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Preliminary Design Review
- Mars18 -

The Mars Society International Student
Design Competition
Content
– Attitude and Orbit Control
System
– Electrical Power System
– Communications
– Re-entry and TPS
– Systems Engineering

•
•
•
•

Introduction
Launch Systems
Trajectory
Launch Concepts &
Trajectory
• Spacecraft Design
–
–
–
–

Structural Design
Life Support Systems
Radiation Shielding
Thermal Control System

•
•
•
•

Human Factors
Economics
To be done
Supporters
Introduction
The Mars Society International Student Design Competition:

“Design a two-person Mars flyby mission for
2018 as cheaply, safely and simply as possible”

Phase 0/A/B Study

3/ 37
Introduction
• Pushing the envelope towards human Mars exploration
• Gaining public attention and generating public interest for
manned space missions
• Prepare students for future development
projects with comparable goals
Schedule
Cost
• Selection criteria
20%
30%

Simplicity
20%

Technical
Quality
30%

4/ 37
Team
• Over 40 students from aerospace engineering, economics,
medicine and others in the 1st to 9th semester
• Faculty advisors from the Institute of Space Systems

5/ 37
Requirements
• Defined mission statement and top-level objectives
• Derived requirements on system and subsystem level

ID
TL.1
TL.2
TL.3
TL.4

6/ 37

Description

The mission shall be executed by two astronauts.
The mission objective is to complete a mars flyby and safely
return to earth.
The mission will commence in the year 2018.
The mission shall result in scientific progress.
Schedule

• Critical Design Review: 14.02.2014
• Mars18 Deadline (Design Freeze): 28.02.2014
• Final Report: 14.03.2014

7/ 37
Launch Concepts
Concept

Cost Mio $

Date of first launch

1 (Atlas HLV based)

596,5

Sept. 2017

2 (SpaceX based)

416,5

Sept. 2017

690

Nov. 2017

586,5

Aug. 2017

Inspiration Mars Concept

Cost in Mio$

Date of first launch

Space Launch System &
Commercial Crew Launcher

600-2100

Dec. 2017

3 (Atlas V551 based)
4 (Conservative)

Comparison:

8/ 37
Concept 2 (SpaceX based)
to Mars

Trans-Mars-Injection
(TMI)
Sept. 2017

Dez. 2017

9/ 37

Dez. 2017

04. Jan. 2018
Trajectory
Start orbit
Start date

04.01.2018

Arrival date

19.05.2019

Duration

Departure

350 x 350 km

1.37 years

Capture

10/ 37

Flyby
Spacecraft Design
– Attitude and Orbit Control
System
– Electrical Power System
– Communications
– Re-entry and TPS
– Systems Engineering

•
•
•
•

Introduction
Launch Systems
Trajectory
Launch Concepts &
Trajectory
• Spacecraft Design
–
–
–
–

Structural Design
Life Support Systems
Radiation Shielding
Thermal Control System

11/ 37

•
•
•
•

Human Factors
Economics
To be done
Supporters
Structural Design
• Baseline: sufficient space, simple and inexpensive deployment,
support of all required structures
Conservative Designs

Advanced Designs

12/ 37
Structural Design
Conservative Design
+ Costs and risks
+ Availability
+ Proven Design
 Less spacious (but above tolerable
limit by NASA Standards)
 Modifications required

13/ 37
Structural Design
• Sizing structure for launch and re-entry loads
– Peak bending moment and compressive force

• Addition of supportive structure
– Secondary (e.g. International Standard Payload Racks)
– Docking adapters

• Utilizing proven materials (Aluminum, Titanium)

14/ 37
ECLSS – Environment Control and Life
Support System
Recycling of most resources (almost closed system)

Urine

Water
Management

H2O

Air
Management

O2

Waste Water

CO2

Water
Management
Air
Management

Food
Feces
Storage

Hygiene Products

Storage
Waste

Clothes

15/ 37
Open Loop <–> Closed Loop
Equivalent System Mass (ESM) [kg]

10000
9000

Closed System (VPCAR)

8000

Closed System (MF+VCD)

7000

Open System

6000

- 5500kg

5000
4000

- 1300kg

3000
2000
1000
0
100

200

300

Mission Duration [d]
16/ 37

400

500
Dirty
Laundry
Waste

ECLSS – Eating and Waste
Eating simple!?!

Waste Compactor

Waste

W
a
t
e
r

Shielding tile

Water System
17/ 37
Radiation Protection against SPEs

SPE
(detected by sensors)

diverse materials

Alignment towards sun

Ø: 2 m

water/feces

water (decreasing) + tiles (increasing)

Trunk

Dragon

Cygnus

Trunk

• Water gets replaced by feces to maintain shielding against SPEs
• Amifostin is dispensed after SPE

18/ 37
Thermal Control System
• Dissipative and external
heat sources
Critical Points:
• Assembly in Earth orbit
• Passing Venus orbit
• Mars flyby

19/ 37
Thermal Control System

20/ 37
Attitude & Orbit Control System
• Control system consisting of
– Hydrazine thrusters [orbit]
– Momentum wheels [attitude]
– Resistojets [desaturation]

• Sensor system consisting of
– Sun sensors, star trackers
– Inertial measurement units
– GPS [Rendezvous]

21/ 37
Electrical Power System
Goal: provide continuous average power and withstand daily
power peaks
• Sizing Case: Arrival at Mars after ca. 230 days
– Largest distance to Sun, moderate degradation
– Including environmental, array and system losses

22/ 37
Electrical Power System
• Primary power source: UltraFlex arrays (4 x ∅5m)
• Secondary storage: Regenerative fuel cells
• Power management and distribution with 11.4 kW/kg

23/ 37
Electrical Power System

10.2m

“Off the shelf”

24/ 37
Communications
• Goals
– Providing failure-safe communication between the spacecraft
and ground stations on earth

• Limitations
 Antenna size/fairing space
 Suitable ground stations limit frequency bands selection
 Power consumption

• Environment
– Interference from solar radiation
– Communication blackout during flyby

25/ 37
Phases of communication

Near Earth phase
– Live streaming
– Engineering data

Cruise phase
– Pictures, videos
– Science data
– Engineering data

Relay communication phase
– Science and engineering data,
emergency link
Cruise phase
– Pictures, videos
– Science & Engineering data
26/ 37
Re-entry
• 3 passes through atmosphere
before re-entering
• Keep the load factors
within a limit of 5 g
• Lower heat flux peaks

27/ 37
Thermal Protection System
• Use of PICA-X as in Dragon-C1
• Increase in thickness due to higher integral heat load
• PICA-X is 10-times cheaper then PICA

28/ 37
Systems Engineering
• Mass, volume and power budgets
– Pressurized, unpressurized and packed volume
– Average, peak and waste power

• Element margins depending on technology readiness level
and amount of required modifications
– 5%, 10% and 20%

29/ 37
Spacecraft Design
– Attitude and Orbit Control
System
– Electrical Power System
– Communications
– Re-entry and TPS
– Systems Engineering

•
•
•
•

Introduction
Launch Systems
Trajectory
Launch Concepts &
Trajectory
• Spacecraft Design
–
–
–
–

Structural Design
Life Support Systems
Radiation Shielding
Thermal Control System

•
•
•
•

Human Factors
Economics
To be done
Supporters

30/ 37
Human Factors
2 Ensure physical health

To ensure physical health during the
whole trip the team has to be prepared
for all medical risks. Therefore the team
supplies
medical
treatment
and
prevention .

3 e-Health
Offering solutions for a 24/7
monitoring and documentation of
all medical parameters through an
health vest. The e-Health system
offers self-treatment options.

1 Preselecting & Preparation
The Team sets up the right criteria for
the Preselection (age, experience,
health situation, profession, ..).
Moreover the astronauts have to be
prepared mentally and physically.

4

Training & Food
To prevent muscle degradation due to
microgravity we provide training
equipment and a suitable nutritional
protocol.

5 Ensure mental health
To establish and keep the astronauts
mentally fit during the whole trip is a
necessary key for a successful mission.
This can be ensured by using audiovisual stimulation, a motivation and
entertainment kit.
31/ 37
Economics - Cost estimating methods
• Parametric: mathematical equations relating cost to one or
more physical or performance variables associated with the
item being estimated
• Build-up: historical data (e.g. detailed work hours and bills of
material)
• Analogy: the data is adjusted or extrapolated

32/ 37
To be done
•
•
•
•
•
•

Finish design, cost estimations
Risk management
Mission schedule & development roadmap
Ground segment
Science
Public outreach

33/ 37
Supporters
•
•
•
•
•
•

Institut für Raumfahrtsysteme – Uni Stuttgart
ASTOS Solutions – Bahnbestimmung und -optimierung
Campus Konzept Stuttgart – Studentische Unternehmensberatung
Constellation – Studentische Nachwuchsforschungsgruppe
DGLR – Stuttgart
BrainLight GmbH – Marktführer für Entspannungstechnologie

34/ 37
Unterstützung
Was für sie drin ist:
• Name und Logo im Abschlussbericht/Präsentation
• Mediale Präsenz (z.B. Stuttgarter Nachrichten, Radio, etc.)
• Chance sich vor motivierten Studenten zu präsentieren
• Image bestärken als innovatives und zukunftsgestaltendes
Raumfahrtunternehmen
Was wir benötigen:
• Professionelle Meinung und Korrekturleser
• Finanzielle Unterstützung fürs Teambuilding (T-Shirts, etc.)
• Reisekostenzuschüsse (Abschlusspräsentation in den USA)

35/ 37
Danke für Ihre Aufmerksamkeit!

www.mars18.de
36/ 37
Media Sources
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

http://casolarco.com
http://s400.photobucket.com/user/Donaldyax/
Emil Nathanson, Vorlesung Raumfahrttechnik 1
Johnson, J., and Marten, A., “Testing of a High Efficiency High Output Plastic Melt Waste
Compactor”, AIAA-2013-3372, 2013.
http://www.coconutsciencelaboratory.com
www.nasa.gov
www.spacex.com
www.orbitalsciences.com
Star Trek
http://www.ulalaunch.com/site/pages/Products_AtlasV.shtml
www.planetaryresources.com

37/ 37

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Mars18-Inspiration Mars Contest - Published PDR

  • 1. Preliminary Design Review - Mars18 - The Mars Society International Student Design Competition
  • 2. Content – Attitude and Orbit Control System – Electrical Power System – Communications – Re-entry and TPS – Systems Engineering • • • • Introduction Launch Systems Trajectory Launch Concepts & Trajectory • Spacecraft Design – – – – Structural Design Life Support Systems Radiation Shielding Thermal Control System • • • • Human Factors Economics To be done Supporters
  • 3. Introduction The Mars Society International Student Design Competition: “Design a two-person Mars flyby mission for 2018 as cheaply, safely and simply as possible” Phase 0/A/B Study 3/ 37
  • 4. Introduction • Pushing the envelope towards human Mars exploration • Gaining public attention and generating public interest for manned space missions • Prepare students for future development projects with comparable goals Schedule Cost • Selection criteria 20% 30% Simplicity 20% Technical Quality 30% 4/ 37
  • 5. Team • Over 40 students from aerospace engineering, economics, medicine and others in the 1st to 9th semester • Faculty advisors from the Institute of Space Systems 5/ 37
  • 6. Requirements • Defined mission statement and top-level objectives • Derived requirements on system and subsystem level ID TL.1 TL.2 TL.3 TL.4 6/ 37 Description The mission shall be executed by two astronauts. The mission objective is to complete a mars flyby and safely return to earth. The mission will commence in the year 2018. The mission shall result in scientific progress.
  • 7. Schedule • Critical Design Review: 14.02.2014 • Mars18 Deadline (Design Freeze): 28.02.2014 • Final Report: 14.03.2014 7/ 37
  • 8. Launch Concepts Concept Cost Mio $ Date of first launch 1 (Atlas HLV based) 596,5 Sept. 2017 2 (SpaceX based) 416,5 Sept. 2017 690 Nov. 2017 586,5 Aug. 2017 Inspiration Mars Concept Cost in Mio$ Date of first launch Space Launch System & Commercial Crew Launcher 600-2100 Dec. 2017 3 (Atlas V551 based) 4 (Conservative) Comparison: 8/ 37
  • 9. Concept 2 (SpaceX based) to Mars Trans-Mars-Injection (TMI) Sept. 2017 Dez. 2017 9/ 37 Dez. 2017 04. Jan. 2018
  • 10. Trajectory Start orbit Start date 04.01.2018 Arrival date 19.05.2019 Duration Departure 350 x 350 km 1.37 years Capture 10/ 37 Flyby
  • 11. Spacecraft Design – Attitude and Orbit Control System – Electrical Power System – Communications – Re-entry and TPS – Systems Engineering • • • • Introduction Launch Systems Trajectory Launch Concepts & Trajectory • Spacecraft Design – – – – Structural Design Life Support Systems Radiation Shielding Thermal Control System 11/ 37 • • • • Human Factors Economics To be done Supporters
  • 12. Structural Design • Baseline: sufficient space, simple and inexpensive deployment, support of all required structures Conservative Designs Advanced Designs 12/ 37
  • 13. Structural Design Conservative Design + Costs and risks + Availability + Proven Design  Less spacious (but above tolerable limit by NASA Standards)  Modifications required 13/ 37
  • 14. Structural Design • Sizing structure for launch and re-entry loads – Peak bending moment and compressive force • Addition of supportive structure – Secondary (e.g. International Standard Payload Racks) – Docking adapters • Utilizing proven materials (Aluminum, Titanium) 14/ 37
  • 15. ECLSS – Environment Control and Life Support System Recycling of most resources (almost closed system) Urine Water Management H2O Air Management O2 Waste Water CO2 Water Management Air Management Food Feces Storage Hygiene Products Storage Waste Clothes 15/ 37
  • 16. Open Loop <–> Closed Loop Equivalent System Mass (ESM) [kg] 10000 9000 Closed System (VPCAR) 8000 Closed System (MF+VCD) 7000 Open System 6000 - 5500kg 5000 4000 - 1300kg 3000 2000 1000 0 100 200 300 Mission Duration [d] 16/ 37 400 500
  • 17. Dirty Laundry Waste ECLSS – Eating and Waste Eating simple!?! Waste Compactor Waste W a t e r Shielding tile Water System 17/ 37
  • 18. Radiation Protection against SPEs SPE (detected by sensors) diverse materials Alignment towards sun Ø: 2 m water/feces water (decreasing) + tiles (increasing) Trunk Dragon Cygnus Trunk • Water gets replaced by feces to maintain shielding against SPEs • Amifostin is dispensed after SPE 18/ 37
  • 19. Thermal Control System • Dissipative and external heat sources Critical Points: • Assembly in Earth orbit • Passing Venus orbit • Mars flyby 19/ 37
  • 21. Attitude & Orbit Control System • Control system consisting of – Hydrazine thrusters [orbit] – Momentum wheels [attitude] – Resistojets [desaturation] • Sensor system consisting of – Sun sensors, star trackers – Inertial measurement units – GPS [Rendezvous] 21/ 37
  • 22. Electrical Power System Goal: provide continuous average power and withstand daily power peaks • Sizing Case: Arrival at Mars after ca. 230 days – Largest distance to Sun, moderate degradation – Including environmental, array and system losses 22/ 37
  • 23. Electrical Power System • Primary power source: UltraFlex arrays (4 x ∅5m) • Secondary storage: Regenerative fuel cells • Power management and distribution with 11.4 kW/kg 23/ 37
  • 25. Communications • Goals – Providing failure-safe communication between the spacecraft and ground stations on earth • Limitations  Antenna size/fairing space  Suitable ground stations limit frequency bands selection  Power consumption • Environment – Interference from solar radiation – Communication blackout during flyby 25/ 37
  • 26. Phases of communication Near Earth phase – Live streaming – Engineering data Cruise phase – Pictures, videos – Science data – Engineering data Relay communication phase – Science and engineering data, emergency link Cruise phase – Pictures, videos – Science & Engineering data 26/ 37
  • 27. Re-entry • 3 passes through atmosphere before re-entering • Keep the load factors within a limit of 5 g • Lower heat flux peaks 27/ 37
  • 28. Thermal Protection System • Use of PICA-X as in Dragon-C1 • Increase in thickness due to higher integral heat load • PICA-X is 10-times cheaper then PICA 28/ 37
  • 29. Systems Engineering • Mass, volume and power budgets – Pressurized, unpressurized and packed volume – Average, peak and waste power • Element margins depending on technology readiness level and amount of required modifications – 5%, 10% and 20% 29/ 37
  • 30. Spacecraft Design – Attitude and Orbit Control System – Electrical Power System – Communications – Re-entry and TPS – Systems Engineering • • • • Introduction Launch Systems Trajectory Launch Concepts & Trajectory • Spacecraft Design – – – – Structural Design Life Support Systems Radiation Shielding Thermal Control System • • • • Human Factors Economics To be done Supporters 30/ 37
  • 31. Human Factors 2 Ensure physical health To ensure physical health during the whole trip the team has to be prepared for all medical risks. Therefore the team supplies medical treatment and prevention . 3 e-Health Offering solutions for a 24/7 monitoring and documentation of all medical parameters through an health vest. The e-Health system offers self-treatment options. 1 Preselecting & Preparation The Team sets up the right criteria for the Preselection (age, experience, health situation, profession, ..). Moreover the astronauts have to be prepared mentally and physically. 4 Training & Food To prevent muscle degradation due to microgravity we provide training equipment and a suitable nutritional protocol. 5 Ensure mental health To establish and keep the astronauts mentally fit during the whole trip is a necessary key for a successful mission. This can be ensured by using audiovisual stimulation, a motivation and entertainment kit. 31/ 37
  • 32. Economics - Cost estimating methods • Parametric: mathematical equations relating cost to one or more physical or performance variables associated with the item being estimated • Build-up: historical data (e.g. detailed work hours and bills of material) • Analogy: the data is adjusted or extrapolated 32/ 37
  • 33. To be done • • • • • • Finish design, cost estimations Risk management Mission schedule & development roadmap Ground segment Science Public outreach 33/ 37
  • 34. Supporters • • • • • • Institut für Raumfahrtsysteme – Uni Stuttgart ASTOS Solutions – Bahnbestimmung und -optimierung Campus Konzept Stuttgart – Studentische Unternehmensberatung Constellation – Studentische Nachwuchsforschungsgruppe DGLR – Stuttgart BrainLight GmbH – Marktführer für Entspannungstechnologie 34/ 37
  • 35. Unterstützung Was für sie drin ist: • Name und Logo im Abschlussbericht/Präsentation • Mediale Präsenz (z.B. Stuttgarter Nachrichten, Radio, etc.) • Chance sich vor motivierten Studenten zu präsentieren • Image bestärken als innovatives und zukunftsgestaltendes Raumfahrtunternehmen Was wir benötigen: • Professionelle Meinung und Korrekturleser • Finanzielle Unterstützung fürs Teambuilding (T-Shirts, etc.) • Reisekostenzuschüsse (Abschlusspräsentation in den USA) 35/ 37
  • 36. Danke für Ihre Aufmerksamkeit! www.mars18.de 36/ 37
  • 37. Media Sources • • • • • • • • • • • http://casolarco.com http://s400.photobucket.com/user/Donaldyax/ Emil Nathanson, Vorlesung Raumfahrttechnik 1 Johnson, J., and Marten, A., “Testing of a High Efficiency High Output Plastic Melt Waste Compactor”, AIAA-2013-3372, 2013. http://www.coconutsciencelaboratory.com www.nasa.gov www.spacex.com www.orbitalsciences.com Star Trek http://www.ulalaunch.com/site/pages/Products_AtlasV.shtml www.planetaryresources.com 37/ 37