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How Soon is Now?
Implementing Network Neutrality
Professor Chris Marsden
#NNinEP
4 June 2013
1999
Network Neutrality debate began in 1999
Mergers: cable TV and broadband companies
AT&T/MediaOne and AOL/TimeWarner
Lessig and Lemley FCC submission:
‘The end of End-to-End’
Before ‘Code and Other Laws…’
Fear of closed duopoly model
Marsden net neutrality in the European Parliament
Ofcom: ‘no formal complaints’
BEREC (2010) Response to the European Commission’s
consultation on the open Internet and net neutrality in
Europe, BoR (10)42
Charlie Dunstone, Chairman, TalkTalk
Ofcom International Conference, Nov 2006
“We shape traffic to restrict P2P users.
I get hate mail at home from people
when that means we restrict
their ability to play games.”
5
Book launched
February 2010
100,000
downloads
first 2 months
2nd edition in
paperback 2015
Declaration: Neutrality 2009/140EC
The Commission attaches high importance to
preserving the open and neutral character of the
Internet,
taking full account of the will of the co-legislators
to enshrine net neutrality as a policy objective and
regulatory principle to be promoted by NRAs
Kroes: BEREC given key role by EC
[1] EC not leading in evidence gathering –for BEREC:
"At the end of 2011, I will publish the results, including any
instances of blocking or throttling certain types of
traffic."
[2] If that produces evidence of widespread
infringement - only Madison River Skype blocking?
recommend setting EU guidance rules
"more stringent measures [in] the form of guidance."
[3] "If this proves insufficient, I am ready to prohibit
the blocking of lawful services or applications.”
That means guidance 2013
regulatory action 2014, if ever.
Net neutrality laws 2013
Country Legal Approach
Netherlands 15 May 2012 (S.7.4.a of Telecoms Law)
Chile &
Finland
Universal access to ‘unfiltered’ Internet
United States FCC Open Internet Order Sept ‘11
Norway Co-regulation – 2009 agreement
Canada CRTC rules 2009 (not implemented?)
Japan, UK
France
Self-regulation unenforced
ARCEP ‘Ten Principles ‘
Norway UK Netherlands US
Measurement Self-declared with
verification?
Ofcom:
SamKnows
Consumers e.g.
Glasnost/Neubot/
BitsofFreedom
FCC: SamKnows
Technical advice Within co-
regulatory pact
Broadband
Stakeholder Group
co-regulation
NRA – advising
ministry
BITAG and OIAC
self/co-regulation
Legal position Co-regulation Not implemented
2009/136/EU
Implemented
2009/136/EU
Order December
2010, published
Sept.2011
Efficiency Very fast – first
mover
Very slow –
industry foot
dragging
Very fast –
legislative panic
Very slow – note
court delay
Lesson Act fast, get
stakeholder buy-in
Death by a 1000
cuts; deny-delay-
degrade;
significant political
damage
Mobile DPI and
blocking
prompted action –
legislative panic
Lack of
bipartisanship
causes trench
warfare
Toolsets/lessons for each approach
Slovenia Economic Communications Act 2012
http://www.scribd.com/doc/144614369/Slovenia-Net-Neutrality-law-2012
"net neutrality means that operators will have to send internet traffic with
uniform speed and permeability regardless of the content”
ISPs prevented from restricting, or slowing Internet traffic
except to solve congestion, security or addressing spam.
Commercial differentiation of QoS will be prohibited.
ISP prohibited from different connectivity prices
strong impact on mobile operators “data caps”
Net Neutrality: European Approaches
Network neutrality growing policy controversy,
2 elements separated:
present net neutrality 'lite' debate and
the emerging net neutrality 'heavy'
concerned with fibre access networks in future.
Commissioner
Kroes’ Champagne
Internet?
Glasnost initial results
14
Net Neutrality Lite: EU approach
NN ‘Lite’ permits discrimination on speed and price for
new network capacity,
but insists existing networks do not discriminate ‘backwards’
i.e. do not reduce the existing levels of service.
‘Amazon Net Neutrality’ in September 2006
decided on acceptable minimal level of regulation
Future possible investment sharing,
but protects existing user levels.
Horizontal and indirect effects should be considered
Not just states, and not just companies obeying state law
It’s not just about blocking and filtering – easy cases
More interesting: closed high speed lanes
‘Managed Services’ – such as Deutsche Telekom IPTV
Accompanied by data caps set until 2017?
US refuses to permit this naked discrimination by corporates
Equivalence of access?
Leaving us on 1950s roads while they build toll motorways?
But net neutrality is also about
positive obligations on private actors
to uphold citizens’ right
State control replaced by private censors?
Fifteen years and counting…
FCC Chairmen:
Reed Hundt
Michael Powell
Kevin Martin
Julius Genachowski
Still continues to be non-enforced
2. United States
US FCC Order 2011, challenge 2012
FCC Report and Order (2010) Preserving the Open Internet,
25 FCC Rcd 17905
FCC Report and Order, In The Matter Of Preserving The Open
Internet And Broadband Industry Practices,
GN Docket No. 09-191, WC Docket NO. 07-52, FCC 10-201 § 21-30
Published 22 Dec 2010, appeared Federal Register 23 Sept 2011
In Re: FCC, In the Matter of Preserving the Open Internet, Report
and Order, FCC 10-201, 76 Fed. Reg. 59192 (2011),
Consolidation Order - Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation,
Oct. 6, 2011
http://commcns.org/sOFyyT
FCC Order: In the Matter of: Preserving the Open
Internet; Broadband Industry Practices
(rel. Dec. 23, 2010)
FCC 10-201; GN Docket No. 09-191; WC Docket No. 07-52
Petition for Review filed September 30, 2011.
2011 Order consolidates case numbers 11-1356, 11-1403,
11-1404, and 11-1411 with lead case number 11-1355
Open Internet Order legitimacy court case
expected judgment now summer 2013
Verizon v. FCC, Case No: 11-1356
D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals
Special and Managed Services
FCC excludes Quality of Service
Private ‘managed’ or ‘specialized’ services
IPTV, VOIP, emergency calls and telemedicine
These use the IP pipe, but a reserved section
How big is the private pipe? 10% or 90%
Who gets access? Anyone who pays?
Or only those ‘preferred partners’ to ISPs?
Do you only see certain IPTV channels?
Its making part of the pipe back into cable!
Self-regulation:
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2032233
Broadband Industry Technical Advisory Group
Set up by Dale Hatfield from Colorado in 2010
Multi-stakeholder – techie-heavy
http://www.bitag.org/bitag_organization.php?action=history
Takes on test cases from 2012 as no referred cases
Handles FCC cases free of charge
Industry pays $60,000 per case (if there were any)
FCC uses two advisory groups:
[1] BITAG
Co-regulatory: appointed by FCC in May 2012
http://www.fcc.gov/document/open-internet-advisory-
committee-members-announced
Chair: Jonathan Zittrain (Harvard Law),
Vice-chair David Clark (MIT/IETF/engineer)
Multi-stakeholder – includes NGOs and industry
'Specialized Services' definitions sub-group
When can a managed service lane
be partitioned out of the regular open IP stream?
FCC: [2]
Open Internet Advisory Committee
"Specialized services is a term that is
meaningful only within the context of the Order.
It is a way to talk about “anything else”
that is IP-based over a physical access path.
It is NOT a new category of service
for which a class of regulation is applicable."
Working assumptions - require case
studies to flesh out their details :
[1] The service is a general service
e.g. a service like IP on which higher-level services can run,
[2] It reaches most… of the end-points of the Internet
As opposed to a specific “user-level” service like telephony
or home security, which is presumably a specialized service
E.g. one cannot evade the Order
by offering an Internet-like service
that cannot reach a small country somewhere."
“Service is NOT a specialized service,
and is subject to the Order if:
Example
"If [a DSL or cable ISP] decided to offer a “poor”
Internet service, would we view this as:
“Better than nothing or unacceptably slow[?]
“Perhaps they can call it Internet but not
broadband?"
Do we:
[1] impose FRAND conditions and
[2] insist that slow service is NOT the 'real' Internet'?
Limits the reach of specialized
services that evade the Order
1st Internet Science conference Brussels 10-11 April 2013
Professor Ziga Turk, minister in charge of Slovenian law
Alissa Cooper, member of FCC OIAC sub-group
Carl-Christian Buhr, advisor to Neelie Kroes
UK, French and Dutch technical engineering experts
Net neutrality will grow and grow
@ChrisTMarsden
C.Marsden@sussex.ac.uk
http://chrismarsden.blogspot.co.uk/
5500 regular visitors (esp. Washington and Brussels)
Comments? Questions?
Marsden, C. [1999] Pluralism in the Multi-Channel Television Market: Suggestions
for Regulatory Scrutiny, Council of Europe, MM-S-PL [99]12 Def2.
Lemley and Lessig (2001) The End of End-to-End: Preserving the Architecture of
the Internet in the Broadband Era, UCLA L. REV. 48: 925
Marsden, C. [2005] Contribution to Impact Assessment of the revision of the
Television Without Frontiers Directive, with E. Horlings, C. Van Oranje, M.
Botterman, TR-334-EC DGJS Santa Monica: RAND
Marsden, C. and J.Cave [2006] Assessing Indirect Impacts of the EC Proposals for
Video Regulation, TR-414 for Ofcom. Santa Monica: RAND
Marsden, C. [2008] Net Neutrality: The European Debate 12 Journal of Internet
Law 2 pp1, 7-16 Marsden, C. (2010) Net Neutrality – Towards a Co-Regulatory
Solution? Bloomsbury Academic
Marsden, C. [2013] Network Neutrality: A Research Guide Chapter 16 in ‘Research
Handbook On Governance Of The Internet’, I. Brown, ed., Edward Elgar.
Marsden, C. [2012] Internet Co-Regulation and Constitutionalism: Towards
European Judicial Review, 26 Int. Rev. of Law, Computers & Tech 2. pp.212-228.
Marsden, C. [2012] Regulating Intermediary Liability and Network Neutrality,
Chapter 15, pp701-750 ‘Telecommunications Law and Regulation’ (Oxf, 4th ed)
Marsden, C. [2011] Network Neutrality and ISP Liability Regulation: Are the Wise
Monkeys of Cyberspace Becoming Stupid? 2 Global Policy 1 pp.1-12
Marsden, C. [2013] Regulating Code: Good Governance and Better Regulation in
the Information Age with Ian Brown, MIT Press: Cambridge MA. 312pp.
DIRECTIVE 2009/136/EC
New Articles 20 and 22, Recital 26:
Consumer protection/citizen rights NOT SMP
http://eur-
lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2009:337:0011:00
36:EN:PDF
Requirements to notify customers & NRAs
But will need civil society activists
To detect discrimination
To notify higher-end consumers of problems
Added to interoperability requirements
Article 5 Interconnection Directive
Article 22: Quality of service
1. Member States shall ensure that NRAs are
able to require networks and/or services to publish
comparable, adequate and up-to-date QoS information
2. NRAs may specify the QoS parameters to be measured
content, form and manner of information published,
including possible quality certification mechanisms,
end-users...comparable reliable user-friendly information
3. In order to prevent the degradation of service,
Member States ensure NRAs can set QoS requirements.
NRAs shall provide the Commission
1. ... with a summary of the grounds for action,
2. the envisaged requirements and
3. the proposed course of action.
4. This information shall be available to BEREC
The Commission may... make comments
or recommendations...
NRAs shall take the utmost account of the Commission’s
comments or recommendations when deciding on the
requirements.
Specific strengthening of Directives
Article 8(4)(g) Framework Directive
strengthening of related transparency requirements
USD Articles 20(1)(b) and 21(3)(c) and (d)
safeguard NRA powers to prevent service degradation
slowing down traffic over public networks
USD Article 22(3)
Transparency for end-users
Commission will monitor closely
implementation in Member States
introducing a particular focus on how
European citizens ‘net freedoms’ are safeguarded
in its annual Progress Report to Parliament and Council.
Commission will monitor impact on ‘net freedoms’
of market and technological developments
reporting to Parliament/Council before end-2010
on whether additional guidance is required, and
will invoke its existing competition law powers
to deal with anti-competitive practices that may emerge.
Net neutrality laws 2013 update
19 December 2012: Slovenia net neutrality law
1 January 2013: Netherlands to enforce 2012 law
March 2013: France proposes net neutrality law
And search neutrality? ‘all intermediaries’
That would be 4th country in Europe:
Finland via universal service
Netherlands after mobile WhatsApp blocking
Slovenia
Work with the ministries of justice and the interior
to draft legislation on net neutrality,
National Digital Council (CNN) submitted a report on the subject.
freedom of expression not sufficiently protected in French law
given development of filtering, blocking, censorship, throttling
Wording to be included in 1986 freedom of communication law
CNN suggests extend neutrality to all information access services
including search engines, social networks and mobile apps,
to guarantee access to information and to means of expression
in non-discrimination, fair and transparent manner
France 13/3/13: digital economy
minister Fleur Pellerin announced

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Marsden net neutrality in the European Parliament

  • 1. How Soon is Now? Implementing Network Neutrality Professor Chris Marsden #NNinEP 4 June 2013
  • 2. 1999 Network Neutrality debate began in 1999 Mergers: cable TV and broadband companies AT&T/MediaOne and AOL/TimeWarner Lessig and Lemley FCC submission: ‘The end of End-to-End’ Before ‘Code and Other Laws…’ Fear of closed duopoly model
  • 4. Ofcom: ‘no formal complaints’ BEREC (2010) Response to the European Commission’s consultation on the open Internet and net neutrality in Europe, BoR (10)42 Charlie Dunstone, Chairman, TalkTalk Ofcom International Conference, Nov 2006 “We shape traffic to restrict P2P users. I get hate mail at home from people when that means we restrict their ability to play games.”
  • 5. 5 Book launched February 2010 100,000 downloads first 2 months 2nd edition in paperback 2015
  • 6. Declaration: Neutrality 2009/140EC The Commission attaches high importance to preserving the open and neutral character of the Internet, taking full account of the will of the co-legislators to enshrine net neutrality as a policy objective and regulatory principle to be promoted by NRAs
  • 7. Kroes: BEREC given key role by EC [1] EC not leading in evidence gathering –for BEREC: "At the end of 2011, I will publish the results, including any instances of blocking or throttling certain types of traffic." [2] If that produces evidence of widespread infringement - only Madison River Skype blocking? recommend setting EU guidance rules "more stringent measures [in] the form of guidance." [3] "If this proves insufficient, I am ready to prohibit the blocking of lawful services or applications.” That means guidance 2013 regulatory action 2014, if ever.
  • 8. Net neutrality laws 2013 Country Legal Approach Netherlands 15 May 2012 (S.7.4.a of Telecoms Law) Chile & Finland Universal access to ‘unfiltered’ Internet United States FCC Open Internet Order Sept ‘11 Norway Co-regulation – 2009 agreement Canada CRTC rules 2009 (not implemented?) Japan, UK France Self-regulation unenforced ARCEP ‘Ten Principles ‘
  • 9. Norway UK Netherlands US Measurement Self-declared with verification? Ofcom: SamKnows Consumers e.g. Glasnost/Neubot/ BitsofFreedom FCC: SamKnows Technical advice Within co- regulatory pact Broadband Stakeholder Group co-regulation NRA – advising ministry BITAG and OIAC self/co-regulation Legal position Co-regulation Not implemented 2009/136/EU Implemented 2009/136/EU Order December 2010, published Sept.2011 Efficiency Very fast – first mover Very slow – industry foot dragging Very fast – legislative panic Very slow – note court delay Lesson Act fast, get stakeholder buy-in Death by a 1000 cuts; deny-delay- degrade; significant political damage Mobile DPI and blocking prompted action – legislative panic Lack of bipartisanship causes trench warfare Toolsets/lessons for each approach
  • 10. Slovenia Economic Communications Act 2012 http://www.scribd.com/doc/144614369/Slovenia-Net-Neutrality-law-2012 "net neutrality means that operators will have to send internet traffic with uniform speed and permeability regardless of the content” ISPs prevented from restricting, or slowing Internet traffic except to solve congestion, security or addressing spam. Commercial differentiation of QoS will be prohibited. ISP prohibited from different connectivity prices strong impact on mobile operators “data caps”
  • 11. Net Neutrality: European Approaches Network neutrality growing policy controversy, 2 elements separated: present net neutrality 'lite' debate and the emerging net neutrality 'heavy' concerned with fibre access networks in future.
  • 14. 14 Net Neutrality Lite: EU approach NN ‘Lite’ permits discrimination on speed and price for new network capacity, but insists existing networks do not discriminate ‘backwards’ i.e. do not reduce the existing levels of service. ‘Amazon Net Neutrality’ in September 2006 decided on acceptable minimal level of regulation Future possible investment sharing, but protects existing user levels.
  • 15. Horizontal and indirect effects should be considered Not just states, and not just companies obeying state law It’s not just about blocking and filtering – easy cases More interesting: closed high speed lanes ‘Managed Services’ – such as Deutsche Telekom IPTV Accompanied by data caps set until 2017? US refuses to permit this naked discrimination by corporates Equivalence of access? Leaving us on 1950s roads while they build toll motorways? But net neutrality is also about positive obligations on private actors to uphold citizens’ right
  • 16. State control replaced by private censors?
  • 17. Fifteen years and counting… FCC Chairmen: Reed Hundt Michael Powell Kevin Martin Julius Genachowski Still continues to be non-enforced 2. United States
  • 18. US FCC Order 2011, challenge 2012 FCC Report and Order (2010) Preserving the Open Internet, 25 FCC Rcd 17905 FCC Report and Order, In The Matter Of Preserving The Open Internet And Broadband Industry Practices, GN Docket No. 09-191, WC Docket NO. 07-52, FCC 10-201 § 21-30 Published 22 Dec 2010, appeared Federal Register 23 Sept 2011 In Re: FCC, In the Matter of Preserving the Open Internet, Report and Order, FCC 10-201, 76 Fed. Reg. 59192 (2011), Consolidation Order - Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation, Oct. 6, 2011 http://commcns.org/sOFyyT
  • 19. FCC Order: In the Matter of: Preserving the Open Internet; Broadband Industry Practices (rel. Dec. 23, 2010) FCC 10-201; GN Docket No. 09-191; WC Docket No. 07-52 Petition for Review filed September 30, 2011. 2011 Order consolidates case numbers 11-1356, 11-1403, 11-1404, and 11-1411 with lead case number 11-1355 Open Internet Order legitimacy court case expected judgment now summer 2013 Verizon v. FCC, Case No: 11-1356 D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals
  • 20. Special and Managed Services FCC excludes Quality of Service Private ‘managed’ or ‘specialized’ services IPTV, VOIP, emergency calls and telemedicine These use the IP pipe, but a reserved section How big is the private pipe? 10% or 90% Who gets access? Anyone who pays? Or only those ‘preferred partners’ to ISPs? Do you only see certain IPTV channels? Its making part of the pipe back into cable!
  • 21. Self-regulation: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2032233 Broadband Industry Technical Advisory Group Set up by Dale Hatfield from Colorado in 2010 Multi-stakeholder – techie-heavy http://www.bitag.org/bitag_organization.php?action=history Takes on test cases from 2012 as no referred cases Handles FCC cases free of charge Industry pays $60,000 per case (if there were any) FCC uses two advisory groups: [1] BITAG
  • 22. Co-regulatory: appointed by FCC in May 2012 http://www.fcc.gov/document/open-internet-advisory- committee-members-announced Chair: Jonathan Zittrain (Harvard Law), Vice-chair David Clark (MIT/IETF/engineer) Multi-stakeholder – includes NGOs and industry 'Specialized Services' definitions sub-group When can a managed service lane be partitioned out of the regular open IP stream? FCC: [2] Open Internet Advisory Committee
  • 23. "Specialized services is a term that is meaningful only within the context of the Order. It is a way to talk about “anything else” that is IP-based over a physical access path. It is NOT a new category of service for which a class of regulation is applicable." Working assumptions - require case studies to flesh out their details :
  • 24. [1] The service is a general service e.g. a service like IP on which higher-level services can run, [2] It reaches most… of the end-points of the Internet As opposed to a specific “user-level” service like telephony or home security, which is presumably a specialized service E.g. one cannot evade the Order by offering an Internet-like service that cannot reach a small country somewhere." “Service is NOT a specialized service, and is subject to the Order if:
  • 25. Example "If [a DSL or cable ISP] decided to offer a “poor” Internet service, would we view this as: “Better than nothing or unacceptably slow[?] “Perhaps they can call it Internet but not broadband?" Do we: [1] impose FRAND conditions and [2] insist that slow service is NOT the 'real' Internet'? Limits the reach of specialized services that evade the Order
  • 26. 1st Internet Science conference Brussels 10-11 April 2013 Professor Ziga Turk, minister in charge of Slovenian law Alissa Cooper, member of FCC OIAC sub-group Carl-Christian Buhr, advisor to Neelie Kroes UK, French and Dutch technical engineering experts Net neutrality will grow and grow
  • 28. Marsden, C. [1999] Pluralism in the Multi-Channel Television Market: Suggestions for Regulatory Scrutiny, Council of Europe, MM-S-PL [99]12 Def2. Lemley and Lessig (2001) The End of End-to-End: Preserving the Architecture of the Internet in the Broadband Era, UCLA L. REV. 48: 925 Marsden, C. [2005] Contribution to Impact Assessment of the revision of the Television Without Frontiers Directive, with E. Horlings, C. Van Oranje, M. Botterman, TR-334-EC DGJS Santa Monica: RAND Marsden, C. and J.Cave [2006] Assessing Indirect Impacts of the EC Proposals for Video Regulation, TR-414 for Ofcom. Santa Monica: RAND Marsden, C. [2008] Net Neutrality: The European Debate 12 Journal of Internet Law 2 pp1, 7-16 Marsden, C. (2010) Net Neutrality – Towards a Co-Regulatory Solution? Bloomsbury Academic Marsden, C. [2013] Network Neutrality: A Research Guide Chapter 16 in ‘Research Handbook On Governance Of The Internet’, I. Brown, ed., Edward Elgar. Marsden, C. [2012] Internet Co-Regulation and Constitutionalism: Towards European Judicial Review, 26 Int. Rev. of Law, Computers & Tech 2. pp.212-228. Marsden, C. [2012] Regulating Intermediary Liability and Network Neutrality, Chapter 15, pp701-750 ‘Telecommunications Law and Regulation’ (Oxf, 4th ed) Marsden, C. [2011] Network Neutrality and ISP Liability Regulation: Are the Wise Monkeys of Cyberspace Becoming Stupid? 2 Global Policy 1 pp.1-12 Marsden, C. [2013] Regulating Code: Good Governance and Better Regulation in the Information Age with Ian Brown, MIT Press: Cambridge MA. 312pp.
  • 29. DIRECTIVE 2009/136/EC New Articles 20 and 22, Recital 26: Consumer protection/citizen rights NOT SMP http://eur- lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2009:337:0011:00 36:EN:PDF Requirements to notify customers & NRAs But will need civil society activists To detect discrimination To notify higher-end consumers of problems Added to interoperability requirements Article 5 Interconnection Directive
  • 30. Article 22: Quality of service 1. Member States shall ensure that NRAs are able to require networks and/or services to publish comparable, adequate and up-to-date QoS information 2. NRAs may specify the QoS parameters to be measured content, form and manner of information published, including possible quality certification mechanisms, end-users...comparable reliable user-friendly information 3. In order to prevent the degradation of service, Member States ensure NRAs can set QoS requirements.
  • 31. NRAs shall provide the Commission 1. ... with a summary of the grounds for action, 2. the envisaged requirements and 3. the proposed course of action. 4. This information shall be available to BEREC The Commission may... make comments or recommendations... NRAs shall take the utmost account of the Commission’s comments or recommendations when deciding on the requirements.
  • 32. Specific strengthening of Directives Article 8(4)(g) Framework Directive strengthening of related transparency requirements USD Articles 20(1)(b) and 21(3)(c) and (d) safeguard NRA powers to prevent service degradation slowing down traffic over public networks USD Article 22(3) Transparency for end-users
  • 33. Commission will monitor closely implementation in Member States introducing a particular focus on how European citizens ‘net freedoms’ are safeguarded in its annual Progress Report to Parliament and Council. Commission will monitor impact on ‘net freedoms’ of market and technological developments reporting to Parliament/Council before end-2010 on whether additional guidance is required, and will invoke its existing competition law powers to deal with anti-competitive practices that may emerge.
  • 34. Net neutrality laws 2013 update 19 December 2012: Slovenia net neutrality law 1 January 2013: Netherlands to enforce 2012 law March 2013: France proposes net neutrality law And search neutrality? ‘all intermediaries’ That would be 4th country in Europe: Finland via universal service Netherlands after mobile WhatsApp blocking Slovenia
  • 35. Work with the ministries of justice and the interior to draft legislation on net neutrality, National Digital Council (CNN) submitted a report on the subject. freedom of expression not sufficiently protected in French law given development of filtering, blocking, censorship, throttling Wording to be included in 1986 freedom of communication law CNN suggests extend neutrality to all information access services including search engines, social networks and mobile apps, to guarantee access to information and to means of expression in non-discrimination, fair and transparent manner France 13/3/13: digital economy minister Fleur Pellerin announced