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Mass Media In Asia COMM2379
Group Presentation – SINGAPORE
Lecturer: Christian Berg



                              Group Members:
                    Tran Nguyen Ly (s3309992)
                   Ha Thi Ngoc Ning (s3311637)
                  Lam Ngoc Hai Son (s3312617)
                      Le Minh Nhut (s3245998)
Table Of Content

• Historical Background
• Media Industry Insight
• The Role of Media
• Implications
• Conclusion
Historical Background
• Population: 4.4 million
  people.
• Ethnicity: 75% Chinese, 14%
  Malay, 9% Indian, 2% others.
• Language: English
  (main), Malay, Chinese and
  Tamil.
• Very small area (648 km2)
• Literacy rate: 95.9% in 2010.
              (Dayley & Neher 2010)
Historical Background
• Colonized by British in 19th century.
• Declare independence in 1963 and joined the Federation
  of Malaysia.
• Political differences => separated from Malaysia 2 years
  later.
      Faced the challenge of surviving without Malaysia
      Principle resource: human resource
      Nation-building is extremely crucial
• Political culture: authoritarian democracy (Kluver &
  Banerjee 2005) with the People’s Action Party (PAP) is the
  leading political party.
Media Industry: Traditional Media

 Print media:
Local Press:
• Singapore Press Holdings (SPH) and MediaCorp
  dominate all local print and broadcast media, which
  has close government ties.
• As of 2008, there are 16 newspapers in active
  circulation published in all 4 languages.
            *** Press Model ***
   Developmental outside, authoritarian inside
                                     (Bokhorst-Heng 2008)
Magazines & Books:
• A variety of magazines are available.
• Most deal with general topics and issues related to the
  ruling party and its government policies.

Foreign Publications:
 • Regulations on importing foreign
   newspapers.
 • there is still a ban on the sale and
   distribution of Malaysian newspapers
   (e.g. The New Strait Times).
Broadcast Media: Radio


•   Started in 1936
•   Expanded to 18 locally operated
    radio stations
•   Owned by MediaCorp,
    UnionWorks, and Safra Radio
•   Foreign broadcasters: BBC
    World Service
•   Modes of Delivery: Analogue,
    Digital and Satellite and Internet
                                              Reproduced from:
                                         Keshishoglou & Aquilia 2005
Broadcast Media: Television
•    Started in 1963
•    Owned by MediaCorp and
     MediaWorks.
•    All 7 free-to-air local TV is by
     MediaCorp – gov owned
     Channel NewsAsia – also owned by
     MediaCorp
•    No private ownership of satellite disks

The Media Development Authority (MDA)
      regulates broadcast media.
Media Industry: New Media
• As of June 2010, there are 6,791,000 broadband Internet
  subscribers with 82% household broadband penetration
  (IDA Singapore 2011).
• Most newspaper publications have their own online
  editions.
• NGO and alternative news are being expressed (e.g. New
  Sintercom, Think Centre, Singapore Window, etc.)

   The MDA also regulates the
   Internet through the Media
    Development Authority of
         Singapore Act.
Media-Government Relationship
• Media is considered to be an aid to government in the
  process of nation-building (Kenyon & Majoribanks 2007).
• Media is expected to conform to an agenda determined by
  government. (Lee 2005)



                               Rather than freedom of the
                               press from government, the
                                 approach in Singapore is
                             ‘freedom of government from
                                        the press’.
                                 (Lee Hsien Loong 1987).
=> Freedom With Responsibility
• This approach has resulted in creating a culture of self-
  censorship among media practitioners and codes of
  practice.
• The industry is encouraged to be socially responsible and to
  take adequate steps to ensure that content meets with
  community standards.

 7th in the world’s least corrupted
   country but ranked 136th and
       150th in press freedom.
   (RSF 2010, Freedom House 2011)
The Role of Media

 • Economic: To become a global media hub and a
   total business center.
 • Social: To spread public consciousness as an
   educational and entertainment tool for people.
 • Political: To play as an assistant in governmental
   activities and elections.
                                   (Ang & Nadarajan 1996)
Implications
• New media = More democratic practice?
     The Internet holds the potential to give opposition parties
     equal footing to the ruling parties as well as the press
     (Gomez & Muhamad 2010).
     ‘For the first time since independence, a majority of
     Singaporeans got to vote’ (Juan 2011) – Leader of
     Singapore’s Democratic Party.
Implications
• Mass media in danger of decline
      The Straits Times daily sales, which stood 391,612 in
      1998, had fallen to 365,800 in 2010 despite the addition of
      half a million new residents (Nee 2011).
      Lianhe Zaobao's dropped by 4.6 percent between 2006 and
      2009 (Nee 2011).
• Singapore Media in Globalization:
      The Media 21 (2003) & The Media Fusion Plan (2009)
      by the MDA.
Conclusion
Reference
Ang, PH & Nadarajan, B 1996, 'Censorship and the Internet: A Singapore Perspective', Communication of the ACM, Nanyang
Technological University, Singapore, Vol. 39, No.6, pp. 72- 78.
Article 19 2005, Freedom of Expression and The Media In Singapore, Article 19 Publications, London, UK.
Bokhorst-Heng, W 2002, ‘Newspapers In Singapore: A Mass Ceremony In The Imagining Of The Nation’, Media Culture Society, Sage
Publications, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 559-569.
Dayley, R & Neher, C 2010, ‘Singapore’, Southeast Asia in The New International Era, Westview Press, US, pp. 159-178.
Gomez, J & Muhamad R 2010, ‘New Media and Electoral Democracy: Online Opposition in Malaysia and Singapore’, Academia, US.
Juan, C 2011, ‘Singapore is taking the first steps to true democracy’, The Guardian UK, 10 May, viewed 22 December
2011, <http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/may/10/singapore-election-democracy-new-media>.
Keshishoglou, J & Aqualia, P 2005, Electronic Broadcast Media in Singapore and the Region, 2nd edn, Thomson, Singapore.
IDA Singapore 2011, ‘Infocomm Usage - Households and Individuals’, IDA Singapore, viewed 22 December
2011, <http://www.ida.gov.sg/Publications/20070822125451.aspx>.
Lambeth, EB 1995, ‘Chapter One: Global Media Philosophies’, in JC Merrill (ed.), Global Journalism: Survey of International
Communication, Longman Publisher USA, New York, pp. 3-18.
Lee, HL 1987, When the Press Misinforms, Singapore: Information Division, Ministry of Communications and Information, Singapore.
Leo, P & Lee, T 2004, ‘The New Singapore: Mediating Culture and Creativity’, Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies, Carfax
Publishing, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 205-218.
Kenyon, A & Majoribanks, T 2007, ‘Transforming Media Markets: The Cases of Malaysia and Singapore’, Australian Journal of Emerging
Technologies and Society, Vol.5, No.2, AJETS, pp. 103-118.
Kulver, P & Banerjee, K 2005, ‘Political Culture, Regulation and Democratisation: The Internet in Nine Asian
Nations’, Information, Communication & Society, Vol. 8, No. 1, Taylor & Francis Group Ltd, pp. 30-46.
Nee 2011, ‘Singapore print media stands at a crossroads’, The China Post, 6 June, viewed 22 December
2011, <http://www.chinapost.com.tw/commentary/the-china-post/special-to-the-china-post/2011/06/06/305142/p2/Singapore-
print.htm>.
Rodan, G 2000, ‘Asian Crisis, Transparency and The International Media in Singapore’, The Pacific Review, Routledge, Vol. 13, No.
2, pp. 217-242.

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Mass Media - The Media of Singapore: An Overlook

  • 1. Mass Media In Asia COMM2379 Group Presentation – SINGAPORE Lecturer: Christian Berg Group Members: Tran Nguyen Ly (s3309992) Ha Thi Ngoc Ning (s3311637) Lam Ngoc Hai Son (s3312617) Le Minh Nhut (s3245998)
  • 2. Table Of Content • Historical Background • Media Industry Insight • The Role of Media • Implications • Conclusion
  • 3. Historical Background • Population: 4.4 million people. • Ethnicity: 75% Chinese, 14% Malay, 9% Indian, 2% others. • Language: English (main), Malay, Chinese and Tamil. • Very small area (648 km2) • Literacy rate: 95.9% in 2010. (Dayley & Neher 2010)
  • 4. Historical Background • Colonized by British in 19th century. • Declare independence in 1963 and joined the Federation of Malaysia. • Political differences => separated from Malaysia 2 years later. Faced the challenge of surviving without Malaysia Principle resource: human resource Nation-building is extremely crucial • Political culture: authoritarian democracy (Kluver & Banerjee 2005) with the People’s Action Party (PAP) is the leading political party.
  • 5. Media Industry: Traditional Media  Print media: Local Press: • Singapore Press Holdings (SPH) and MediaCorp dominate all local print and broadcast media, which has close government ties. • As of 2008, there are 16 newspapers in active circulation published in all 4 languages. *** Press Model *** Developmental outside, authoritarian inside (Bokhorst-Heng 2008)
  • 6. Magazines & Books: • A variety of magazines are available. • Most deal with general topics and issues related to the ruling party and its government policies. Foreign Publications: • Regulations on importing foreign newspapers. • there is still a ban on the sale and distribution of Malaysian newspapers (e.g. The New Strait Times).
  • 7. Broadcast Media: Radio • Started in 1936 • Expanded to 18 locally operated radio stations • Owned by MediaCorp, UnionWorks, and Safra Radio • Foreign broadcasters: BBC World Service • Modes of Delivery: Analogue, Digital and Satellite and Internet Reproduced from: Keshishoglou & Aquilia 2005
  • 8. Broadcast Media: Television • Started in 1963 • Owned by MediaCorp and MediaWorks. • All 7 free-to-air local TV is by MediaCorp – gov owned Channel NewsAsia – also owned by MediaCorp • No private ownership of satellite disks The Media Development Authority (MDA) regulates broadcast media.
  • 9. Media Industry: New Media • As of June 2010, there are 6,791,000 broadband Internet subscribers with 82% household broadband penetration (IDA Singapore 2011). • Most newspaper publications have their own online editions. • NGO and alternative news are being expressed (e.g. New Sintercom, Think Centre, Singapore Window, etc.) The MDA also regulates the Internet through the Media Development Authority of Singapore Act.
  • 10. Media-Government Relationship • Media is considered to be an aid to government in the process of nation-building (Kenyon & Majoribanks 2007). • Media is expected to conform to an agenda determined by government. (Lee 2005) Rather than freedom of the press from government, the approach in Singapore is ‘freedom of government from the press’. (Lee Hsien Loong 1987).
  • 11. => Freedom With Responsibility • This approach has resulted in creating a culture of self- censorship among media practitioners and codes of practice. • The industry is encouraged to be socially responsible and to take adequate steps to ensure that content meets with community standards. 7th in the world’s least corrupted country but ranked 136th and 150th in press freedom. (RSF 2010, Freedom House 2011)
  • 12. The Role of Media • Economic: To become a global media hub and a total business center. • Social: To spread public consciousness as an educational and entertainment tool for people. • Political: To play as an assistant in governmental activities and elections. (Ang & Nadarajan 1996)
  • 13. Implications • New media = More democratic practice? The Internet holds the potential to give opposition parties equal footing to the ruling parties as well as the press (Gomez & Muhamad 2010). ‘For the first time since independence, a majority of Singaporeans got to vote’ (Juan 2011) – Leader of Singapore’s Democratic Party.
  • 14.
  • 15. Implications • Mass media in danger of decline The Straits Times daily sales, which stood 391,612 in 1998, had fallen to 365,800 in 2010 despite the addition of half a million new residents (Nee 2011). Lianhe Zaobao's dropped by 4.6 percent between 2006 and 2009 (Nee 2011). • Singapore Media in Globalization: The Media 21 (2003) & The Media Fusion Plan (2009) by the MDA.
  • 17. Reference Ang, PH & Nadarajan, B 1996, 'Censorship and the Internet: A Singapore Perspective', Communication of the ACM, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Vol. 39, No.6, pp. 72- 78. Article 19 2005, Freedom of Expression and The Media In Singapore, Article 19 Publications, London, UK. Bokhorst-Heng, W 2002, ‘Newspapers In Singapore: A Mass Ceremony In The Imagining Of The Nation’, Media Culture Society, Sage Publications, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 559-569. Dayley, R & Neher, C 2010, ‘Singapore’, Southeast Asia in The New International Era, Westview Press, US, pp. 159-178. Gomez, J & Muhamad R 2010, ‘New Media and Electoral Democracy: Online Opposition in Malaysia and Singapore’, Academia, US. Juan, C 2011, ‘Singapore is taking the first steps to true democracy’, The Guardian UK, 10 May, viewed 22 December 2011, <http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/may/10/singapore-election-democracy-new-media>. Keshishoglou, J & Aqualia, P 2005, Electronic Broadcast Media in Singapore and the Region, 2nd edn, Thomson, Singapore. IDA Singapore 2011, ‘Infocomm Usage - Households and Individuals’, IDA Singapore, viewed 22 December 2011, <http://www.ida.gov.sg/Publications/20070822125451.aspx>. Lambeth, EB 1995, ‘Chapter One: Global Media Philosophies’, in JC Merrill (ed.), Global Journalism: Survey of International Communication, Longman Publisher USA, New York, pp. 3-18. Lee, HL 1987, When the Press Misinforms, Singapore: Information Division, Ministry of Communications and Information, Singapore. Leo, P & Lee, T 2004, ‘The New Singapore: Mediating Culture and Creativity’, Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies, Carfax Publishing, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 205-218. Kenyon, A & Majoribanks, T 2007, ‘Transforming Media Markets: The Cases of Malaysia and Singapore’, Australian Journal of Emerging Technologies and Society, Vol.5, No.2, AJETS, pp. 103-118. Kulver, P & Banerjee, K 2005, ‘Political Culture, Regulation and Democratisation: The Internet in Nine Asian Nations’, Information, Communication & Society, Vol. 8, No. 1, Taylor & Francis Group Ltd, pp. 30-46. Nee 2011, ‘Singapore print media stands at a crossroads’, The China Post, 6 June, viewed 22 December 2011, <http://www.chinapost.com.tw/commentary/the-china-post/special-to-the-china-post/2011/06/06/305142/p2/Singapore- print.htm>. Rodan, G 2000, ‘Asian Crisis, Transparency and The International Media in Singapore’, The Pacific Review, Routledge, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 217-242.

Editor's Notes

  1. Media 21: http://www.mnddc.org/asd-employment/pdf/03-M21-MDA.pdfMedia Fusion Plan: http://www.mda.gov.sg/Documents/PDF/about_us/AboutUs_VisionMission_SMFP.pdf