the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). The navigation signals thus received from the GPS will be augmented to achieve the navigational requirement of aircraft. The first phase of the technology demonstration system was completed in February 2008.
  • 6. 2 | P a g e  About Maharaja Bir Bikram Airport MBB Airport (IATA: IXA, ICAO: VEAT) is an international airport located in Agartala, the capital of the state of Tripura in India. It is administered by the Airports Authority of India (AAI). The main organization for air traffic controlling is International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). According to the norms of ICAO Airports are divided into three categories- International, Domestic and Custom airport. MBB Airport earlier known as Agartala Airport is situated 12 kilometres (7 miles) northwest of Agartala. It is the second busiest airport in North-East India after Lokpriya Gopinath Bordoloi Airport and 29th busiest airport in India. It is the third international airport in North-East India, after Lokpriya Gopinath Bordoloi Airport and Imphal Airport. The AAl has undertaken 438 crore (US$61 million) project to upgrade the airport to provide world-class facilities. The State Government has already provided 72 acres (29 ha) land to AAI to build a new terminal building, runway and other necessary infrastructure. The upgrade is expected to be completed by 2025, out of which the new terminal is completed, and it was inaugurated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 4 January 2022. The current integrated terminal of the airport has 20 check-in counters, six parking bays, four aerobridges, conveyor belts and passenger-friendly modern facilities and amenities like In- Line Baggage System (ILBS), Escalators, Lifts, etc. In addition to the new terminal building, a new parallel taxiway to the runway and two new hangars are being built.
  • 7. 3 | P a g e 2. MT Pool The MT (Motor Transport) pool at Airport, is a crucial facility responsible for the maintenance and management of various vehicles and equipment used for airport operations. This includes vehicles for transportation, runway maintenance, emergency response, and other support services. The MT pool ensures that all vehicles are in optimal condition, ready for use at any time, and comply with safety and regulatory standards. Here's a detailed description of the MT pool vehicles & Zon Gun device mentioned: MT Pool Vehicles:  Tata 207 Pick-up Truck: The Tata 207 is a versatile pick-up truck widely used in various commercial and industrial sectors, including airports. At Airport, the Tata 207 pick-up truck serves several crucial roles: i. Transportation of Goods and Personnel: The Tata 207 is used to transport cargo, spare parts, and other essential items across the airport premises. Its robust design and significant payload capacity make it ideal for carrying heavy loads. Additionally, it can be used to transport airport personnel to different locations within the airport. ii. Maintenance and Utility: This vehicle aids in various maintenance tasks. Whether it’s carrying tools and equipment for runway maintenance or transporting materials for infrastructure repair, the Tata 207 is a reliable workhorse. iii. Emergency Response: In emergencies, the Tata 207 can be quickly mobilized to transport equipment and personnel to the required location, providing a rapid response capability for the airport's operational needs.
  • 8. 4 | P a g e The Tata 207’s durability, fuel efficiency, & low maintenance costs make it an indispensable part of the MT pool at Airport. Now, let's explore the functions of various components in a Tata 207 car, which is given below: a) Radiator: The radiator is a heat exchanger used to cool the engine. It dissipates heat from the coolant that has absorbed heat from the engine, thereby preventing the engine from overheating. The cooled coolant is then recirculated back into the engine. b) Air Filter: The air filter cleans the air entering the engine by removing dust, debris, and other contaminants. Clean air is essential for optimal combustion, improving engine performance, fuel efficiency, and reducing wear and tear on engine components. c) Carburetor: The carburetor mixes air with fuel in the correct ratio before it enters the engine's combustion chambers. This mixture is critical for efficient combustion. Carburetors are less common in modern vehicles, which typically use fuel injection systems. d) Piston: The piston is a cylindrical component that moves up and down within the engine's cylinders. Its movement is driven by the combustion of fuel and air, converting the chemical energy of the fuel into mechanical energy that powers the vehicle. e) Flywheel: The flywheel is a mechanical device attached to the end of the crankshaft. It helps maintain engine stability by storing rotational energy, smoothing out fluctuations in the engine's speed, and ensuring a consistent rotational momentum.
  • 9. 5| P a g e f) Turbocharger: A turbocharger increases engine power and efficiency by forcing extra compressed air into the combustion chamber. It utilizes exhaust gases to spin a turbine connected to a compressor, which compresses the intake air. g) Solenoid: A solenoid in a car acts as an electromechanical switch. It is often used in the starter motor to engage the engine’s flywheel. When the ignition switch is activated, the solenoid moves a plunger to connect the starter motor to the flywheel, initiating the engine start. h) Battery: The battery stores electrical energy and provides power to start the engine and operate electrical components like lights, wipers, and the infotainment system. It is recharged by the alternator when the engine is running. i) Self-Starter: The self-starter, or starter motor, is an electric motor that cranks the engine to start the combustion process. When the ignition key is turned, the starter motor engages the flywheel to turn the engine over. j) Rectifier (AC to DC): The rectifier converts the AC power gen generated by the alternator to DC power, which is used to charge the battery and power the car’s electrical systems. This ensures all electronic components and the battery receive the correct type of electrical power. These components collectively ensure the Tata 207 car operates efficiently, reliably, and safely, contributing to its overall performance and longevity.  WORKMASTER™ Tractor: Tractors, are renowned for their reliability and efficiency in various agricultural and industrial applications. At Airport, a tractor is likely utilized for: i. Airfield Maintenance: The tractor is used for performing tasks such as snow removal, grass cutting, and surface sweeping to maintain runway and taxiway conditions. Ensuring clear and safe airfield operations.
  • 10. 6 | P a g e ii. Snow and Debris Clearance: In case of debris or snow on the runway, the tractor can be equipped with appropriate attachments to clear the runway quickly, ensuring that flight operations are not disrupted. The versatility and robustness of tractors make them an essential component of the airport’s maintenance fleet.  Runway Sweeper Truck: Runway sweeper trucks are specialized vehicles designed to maintain runway cleanliness and safety. At Airport, the runway sweeper-based truck plays a crucial role in: i. Debris Removal: The primary function of the runway sweeper is to remove debris such as stones, metal fragments, and other foreign objects that can pose a risk to aircraft during takeoff and landing. ii. Surface Cleaning: These trucks are equipped with powerful brushes and suction systems to clean the runway surface thoroughly, ensuring that it remains free of dust and dirt. This helps maintain the friction levels of the runway, essential for aircraft safety. iii. Efficiency and Safety: Regular use of runway sweeper trucks enhances the safety and efficiency of airport operations by ensuring that the runway is always in optimal condition, reducing the risk of Foreign Object Damage (FOD) to aircraft. The use of a runway sweeper-based truck is critical for maintaining the high standards of safety &
  • 11. 7 | P a g e cleanliness required for airport runways.  Runway Rubber Removal Truck: A runway rubber removal machine-based truck is a specialized vehicle used to remove rubber deposits from aircraft tires that accumulate on the runway surface. At Airport, this truck is essential for: i. Rubber Deposit Removal: Over time, rubber from aircraft tires can build up on the runway, reducing its friction and effectiveness. This truck uses high- pressure water or chemical agents to remove these deposits, restoring the runway's friction levels and ensuring safe takeoff and landing conditions. ii. Maintenance of Runway Performance: Regular removal of rubber deposits is vital for maintaining the runway's performance characteristics. It ensures that the runway provides the necessary grip for aircraft, especially during wet conditions. iii. Extending Runway Life: By removing rubber deposits and maintaining the runway surface, this truck helps extend the life of the runway, delaying the need for expensive resurfacing projects. The runway rubber removal machine-based truck is a key component in the airport's maintenance strategy, ensuring the runway remains safe and effective for aircraft operations.
  • 12. 8 | P a g e Zon Gun Device: A Zon Gun, also known as a bird scaring device, is used at airports to deter birds from the runway and surrounding areas. At Airport, the Zon Gun serves the following purposes: i. Bird Control: Birds can pose a significant threat to aircraft, particularly during takeoff and landing. The Zon Gun produces loud noises that scare birds away from the runway, reducing the risk of bird strikes. ii. Enhancing Safety: By effectively controlling the bird population around the airport, the Zon Gun helps enhance the overall safety of flight operations. Bird strikes can cause significant damage to aircraft and endanger lives, making this device an essential tool in airport wildlife management. iii. Non-lethal Deterrent: The Zon Gun provides a humane way to manage bird populations without harming them. It is a preferred method of bird control at many airports due to its effectiveness and non-lethal approach. The Zon Gun is an integral part of the airport's wildlife hazard management program, ensuring that birds do not pose a risk to safe flight operations.
  • 13. 9 | P a g e 3. Fire Station & Fire Station Vehicles Fire station vehicles at airports are specialized units designed to respond to a variety of emergencies, with a primary focus on aircraft incidents and airport operations. These vehicles are equipped to handle unique challenges that can arise in an aviation environment. Here's an overview of Air Rescue and Fire Fighting (ARFF) vehicles which is commonly found at airports: Aircraft Rescue and Firefighting (ARFF) vehicles are specialized fire trucks designed specifically for use at airports. In Maharaja Bir Bikram Airport, two types of ARFF vehicles are used one is Rosenbauer Panther & another is NAFFCO both vehicles have same functions. These vehicles are crucial for ensuring rapid response to aircraft emergencies, such as crashes, fires, or other incidents requiring immediate intervention. Here is an overview and detailed specifications of ARFF vehicles typically found at airports:
  • 14. 10 | P a g e  Overview of ARFF Vehicles: i. Purpose: ARFF vehicles are designed to respond quickly to aviation emergencies, provide firefighting capabilities, and perform rescue operations. Their primary function is to mitigate the consequences of aircraft accidents and ensure passenger and crew safety. ii. Design: These vehicles are engineered for high-speed performance, off-road capability, and are equipped with advanced firefighting and rescue equipment. They have a low center of gravity for stability and are built to operate under extreme conditions. iii. Capabilities: ARFF vehicles can carry large amounts of water, foam, and dry chemical agents to combat various types of fires. They are also equipped with specialized tools for cutting through aircraft fuselages and extricating passengers.  Specifications of ARFF Vehicles: ARFF vehicles are an essential component of airport safety infrastructure, designed to respond to aviation emergencies with speed, efficiency, and effectiveness. Their advanced firefighting capabilities, coupled with specialized rescue equipment, ensure that they are well-prepared to handle the unique challenges posed by aircraft incidents. By meeting stringent specifications and incorporating the latest technology, ARFF vehicles play a critical role in protecting lives and property at airports worldwide. i) Type 1 (Rosenbauer Panther):
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  • 17. 13 | P a g e ii) Type 2 (NAFFCO Fire Truck):
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  • 19. 15 | P a g e 4. Fire Fighting System A firefighting system is an activity of prevention during a fire spread in building, home or warehouse with the use of proper fire safety equipment like extinguisher, hose reels, fire monitors, nozzles and hose pipes. In Agartala Airport, there are 2 tanks (185KL, capacity each) which store water for firefighting purpose. From there it goes to the basement. There is agate bulb which stops the water flow if it flows rapidly. The water goes to every pipeline but the knob of the pipeline opens only when it is required. There is a hydrant pump which is used as a main pump to supply water at the time of emergency. If the pressure of water goes below a certain level i.e., 7.5 kg, then the jockey pump starts working. The jockey pump is mainly used to cover up the leakage and acts as an auxiliary pump. For sprinkler, there are also 2 pumps-one is main pump and another one is jockey pump. ⮚ JOCKEY PUMP: A jockey pump is a small pump connected to a fire sprinkler system to maintain pressure in the sprinkler pipes. This is to ensure that if a fire-sprinkler is activated, there will be a pressure drop, which will be sensed by the fire pumps automatic controller, which will cause the fire pump to start jockey pump works within a fire protection system like-  Pressure Maintenance: The jockey pump operates continuously to maintain a steady pressure in the fire sprinkler system. It keeps the system pressurized within a specific range, typically between 100 and 140 pounds per square inch (psi).  System Monitoring: The jockey pump is equipped with pressure sensors and monitoring devices that continuously monitor the pressure in the sprinkler system. If the pressure drops below the set threshold, indicating a
  • 20. 16 | P a g e leak or pressure loss, the jockey pump will activate to restore the pressure to the required level.  HYDRANT PUMP: A hydrant pump, also known as a fire hydrant pump or fire booster pump, is an essential component of a fire protection system that provides a reliable water supply for firefighting operations. It is specifically designed to enhance the water pressure and flow rate in the fire hydrant system, enabling firefighters to access an adequate water source to extinguish fires. connection point by which firefighters can tap into a water supply. It is a component of active fire protection.  BUTTERFLY VALVES: Butterfly valves for fire protection serve as control valves that turn on or shut off the flow of water to the pipes serving fire sprinkler or standpipe systems. There is a DG (Diesel Generator) which is used as backup. Butterfly valves are often used to control the water supply in fire protection systems. They can be installed at the main water supply connection point to regulate the flow of water into the system. By opening or closing the valve, firefighters or system operators can control the water supply to various sections
  • 21. 17 | P a g e or zones of the fire protection network. Fire-fighting applications demand reliable & durable components. Butterfly valves are known for their robust construction and resistance to corrosion and wear. They are often made from materials such as ductile iron, stainless steel, or high-performance polymers, ensuring their longevity and ability to withstand harsh conditions over an extended period.  FIRE ALARM: Inside the new terminal building of the airport, there are 2 systems present:  Conventional System (For comparatively small areas)  Addressable System (For large areas) There are 850 detectors, Detection of smoke detectors and heat detectors is also possible here. If any accident happens, then firstly the ACs turn off, then the exhaust fans and after that the lifts go off. Heat detectors are fire detection devices that are designed to sense the presence of heat or a rapid rise in temperature, indicating the potential outbreak of a fire. Unlike smoke detectors, which detect the presence of smoke particles, heat detectors primarily respond to changes in temperature.
  • 22. 18 | P a g e i. FIM (Fault Isolator Module): It is used for isolation. ii. CRM (Control Relay Module): It is used to give command to other systems like AC, lift etc. In case of emergency. iii. MCP (Manual Call Point): It is done manually in case of fire emergency. In fire protection systems, both heat detectors and smoke detectors are often used together for comprehensive fire detection. The selection of the appropriate type of detector depends on the specific application, environment, and fire detection requirements. Fire alarm control panels are used to integrate and monitor the signals from these detectors, triggering alarms and initiating appropriate emergency response actions.
  • 23. 19 | P a g e 5. HVAC Plant HVAC stands for heating, ventilation and air conditioning. HVAC system is not only heating and cooling of air but also concerned with maintaining the indoor air quality (IAQ), Heating of air is done usually in winter and similarly cooling of air is done in summer season. HVAC system works on the principles of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and heat transfer. All these fields come into play in various components of HVAC. IACQ (Indoor air quality) is the quality of air inside the terminal building as mostly related to health and safe keeping of its occupants or items/goods placed. IAQ is changed with inclusion or contamination with gases and uncontrolled mass & energy transfer. WORKING PRINCIPLE OF HVAC: In the background of HVAC system, an HVAC water chiller produces chilled water which is then circulated throughout the building or space upto cooling coils in air handling units. Blowers move air on cooling coils which is then distributed into various portions of space. In the background of HVAC system, an HVAC water chiller produces chilled water or building for providing comfort or preserving goods/items as per HVAC design. Air is distributed through supply ducts and return air is collected in air handling units with the help of return ducts. Chilled water and cooling water pumps provide energy to keep the chilled and cooling water moving.
  • 24. 20 | P a g e An HVAC System may include the following basic components or units:  HVAC water chillers  Chilled water pumps  Cooling water pumps  Cooling towers  Piping for chilled water and cooling water or condenser side water  Valves for chilled water and cooling water sides  Air Handling Units (AHUs), heating coils and cooling coils  Ducts in ventilation system (supply ducts and return ducts)  Fan Coil Units (FCUs) and thermostats  HVAC diffusers and grills  HVAC controls (instrumentation & control components) installed at various locations  HVAC software for building HVAC control or building management system (BMS)  An assembly of all above components forms an HVAC system.  CHILLER: A chiller is a type of refrigeration system commonly used in large buildings, including airports, to provide cooling for air conditioning, process cooling, and other cooling applications. It works by removing heat from a space or process and transferring it to a separate medium, such as water or air, which is then circulated to the desired location. In Agartala airport Water Cooled chillers are used. Water cooled chillers are typically located in the basement or the lowest floor of the building.
  • 25. 21 | P a g e  AIR HANDLING UNIT: AHU stands for Air Handling Unit. It is a central component of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system in a building, including airports. The AHU is responsible for circulating and conditioning the air within the building, ensuring a comfortable and healthy indoor environment. The working principle of an Air Handling Unit: i. Air Intake:  The AHU draws in outside air or recirculates indoor air through intake dampers or vents.  In the case of outside air intake, the air may pass through filters to remove dust, particles, and pollutants before entering the AHU. ii. Conditioning:  The incoming air passes through various conditioning components within the AHU to modify its temperature, humidity, and cleanliness.  Heating: If heating is required, the air may pass over a heating coil, where it is warmed by hot water, steam, or electric resistance.  Cooling: If cooling is needed, the air flows over a cooling coil, which removes heat and lowers the air temperature. The cooling coil is typically connected to a chiller or cooling system.  Humidification/Dehumidification: In some cases, the air may pass through a humidifier or dehumidifier to adjust the humidity levels.  Air Mixing: The AHU may include dampers or mixing sections to blend outside air with recirculated indoor air to achieve the desired air quality and temperature.
  • 26. 22 | P a g e iii. Filtration:  Air filters within the AHU help remove dust, pollen, allergens, and other particles from the air.  Different types of filters, such as pre-filters and high-efficiency filters, may be used to achieve the desired level of air cleanliness. iv. Fan Operation:  The AHU contains a fan or fans that help circulate the conditioned air.  The fan draws the air through the conditioning components and pushes it through the supply ductwork to distribute it to various zones or spaces within the building.  The speed of the fan can be controlled to adjust the airflow rate based on the cooling or heating requirements. v. Air Distribution:  The conditioned air is distributed through a network of supply ducts to different areas of the building, including terminal areas, concourses, offices, and other occupied spaces.  Air diffusers or grilles located in each zone release the conditioned air into the space, ensuring proper air distribution and comfort. vi. Exhaust:  The AHU may also have provisions for extracting stale or contaminated air from certain areas, such as restrooms or specific zones, to maintain indoor air quality.  Exhaust fans or ducts remove the air, which is then expelled to the outside environment. The AHU's operation is typically controlled by a Building Management System (BMS) or HVAC control system. These systems monitor temperature, humidity, air quality, and other parameters to maintain the desired conditions within the building.
  • 27. 23 | P a g e  VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVE (VFD): A variable frequency drive (VFD) is a type of motor controller that drives an electric motor by varying the frequency and voltage of its power supply. The VFD also has the capacity to control ramp-up and ramp-down of the motor during start or stop, respectively. Variable frequency drives (VFD) enable control of the speed of three phase motors which allows the motor to be operated with variable current inputs. This technology can be used in Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems to lower fan operating speeds, reducing energy consumption. The client has expressed a need for a more effective means of control for the operation of their two air handling units which regulate airflow throughout their office building located on a brewing facility campus. Currently, the supply fans for both air handlers (AHUs) operate at full capacity, regardless of occupancy of the building. The implementation of Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) on these supply fans was explored due to the client's need for lower operating cost for the HVAC system serving the building studied by automating the Air Handler control. Using industry simulation and estimating software, a VFD schedule was developed to determine the capacity for operational cost savings for these two rooftop units, based on occupancy of the building. During weekends and non-business hours during the week, the power to the supply fans was modelled at lower percentages of the full operational capacity. The results of this analysis show that the implementation of VFDs on these two air handling units can reduce operational HVAC costs by 18%.
  • 28. 24 | P a g e  COOLING TOWER: A cooling tower is a heat removal device that uses water to transfer process, waste heat into the atmosphere. A water-cooling tower is used to cool water and is a huge heat exchanger, expelling building heat into the atmosphere and returning colder water to the chiller. A water- cooling tower receives warm water from a chiller. This warm water is known as condenser water because it gets heat in the condenser of the chiller. The chiller is typically at a lower level (in the basement). The cooling tower's role is to cool down the water, so it can return to the chiller to pick up more heat. Air conditioning equipment and industrial processes can generate heat in the form of tons of hot water that needs to be cooled down. That's where an industrial cooling tower comes in. Overheated water flows through the cooling tower where it's recirculated and exposed to cool, dry air. Heat leaves the recirculating cooling tower water through evaporation. The colder water then re-enters the air conditioning equipment or process to cool that equipment down, and the cooling cycle repeats over and over again. When the warm condenser goes into the cooling tower, the water is passed through some nozzles which spray the water into small droplets across the fill, which increases the surface area of water and allows for better heat loss thru greater evaporation. The purpose of the fan on top of the water- cooling tower is to bring in air from the bottom of the tower and move it up and out in the opposite direction of the warm condenser water at the top of the unit. The air will carry the heat through evaporating water from the cooling tower into the atmosphere.
  • 29. 25 | P a g e 6. Operational Area Overview A) HT PANEL: 11 KV line is coming from the new power house and is connected to one of the incomer terminals (incomer-1 and incomer-2) of the HT panel. Incomers are then connected to the 12 KV, 630 A, OCB (Oil Circuit Breaker) and then connected to the busbar. This busbar is farther connected to the OCB (12 KV and 630 A) and then connected to the step-down transformer. After that the transformer is connected to the non-essential panel through busbar. Fig: Single line diagram B)Transformer: In old power house, two step-down transformers of 1.6 MVA rating is there (one is working and another is standby). This transformer is shell type transformer and type of the cooling is ONAN (Oil Natural Air Natural). One 11 KV incomer is
  • 30. 26 | P a g e coming from the new power house and connected to the primary side of the transformer. As the transformer is step-down, it will reduce the voltage to 440 Volt. The secondary side of the transformer is connected to the non- essential panel through busbar. Primary current of the transformer is 84 A and secondary current is 2133.4 A. This transformer having explosion vent to remove the gases from the tank. C)Panels in Old Power House: In old power house, mainly 2 types of panels are there: i) Essential Panel and ii) Non- Essential Panel. i) Non-Essential LT Panel: Non-essential panel is connected with the secondary sides of the transformers through a bus duct and after that it is connected to the busbar. Here 2500 A ACB (Air circuit Breaker) is used. It has two busbars. Busbar 1 is connected with transformer 1 and Busbar 2 is connected with transformer 2. Both the busbars are connected with bus coupler. This panel is connected with AMF-1, spare, old Hanger, switch room, old power house, new Tech Block Ac to supply the power. From that busbar different load is connected. On-essential panel is connected with new essential panel through ug cable.
  • 31. 27 | P a g e Single line diagram of non-essential panel: ii) Essential Panel: there are 2 essential panels: a) new essential panel and b) old essential panel. a) New Essential LT Panel: This panel is essential because it is connected with the DG set. It also has 2busbar part. In one busbar it is connected with non- essential panel and 750 KVA DG set and another busbar is connected with non- essential panel and 380 KVA DG set and both the busbar is connected with bus coupler. There 1250 A ACB (Air Circuit Breaker) is used. This new essential panel is connected with UPS, High Mast, AHU, Spare, old essential panel, switch room, new DOG kennel, CCR room. Single line diagram of New essential LT panel:
  • 32. 28 | P a g e b) Old Essential LT Panel: Feeders from AMF-3 and new essential panel are connected with the 2 busbars of the Old essential LT panel through 800 A ACB (Air Circuit Breaker). These busbars are interconnected with a bus coupler of 800A ACB. From this panel power is supplied to the perimeter, spare, DVOR glide path, CCR, Apron Light, switch room, pump house, NPH lighting etc. Single line diagram of Old essential LT Panel: D)DIESEL GENERATOR: Diesel generators are very useful machines that produce electricity by burning diesel fuel. These machines use a combination of an electric generator and a diesel engine to generate electricity. Diesel generators convert some of the chemical energy, contained by the diesel fuel, to mechanical energy through combustion.  NECESSITY: As the essential panel needs continuous supply a power cut, low load or grid failure may cause interruption. To avoid these type of interruptions DG sets are installed. There are one 750KVA and two 380KVA DG installed in Old power house. Whenever power supply to Essential panel is required DG automatically/manually starts to operate. The initial power required for DG to start generation is distributed by DC batteries and needs 8 seconds to start its generation.
  • 33. 29 | P a g e  UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY: Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is a device that allows other devices to keep running for at least a short time when incoming power is interrupted. As long as utility power is flowing, it also replenishes and maintains the energy storage. It is a device used to back-up a power supply to prevent devices and systems from power supply problems, such as a power failure or lightning strikes. A UPS converts input AC power to DC in order to charge the backup battery and feed the Inverter. The inverter then converts this power back to AC and supplies the load. Whenever there is a power supply interruption DG starts its operation. It needs 8 seconds to start its generation. So, for that period of time UPS system supply necessary power to CCR room.
  • 34. 30 | P a g e  TYPES OF UPS: There are three types of uninterruptible power supplies: static, dynamic (rotary), and hybrid. Static uses power electronic converters, dynamic uses electromagnetic engines (generators and motor), and hybrid uses a combination of both static and dynamic. Based on configuration there are three major types of UPS system. They are online double conversion, line-interactive and offline (also called standby and battery backup). These UPS systems are defined by how power moves through the unit.  Electric Room & Panel: The electrical systems for airports require proper quality installations and consideration for features usually not involved in other electrical installations. Each airport is unique, and its electrical installation should be designed to provide economic power and control, which is safe, reliable, and easily maintained. Electrification inside an airport is strictly defined by ICAO standards, along with generally applicable IEC and NFPA standards. In Agartala MBB airport power house is equipped with 2 incomer line of 33kv one from 79 Tilla and another from Durjoynagar, then tit stepped down to 11kv line by 4MVA transformer and via LT panel again it gets stepped down to 440V by 1.6 MVA transformers then by two feeders of each 9-run cable power goes through Main Distribution Board to supply the power to all equipments and loads. i) MDB (MAIN DISTRIBUTION BOARD): Main distribution boards are used to distribute and control the power supply in large buildings such as airport terminal building. The main distribution boards are generally installed after the main power source like transformers and used to divide the power feed into subsidiary outgoing feeders. Electric room is installed with 2 MDBs operating on 272V and they are interconnected via Tie Feeder. Each MDB is connected with 5 SDB (Sub Distribution Board).
  • 35. 31 | P a g e ii) TIE FEEDER: Tie feeder may connect two MDBs in parallel to provide stiffness or service continuity for the load supplied from each distribution board. If only one MDB is in working condition, then the tie feeder maintains the two parts of the system in synchronism. iii) CAPACITOR PANEL: Capacitor Panels are special devices made to this end itself, as it verily increases the power factor correction by a large magnitude. Normally the electric load running all around a facility or residence is reactive in nature and can prevent in great losses. iv) SDB (SUB DISTRIBUTION BOARD): Each MDB is connected to one SDB section (one for ground floor and one for basement) containing 5 SDBs operating on 236V. From SDBs power is supplied to various sections like Lift and Escalator panel (contains 4 lifts and 4 escalators) through dedicated panel, ELDB (Emergency Light Distribution Board) panel (connected with UPS also for backup) etc.
  • 36. 32 | P a g e iv) LIFT & ESCALATOR PANEL: It operates and supplies power to all 4 lifts and 4 escalators operating on 412V.ATS panel is there that works as a coupler through which CT and MCCB is connected. v) ELDB (EMERGENCY LIGHT DISTRIBUTION BOARD) PANEL: This panel is responsible for supplying power from SDB to all lighting systems in terminal building, conveyor belts, security checking area, international arrival gate false ceiling light, private lounge and speakers etc. UPS panel is also connected to supply power in case of power failure.
  • 37. 33 | P a g e Other panels such as Aerobridge Panel supplies power to 4 aero bridges, arrival and departure section etc. and Retail Panel holds the control for retail shop and internal fountains etc.  RUNWAY: The Maharaja Bir Bikram Airport of Agartala has a runway strip of about 2286 m long and 60 m wide in 18-36 directions. It has 7 taxiways (A, B, C, D, E, F, G), 4 dumbles, 1 Isolation Bay and the Apron Area. The Runway is equipped with different types of lights and sensors in order to help the airplane land and take off with ease. The different types of lights that the runway has been working with are as follows:
  • 38. 34 | P a g e A. Apron Lights. B. Taxi Lights. C. Runway Edge Lights. D. Approach Lights. E. Runway Threshold Lights. F. Touch Down Lights.  CONSTANT CURRENT REGULATION PANEL: Constant current regulation panel is the main backbone for supplying power to the Ground Lightning facilities which is mainly installed on the runway of the airport. Constant Current Regulators (CCRs) are designed to supply precision output current levels for series lighting circuits on airport runways and taxiways. In CCR hall there is an incomer panel connected with the essential supply panel (LV panel) from power house. From the incomer panel Constant Current Regulator panels are getting 415 volts power supply. CCR panels for runway uses 2 phases power supply and other CCR’s uses 1 phase. In CCR hall there are 2 CCR panels for two circuits of lights installed in the runway, CCR 1-RWY-1 & CCR-2 RWY-2
  • 39. 35 | P a g e There are separate CCR panels installed for PAPI, APRON, APPROACH lights of runway. Another CCR is kept on standby. The load in the CCR is controlled from the ATC tower according to the intensity of light required for landing of the flight. In CCR we can monitor the output current corresponding to Selected Intensity. i) HIGH MAST LIGHTING: To illuminate a large area or site, normal lighting poles are not practical so high mast lighting is used. It is the type of site lighting fixture mounted over at height. Normally it contains a pole that ranges from 40 to 150 feet pole.
  • 40. 36 | P a g e ii) PERIMETER LIGHT: Light that are installed near the boundary side are called perimeter light. These lights are fed from old essential panel. During night they glow and associate pilots so that they can easily distinguish between air side and the city side from during landing. For these lights 6 panels are working which are fed from the old essential panel. In every panel, all the perimeter light are connected in parallel. A) APRON LIGHT: The Area Where the airplane is being parked for the boarding and deboarding of the passengers is known as the Apron Area. In order to illuminate the Apron area Apron Lights are used which have very high intensity and they are placed on top of the high mast which is around 50 to 60m high. This height depends on the position of the light and how much area it needs to cover. These lights are also equipped with a plate earthing system to protect them from any kind of high-power surge or lightning.
  • 41. 37 | P a g e B) TAXI LIGHT: The Taxi Lights are the high-intensity blue lights that are used in the Taxi Area. The taxi Area is the path that joins the main runway strip with the Apron area. All the Lights in the runway works on constant current which are regulated by CCR (Constant Current Regulator). C) RUNWAY EDGE LIGHT: In the Runway strip, Runway Edge Lights are used in order to indicate the edges of the runway strip to help the pilot to locate the runway strip edge easily. These are high- intensity lights each of which is connected with the secondary winding of a transformer and this way 2 circuits are connected. The distance between each light is about 30m and between 2 circuit lights is about 60m. D) APPROACH LIGHTS: Approach Lights are those lights that help the pilot in visual landing, by looking at the colour of these lights the pilot can understand his position, angle, and other details thus helping the pilot during visual landing. The Approach Light includes a special system of 4 lights which is known as PAPI (Precision Approach Path Indicator), it helps the pilot to know about his landing angle, When the airplane has a landing angle of fewer than 3 degrees then the pilot will see all the 4 lights in white colour but if the landing angle is more than 3 degrees then the pilot will see all the 4 lights in red colour and if the pilot has an angle of 3 degrees then the pilot will see 2 lights in
  • 42. 38 | P a g e white colour and 2 lights in red colour thus helping the pilot to know his position during landing. E) RUNWAY THRESHOLD AND END LIGHTS: Threshold lights are green colour airfield lights, unidirectional type, installed at the beginning of the part of a runway where aircraft can do touchdown. The threshold is not a touchdown point yet. But this is the beginning of the 'safe-to-land' part of a runway. The Runway End Lights are used to identify the end point of the runway strip and it should be visible to the pilot, these lights are visible to the pilot as red lights which means the end of the runway strip. F) TOUCH-DOWN LIGHTS: Touchdown zone lights are installed on some precision approach runways to indicate the touchdown zone when landing under adverse visibility conditions. They consist of two rows of transverse light bars disposed symmetrically about the runway centerline.
  • 43. 39 | P a g e 7. Air Conditioning in Terminal Building The Air-Conditioning part of the Terminal Building is controlled by BMS System. The CP and IPC codes in the BMS Panel controls the ON/OFF command. In the Airport 2 and 4 number CP codes are in Water Flowing condition.  BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: All Buildings have some form of mechanical and electrical services in order to provide the facilities necessary for maintaining a comfortable working environment. BMS is a comprehensive system that controls and monitors various building systems within the airport infrastructure. It is designed to ensure efficient operations, safety, and comfort for passengers, staff, and other stakeholders. These services have to be controlled by some means to ensure comfort conditions. Basic controls take the form of manual switching, time clocks or temperature switches. Here if Building Management System (BMS), is introduced, we are able to get a comfortable working environment in an efficient way.
  • 44. 40 | P a g e A) ADVANTAGES OF USING BMS:  Central controlling facility.  Automate and take control of various operations manage all the systems.  Coordinate the various systems.  Provide a comfortable working environment in an efficient way.  Its purpose is to control, monitor and optimize building services e.g., lighting, heating & cooling, security, audio-visual and entertainment systems; ventilation and climate control; time & attendance control and reporting  With the usage of various building automation techniques, the energy efficiency is possible.  With the help of occupancy sensors provided in various areas of the building, the service plants can be brought into operation only when needed and also to the optimum, thereby leading to huge energy savings  BMS improves quality of built environment, efficiency of workstation, while allowing great saving in energy  Security and life safety systems.  With the introduction of various security and various life safety systems like smart access control, smoke detector, fire alarm and fire sprinkler, the environment can be made much easy and fear free to work with.  It is difficult to get an optimum working environment only through design for the whole year. Mechanical fans, desert coolers, air-conditioners etc. supplement the indoor comfort to a great extent. But all these are operated and controlled manually in general. At the same time some artificial intelligent systems like Occupancy Sensors, Temperature Sensors etc. can be used to sense the temperature increase and the presence of occupants to decide comfort level required to achieve the optimum conditions. B) BMS & ILLUMINATION SYSTEM: Lighting up the building is an art. Without proper illumination the entire space will look dull, creating an uncomfortable working space, Any how we cannot depend on artificial lights alone. It will add up the running costs. Hence some methods to bring natural light inside the habitable space shall be sort out.
  • 45. 41 | P a g e C) HVAC CONTROL: The BMS monitors and controls the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems in the airport. It regulates temperature, humidity, and air quality in different areas, including terminals, lounges, offices, and other spaces. It optimizes energy consumption while maintaining comfortable conditions. D) LIGHTING CONTROL: With the help of a light dimming device, it's possible to control the intensity of lights especially when its requirement becomes less. This can be made possible by suitably integrating the lighting systems with the BMS through sensors by which it is also possible to turn off the lights automatically when it's not needed. Hence there is the economy in using the building. Different control systems exist, again time- based control and optimizer parameter-based where a level of illuminance or particular use of lighting is required. E) ZONES: Lights are switched on corresponding to the use and layout of the lit areas, in order to avoid lighting a large area if only a small part of it needs light. F) SECURITY & ACCESS CONTROL: The BMS integrates with the airport's security systems, such as CCTV cameras, access control systems, and intrusion detection systems. It allows centralized monitoring and control of security measures, including video surveillance, access permissions, and alarm management. G) FIRE DETECTION AND SUPPRESSION: ‘ The BMS includes fire detection sensors and alarm systems that provide early warning in case of a fire emergency. It also integrates with fire suppression systems like sprinklers or gas-based suppression systems to initiate appropriate actions when necessary. H) TIME CONTROL: To switch on and off automatically in each zone to a preset schedule for light use.
  • 46. 42 | P a g e I) PASSIVE INFRA-RED (PIR) OCCUPANCY SENSING: In areas which are occupied intermittently, occupancy sensors can be used to indicate whether anybody is present or not, and switch the light on or off accordingly. J) LIGHT LEVEL MONITORING: This consists of switching or dimming artificial lighting to maintain task- specific light level measured by a 'photocell". K) INTEGRATION WITH OTHER AIRPORT SYSTEMS: The BMS can integrate with other airport management systems, such as flight scheduling, baggage handling, and passenger flow management systems. This integration allows for better coordination and optimization of overall airport operations.  OPEN AND CLOSED CONDITION OF PIPES AND FANs:  Primary Pipes which are in Open Condition: 1 and 4  Secondary Pipes which are in Open Condition: 1,2 and 3  Condenser Pipes which are in Open Condition: 1 and 3  CT (Current Transformers) Fans which are in working state: 3 and 4  FUNCTIONS AND ACTIVITIES OF AHU (Air Handling Unit) COMMAND:  It gives the Auto-command.  It shows the Run Status.  It also shows the Filter Status.  It operates the working of Fire Damper.  It allots the Set Point.  It also controls the Carbon Dioxide Sensor. There are 18 AHUs in the basement (Numbering 1 to 18) and 8 AHUs in the Mazzini (at the Top) which are Numbered from 19 to 26. AHU has a blower fit into it which is Motor Operated.
  • 47. 43 | P a g e  FUNCTION OF BLOWER IN AHU (Air Handling Unit): The Blower allows air from one end to a duct which is connected in arrival through tin paths. It helps to avoid suffocation. It also contains 10% fresh air. The temperature of the AHU is in between 34° to 35°.  TYPES OF SENSORS PRESENT IN AHU IN AHU (Air Handling Unit): i) Filter Sensor: It signifies the amount of Oxygen and impurities present in the filter. ii) Filter Temperature Sensor: It returns and controls the temperature of the AHU and maintains the temperature in between 23° to 24°. iii) Fire Sensor: It is a sensor used to detect fire or any other related hazards. It is present above the duct of the AHU. During fire valves will get closed to stop supply of Oxygen. The Water Pressure in AHU is maintained at 6kg per square cm. The valve present in the AHU is about 15% to 20% open.  SPECIFICATION OF THE CONTROL SYSTEM OF AHU (Air Handling Unit): DDC 80 (AHU-1/AHU-5)  FUNCTION OF EXHAUST PUMP: i) It is used for the safety purpose during fire or related hazards. ii) It also contains fan used for ventilation purpose.
  • 48. 44 | P a g e 8. BAGGAGE HANDLING SYSTEM (BHS) Luggage on a baggage handling system conveyor belt Baggage handling is the process of transporting passenger luggage from a check-in counter at a departure airport, onto a plane cargo hold and then to a collection point at an arrival airport. A baggage handling system is made up of a number of different processes and checks. BHS is designed to count bags, check weights of bags, balance loads, screen suitcases for security reasons, transport bags through an airport conveyor belt system and read bag information automatically. A baggage handling system is a type of conveyor system installed in airports that transports checked luggage from ticket counters to areas where the bags can be loaded onto airplanes.  FUNCTIONS OF BHS: i) Detection of bag jams. ii) Volume regulation (to ensure that input points are controlled to avoid overloading system). iii) Load balancing (to evenly distribute bag volume between conveyor sub- systems). iv) Bag counting. v) Bag tracking. vi) Redirection of bags via pusher or diverter.
  • 49. 45 | P a g e  FORMS: i) Destination-coded vehicles (DCVs), unmanned carts propelled by linear induction motors mounted to the tracks, can load and unload bags without stopping. ii) Automatic scanners scan the labels on the luggage. iii) Conveyors equipped with junctions and sorting machines automatically route the bags to the gate. iv) A reliable, trouble-free way to realize a reduction of up to 30% in labour costs.
  • 50. 46 | P a g e  MAIN JOBS: A BHS has Three Main Jobs: i) Move bags from the check-in area to the departure gate. ii) Move bags from one gate to another during transfers. iii) Move bags from the arrival gate to the baggage-claim area.  HOW THE BAGGAGE HANDLING SYSTEM WORKS: i) Arrange trolleys according to the flight's load. ii) Check the security sticker of the baggage and segregate as per the destination. iii) The bag is sent through an X-Ray to check the types of baggage (i.e., hard case, soft baggage, fragile baggage etc.) and then align. iv) Reconcile baggage and load in trolleys. v) Dispatch baggage to aircraft for loading.
  • 51. 47 | P a g e  CATEGORIES OF MISHANDLED BAGGAGE: i) Delayed (put on a later flight). ii) Damaged. iii) Items missing from the baggage. iv) Lost or missing in its entirety.  WHY BAGS GET LOST: There are a number of reasons a bag could get lost or delayed. Some common ones are: i) MISTAKEN IDENTITY: Someone could nab your bag thinking that it's their own. ii) CONNECTING FLIGHT: Your bag doesn't make it on the plane because there isn't enough time between flights. iii) LATE CHECK-IN: If you have to run to the terminal, your bag might not have time to get on the plane. iv) BAG TAG MIX-UPS: The bag tag can get tom off, or misread... and your bag can get sent to the wrong place.
  • 52. 48 | P a g e 9. ATC Services Air traffic control (ATC) is a service provided by ground-based air traffic controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and through a given section of controlled airspace, and can provide advisory services to aircraft in non- controlled airspace. The primary purpose of ATC worldwide is to prevent collisions, organize and expedite the flow of air traffic, and provide information and other support for pilots. In some countries, [examples needed] ATC plays a security or defensive role, or is operated by the military. Air traffic controllers monitor the location of aircraft in their assigned airspace by radar and communicate with the pilots by radio. To prevent collisions, ATC enforces traffic separation rules, which ensure each aircraft maintains a minimum amount of empty space around it at all times. In many countries, ATC provides services to all private, military, and commercial aircraft operating within its airspace. Depending on the type of flight and the class of airspace, ATC may issue instructions that pilots are required to obey, or advisories (known as flight information in some countries) that pilots may, at their discretion, disregard. The pilot in command is the final authority for the safe operation of the aircraft and may, in an emergency, deviate from ATC instructions to the extent required to maintain safe operation of their aircraft. A VHF broadcasting system is being established at Agartala Airport for the continuous distribution of vital information such as updated airside, meteorological and navigational servicivility information etc. to pilot. In case of bad weather or any other obstacles if the aircraft is unable to land to the defined destination, ATC makes sure to inform and guide to the pilot the safest destination for landing in accordance with the amount of fuel present in the aircraft. In addition to the above procedures to ensure safe air traffic separation call signs are used by ATC which are permanently allocated by ICAO on request usually to scheduled flights. In general, the minimum visibility of MBB Airport is 800m and the area control is beyond 20k ft.
  • 53. 49 | P a g e  METEOROLOGICAL DEPARTMENT: Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) is the national agency in India, which is responsible in all matters related to aviation meteorological services. Aviation meteorological services are provided for national and international flights for the safe and efficient operations in terms to take off landing and enroute forecasts. Meteorological Department of MBB Airport reports about the weather conditions such as heavy rain, low visibility, thunderstorm, turbulence, crosswind at airport. Following are the information displayed on the MET equipment setup.  UTC  WIND-DDDSS KNOT  VISIBILITY-4500M  CB CLOUD  VECC-KOLKATA  Read back instruction  ETA  ADP  ARP  TYPES OF AIRCRAFT:  Light  Medium  Heavy  Super Heavy 𝖾 Airbus 380 (which can lift a total weight of 136,000 Kg along with Fuel Mass).  MAXIMUM TAKE-OFF WEIGHT: The maximum take-off mass (MTOM), often referred to as maximum take-off weight (MTOW), of an aircraft is a value defined by the aircraft manufacturer. It is the maximum mass at which the aircraft is certified for take-off due to structural or other limits.
  • 54. 50 | P a g e  Precision Approach Path Indicator: The PAPI system is the current standard Visual Glide Slope Indicator (VGSI) consisting of four light boxes arranged perpendicular to the edge of the runway. It projects a pattern of red and white lights that provide visual approach slope information. It should be in the range of 300m. They are total 4 (Four) in number.  DESCRIPTION ON SOME PARTS OF ATC: i) Critical Aircraft: The critical aircraft is the most demanding aircraft type, or grouping of aircraft with similar characteristics, that make regular use of the airport. Regular use is 500 annual operations, including both itinerant and local operations but excluding touch-and-go operations. An operation is either a take-off or landing. ii) Example: Airbus 321 for Agartala. iii) ILS (Instrumental Landing System): In aviation, the instrument landing system (ILS) is a precision radio navigation system that provides short-range guidance to aircraft to allow them to approach a runway at night or in bad weather. In its original form, it allows an aircraft to approach until it is 200
  • 55. 51 | P a g e feet (61 m) over the ground, within a 1⁄2 mile (800 m) of the runway. At that point the runway should be visible to the pilot; if it is not, they perform a missed approach. v) Docking: A stand guidance system is a system which gives information to a pilot attempting to park an aircraft at an airport stand, usually via visual methods, leading to the term Visual Docking Guidance System (VDGS) and also A-VDGS (the A standing for advanced) This allows them to remain clear of obstructions and ensures that jetways can reach the aircraft.  APPROACH & TERMINAL: The Approach Control Unit (APP) ensures safe, orderly and timely traffic control of aircraft that have just taken off or are ready to land, based on the relevant regulation documentation, using radio location and non-radio location procedures. The working process of APP
  • 56. 52 | P a g e includes the following steps: i) Initial contact, the pilot informs the controller of receiving the ATIS information which is either confirmed or updated by the controller. Then, the controller advises the type of arrival (STAR, vectoring, etc.) and the expected runway and type of approach (e.g., ILS, VOR/DME, RNAV, visual, etc.). The STAR may have already been assigned by the previous ACC sector. ii) Flying the arrival procedure, depending on the type of arrival, this may involve few exchanges (in case of following a STAR) or be rather busy (in case of vectoring). The purpose of this stage is to position the aircraft appropriately for the execution of the final approach. iii) The final approach, the controller clears the flight for the final approach and specifies the type. Normally a report is expected by the pilot (e.g., for being established on the ILS, for having the runway in sight and being able to land visually, etc.). iv) Transfer to the Tower. This is done when the APP controller considers the aircraft is likely to complete the landing. In MBB Airport ADS-B is used in place of Radar. Terminal controllers are responsible for providing all ATC services within the airspace. The traffic flow is broadly divided into departure-arrival over flights. Terminal control is responsible for ensuring that aircraft are at an appropriate altitude when they are handed off, and that aircraft arrive at a suitable rate for landing.  CNS: Communication Navigation and Surveillance system for air traffic management is a system which measures aircraft position from the ground's consist of the following parts:  LLZ-Localizer or 11Z provides runway guidance to aircraft.  GP- Glide path provides vertical guidance to the pilots during approach  LPDMES-Low Power Distance MEASURING Equipment transmits 100 watts of power and is used for approach navigation  HPDMES-High Power Distance Measuring Equipment transmits 1000watts of power and maybe collocated with VORS to provide VOR  DME service with low and high service volume with a radius up to 130nm to support, enroute and terminal navigation.
  • 57. 53 | P a g e  DVOR-Doppler VOR is used to aid aircraft in determining their flight position and direction in reference to their destination using VHF signals between 30Mhz-3000Mhz sent from a radio beacon.  NDB-They are used to aid and navigate vessels in aviation during their approach  TRANSMITTER & RECIEVER ROOM : It can rightly be called as the heart of the ATC tower and communication as without this room ATC tower and approach can't function. This setup consists of 3 pairs of transmitter and receivers i.e., Main pair, Standby (used when the main pair fails) and I controller cavity (used when both main and standby fails) Filters are used in tuning the frequency of the setup. Half of the cavity filters are tuned to a frequency of 118.05Mhz and other half for 120. 4Mhz. The range of the transmitter receiver setup is 180 Nautical miles and DATIS frequency is 128.8Mhz
  • 58. 54 | P a g e 10. CONCLUSION We have undergone 30 days training in Maharaja Bir Bikram Airport under Airport Authority of India, where we have done a vocational summer training which helped us to gather both theoretical and practical knowledge. Previously we knew that Airport is a place from which aircraft operate that usually has paved runways and maintenance facilities and often serves as a terminal. Now, we have come to know much more about it through this training. We have learnt about the MT Pool, HVAC Plant, fire station & fire station vehicles, firefighting, operational area overview, baggage handling system, building management system and many more. Above all we come to know about the runway, runway lights, how the flight lands, how the flights get direction by ATC tower. This vocational training provided us with much more information about the Airport Authority of India and will be much helpful for our future.
  • 59. 55 | P a g e 11. REFERENCES  https://www.aai.aero/en/airports/agartala https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airports_Authority_of_India https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maharaja_Bir_Bikram_Airport International Civil Aviation Organization. (2019). Annex 14 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation: Aerodromes. Retrieved from https://www.icao.int/