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Marketing Mix:
 The 7P’s of
  Marketing
• Marketing Mix
• Buyer Behavior
• Assembling the Marketing
  Mix
• Diagnostic Marketing Mix
• Marketing Plan
• 4S’s in Marketing Plan
Marketing Mix
     •The Marketing Mix is one of two
     interrelated components of strategy
     •The Marketing Mix, more popularly
     referred to as the 7Ps of Marketing is a set
     of controllable and interrelated variables
     composed of product, place, price and
     promotions that a company assembles to
     satisfy a target group better than it’s
     competitor.
     •Marketing Mix strategy is choosing and
     implementing the best possible course of
     action to attain the organization’s long-
     term objectives and gain competitive
     edge.
Product
      Place
    Promotions
       Price
      People
Physical Appearance
     Process
Product

    To satisfy the needs and wants of the
    target market.
Place
   To make the product conveniently
   available to the target market consistent
   with their purchasing pattern.
Promotions
   To build and improve consumer
   demand. Promotions has four
   components called the Promotions Mix
   as follows:


   •Advertising – to effectively inform and
   persuade the target market
   •Public Relations – to offer a positive
   image of the company and the brand
   •Selling – to get the customers buy
   •Sales Promotions – to convince
   customers to buy immediately
Price
        To make the product affordable to the
        target market and reflect the value of
        benefits provided.
People
   They are the target consumers of the company. They are
   the ones who are the consumers
Physical Appearance
  Physical appearance is the first distinction of a product. A
  product could be easily recognized by it’s appearance.
Process
   The process of the product is essential in marketing. This
   determines the capability of the product to supply the
   demand of the consumers.
•Product, place and people are
considered as the strategic Ps of
marketing mix since they cannot be
changed overnight.
•Promotions, price, process and
physical appearance are considered
as the tactical Ps of marketing mix
because these can be changed
more easily.
•Marketers of consumer packaged goods such as food and
personal care products sold in supermarkets would often add
“Merchandising” as another component of the marketing mix.
•Merchandising aims to extend advertising message at the
point of purchase (POP) by generating superior presence
within the store.
•Many companies uses store signs, posters, price tags, shelf
takers and island displays.
•Companies spend a significant 1% of their sales on
merchandizing.
Buyer Behavior
     •An important component of the consumer purchase
     decision-making process.


 The Factors Influencing Buyer
 Behavior in Consumer Markets

  •Cultural Factors
  •Social Factors
  •Personal Factors
  •Psychological Factors
Cultural Factors

    •Culture and sub-culture – Many older Chinese like to
    eat Shark’s fin soup as well as Bird’s nest soup, which
    environmentalist despise.


    •Social class – Buying a real estate property is
    dependent, among others, on the how consumer
    perceive the quality of their desired neighborhood and
    the status symbol that comes with a high-end
    development.
Social Factors

 •Reference Group – High-end brands like Nike shoes or
 acquiring a Globe celphone to be a member of their Gen Txt
 Club are examples of how peers can affect a purchase


 •Family – demand for products such as PLDT long-distance
 calls is influenced by the Pinoy’s strong family attachment


 •Role and statutes – Mont Blanc pens are positioned as the
 pen for presidents of companies, as well as countries. Johnny
 Walker Label is another example of whiskey positioned for
 successful people.
Personal Factors

•Age and life cycle – Retirees are the prime market for many
luxury cruises, as it is consistent with the slow, relaxing pace
they desire.
•Occupation – Pamper Uni are bought by working mothers who
cannot afford to rest in the morning. The International School
targets children of expatriates.
•Economic Circumstances – Network marketing offers equal
opportunity to those who want to start and grow their own
business without the large capital involved in putting up
traditional businesses.
•Lifestyle – Kraft imported cheese and Lazy Boy chairs are
examples of lifestyle products.
•Personality and Self-concept – Premium brands like Rolex,
cars and even clothes are driven by how the buyer looks at
himself of herself
Psychological Factors

   •Motivation – Many government employees now enroll in
   graduate school to gain the competitive advantage versus
   their peers in aspiring for a promotion.
   •Learning – AMC cookware utilizes demonstration to show the
   product’s unique ability to fry chicken without oil, boil egg
   without water and cook food simultaneously without taste
   transfer using low fire.
   •Beliefs and Attitudes – Sony is believed to be a brand with a
   higher quality. Some consumers think that installing chimes
   can bring in good luck to homes and offices. A diamond ring is
   a must in every engagement and wedding.
Assembling the Marketing Mix
  Before a marketing mix is formed, there must be an analysis
  and definition of target customers.

     1. In the Macro level, market segmentation answers the
        question “What are the groupings of similar
        customers?”
     2. In Micro level,
     •   Decision Making Unit (DMU) points to “Who
         purchases the product?”
     •   Decision Making Process (DMP) answers the
         question “How, where, and when is the purchase
         made?”
     •   Consumer motivation and preferences guides the
         marketer to answer, “What does the consumers want
         and why?”
•In satisfying customers, marketers must not assume who the
decision maker is or the mistake may be costly for the firm.
•Marketers must consider the more complex DMU’s that are
usually involved in the decision making process (DMP) for
most products and services.
•Marketers must therefore consider the initiator, influencer,
decider, buyer and the user for every purchase – not just the
user.
•The general characteristics of the firm’s marketing mix is
shaped by the target market’s preparedness to adopt a
product.
•Marketers usually make use of several market researches to
understand their customers better. One of the most popular
and widely used market research report is called Usage,
Attitude and Image (UAI) survey.
Product Value
  •Products may either be superior, at par with
  (the same), or basic to those competition.
  •A superior product satisfies more needs and
  wants of customers while a basic product
  satisfies lesser needs.
  •While our initial tendency is to think that
  consumers enjoy superior products all the
  time, we must realize that products with less
  features may still be desired by the lower
  income consumer segment.
•In the Philippines for instance, some 92% of our
nationwide population belongs to the lower
income D and E class and these “consumers”
may be looking for very basic products.
•The new definition of “Quality” is that which
conforms to consumer’s specification, measured
through indicators of customers satisfaction,
rather than indicators of self-gratification.
•It is consumers who decides on quality not the
company.
•After product quality is defined, it’s inseparable
twin, price, is defined to ensure an appropriate
product value.
Marketing Program
   •After product value is formulated and accepted to
   the target customers, marketing programs are then
   assembled by identifying which of the marketing mix
   component should logically be the main weapon and
   which should be the support strategy.



         Product                              Program
          Value                              (Marketing)
    (Competitiveness)
1.Distribution Driven
  • Some companies are distribution-driven, meaning,
    their product must be available when and where
    customers expect them to be. Their location are the
    single most important factor in their business.
2. Selling – Driven
  • Some companies are selling driven especially when
    products are only available through the salesman.
3. Sales Promo – Driven
  •Other companies that are sales promo driven are fast
  food parlors like Jolibee and Mc Donalds which have at
  least eight major promo campaign yearly to bring back
  consumers to the store as often as possible.
4. Price – Driven
  •Makro is a price driven brand. Without any fancy display,
  Makro boasts of rock-bottom prices everyday, which
  attract people to visit the hypermarket.
5. Advertising – Driven
  •Coke is advertising-driven. It intends to be top-of-mind in the
  soft drinks industry as it constantly reminds consumers of the
  different usage occasions for Coke. Its ad-driven strategy is
  supported with a heavy distribution effort, sales promo support
  and parity pricing with competition.
Diagnostic Marketing Mix
  •Diagnostic marketing mix entails the matching of correctly
  defined marketing problems with the proper marketing
  solution.


    Marketing Problem             Marketing Solution

   Low awareness level                Advertising

      Low Availability                Placement

      Low Trial Rate                Pricing and/or
                                     Promotions
   Low Repeat Purchase         Product and/or Service
                                      Quality
•The marketing mix of a company seldom stays the same.
•Marketers must therefore have a systematic way of reviewing what
worked and why, what didn’t work and why.
•Answering these queries are a prerequisite before planning what
should be added or what should be dropped in order to attain,
enhance or maintain competitive edge.
• Competitive advantage is secured by providing better or best value
  in the perception of the customer, relative to all your competitors.
• A company’s capabilities can become a true competitive advantage
  if the following 5 criteria are met:


    1. It is valuable in the marketplace
    2. It is superior in the marketplace
    3. It is difficult to match or imitate
    4. It is difficult to substitute
    5. It is difficult to trade and gain
Marketing Plan
   •The marketing mix is actually the heart of an important
   company document called the marketing plan, which outlines
   how the company intends to grow in the marketplace and win
   against competition.
   •The marketing plan is usually formulated annually, but results
   are reviewed monthly.
Format of a Marketing Plan
Executive Summary
Business Review (performance of the previous years)
Environmental Analysis
           Key Factors for Success
           Strengths and Weaknesses Analysis
           Threats and Opportunities Analysis
Market Segmentation
Marketing Objectives and Goals
Marketing Strategy
           Product Positioning
           Customer Satisfaction Strategy
           Preferred Brand Strategy
           Contingency Plan
Marketing Budget
Marketing Implementation Guide
Appendix
4S’s in Marketing Plan
  • The marketing mix can change over time.
    However, all marketing programs must be able
    to meet the 4 basic criteria to be considered a
    diligently through-out campaign


     1. Sufficiency – the marketing mix must be
       able to adequately meet the defined
       marketing objectives. This means ambitious
       growth objectives would naturally need the
       corresponding heavier investment in
       marketing support programs.
2. Selective – the marketer must be able to consider
all potential alternatives of each marketing mix before
short-listing all possible combinations of the marketing
mix that can meet their marketing objectives. The one
that can provide the best profitability is the one logically
to be chosen. This is not easy as there are literally
millions of combinations. But the least the marketing
man can do is to short list the more obvious one and
apply due diligence in planning each possible option.
3. Synchronize – when the marketing mix is selected,
the different elements must combine harmoniously for
the brand become successful. For example, a marketer
cannot choose to invest in heavy advertising of a low
quality product sold on a high price. In such a case, the
elements of the marketing mix is not logically
synchronized.

4. Sustainability – the marketing mix that is finally
chosen must be able to last in the long term vis-à-vis
competition. For instance, a lower price strategy not only
risks a price war but is not sustainable unless the firm is
the cost leader in the industry.

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Marketing mix the 7 p's of marketing

  • 1. Marketing Mix: The 7P’s of Marketing
  • 2. • Marketing Mix • Buyer Behavior • Assembling the Marketing Mix • Diagnostic Marketing Mix • Marketing Plan • 4S’s in Marketing Plan
  • 3. Marketing Mix •The Marketing Mix is one of two interrelated components of strategy •The Marketing Mix, more popularly referred to as the 7Ps of Marketing is a set of controllable and interrelated variables composed of product, place, price and promotions that a company assembles to satisfy a target group better than it’s competitor. •Marketing Mix strategy is choosing and implementing the best possible course of action to attain the organization’s long- term objectives and gain competitive edge.
  • 4. Product Place Promotions Price People Physical Appearance Process
  • 5. Product To satisfy the needs and wants of the target market.
  • 6. Place To make the product conveniently available to the target market consistent with their purchasing pattern.
  • 7. Promotions To build and improve consumer demand. Promotions has four components called the Promotions Mix as follows: •Advertising – to effectively inform and persuade the target market •Public Relations – to offer a positive image of the company and the brand •Selling – to get the customers buy •Sales Promotions – to convince customers to buy immediately
  • 8. Price To make the product affordable to the target market and reflect the value of benefits provided.
  • 9. People They are the target consumers of the company. They are the ones who are the consumers
  • 10. Physical Appearance Physical appearance is the first distinction of a product. A product could be easily recognized by it’s appearance.
  • 11. Process The process of the product is essential in marketing. This determines the capability of the product to supply the demand of the consumers.
  • 12. •Product, place and people are considered as the strategic Ps of marketing mix since they cannot be changed overnight. •Promotions, price, process and physical appearance are considered as the tactical Ps of marketing mix because these can be changed more easily.
  • 13. •Marketers of consumer packaged goods such as food and personal care products sold in supermarkets would often add “Merchandising” as another component of the marketing mix. •Merchandising aims to extend advertising message at the point of purchase (POP) by generating superior presence within the store. •Many companies uses store signs, posters, price tags, shelf takers and island displays. •Companies spend a significant 1% of their sales on merchandizing.
  • 14.
  • 15. Buyer Behavior •An important component of the consumer purchase decision-making process. The Factors Influencing Buyer Behavior in Consumer Markets •Cultural Factors •Social Factors •Personal Factors •Psychological Factors
  • 16. Cultural Factors •Culture and sub-culture – Many older Chinese like to eat Shark’s fin soup as well as Bird’s nest soup, which environmentalist despise. •Social class – Buying a real estate property is dependent, among others, on the how consumer perceive the quality of their desired neighborhood and the status symbol that comes with a high-end development.
  • 17. Social Factors •Reference Group – High-end brands like Nike shoes or acquiring a Globe celphone to be a member of their Gen Txt Club are examples of how peers can affect a purchase •Family – demand for products such as PLDT long-distance calls is influenced by the Pinoy’s strong family attachment •Role and statutes – Mont Blanc pens are positioned as the pen for presidents of companies, as well as countries. Johnny Walker Label is another example of whiskey positioned for successful people.
  • 18. Personal Factors •Age and life cycle – Retirees are the prime market for many luxury cruises, as it is consistent with the slow, relaxing pace they desire. •Occupation – Pamper Uni are bought by working mothers who cannot afford to rest in the morning. The International School targets children of expatriates. •Economic Circumstances – Network marketing offers equal opportunity to those who want to start and grow their own business without the large capital involved in putting up traditional businesses. •Lifestyle – Kraft imported cheese and Lazy Boy chairs are examples of lifestyle products. •Personality and Self-concept – Premium brands like Rolex, cars and even clothes are driven by how the buyer looks at himself of herself
  • 19. Psychological Factors •Motivation – Many government employees now enroll in graduate school to gain the competitive advantage versus their peers in aspiring for a promotion. •Learning – AMC cookware utilizes demonstration to show the product’s unique ability to fry chicken without oil, boil egg without water and cook food simultaneously without taste transfer using low fire. •Beliefs and Attitudes – Sony is believed to be a brand with a higher quality. Some consumers think that installing chimes can bring in good luck to homes and offices. A diamond ring is a must in every engagement and wedding.
  • 20. Assembling the Marketing Mix Before a marketing mix is formed, there must be an analysis and definition of target customers. 1. In the Macro level, market segmentation answers the question “What are the groupings of similar customers?” 2. In Micro level, • Decision Making Unit (DMU) points to “Who purchases the product?” • Decision Making Process (DMP) answers the question “How, where, and when is the purchase made?” • Consumer motivation and preferences guides the marketer to answer, “What does the consumers want and why?”
  • 21. •In satisfying customers, marketers must not assume who the decision maker is or the mistake may be costly for the firm. •Marketers must consider the more complex DMU’s that are usually involved in the decision making process (DMP) for most products and services. •Marketers must therefore consider the initiator, influencer, decider, buyer and the user for every purchase – not just the user. •The general characteristics of the firm’s marketing mix is shaped by the target market’s preparedness to adopt a product. •Marketers usually make use of several market researches to understand their customers better. One of the most popular and widely used market research report is called Usage, Attitude and Image (UAI) survey.
  • 22. Product Value •Products may either be superior, at par with (the same), or basic to those competition. •A superior product satisfies more needs and wants of customers while a basic product satisfies lesser needs. •While our initial tendency is to think that consumers enjoy superior products all the time, we must realize that products with less features may still be desired by the lower income consumer segment.
  • 23. •In the Philippines for instance, some 92% of our nationwide population belongs to the lower income D and E class and these “consumers” may be looking for very basic products. •The new definition of “Quality” is that which conforms to consumer’s specification, measured through indicators of customers satisfaction, rather than indicators of self-gratification. •It is consumers who decides on quality not the company. •After product quality is defined, it’s inseparable twin, price, is defined to ensure an appropriate product value.
  • 24. Marketing Program •After product value is formulated and accepted to the target customers, marketing programs are then assembled by identifying which of the marketing mix component should logically be the main weapon and which should be the support strategy. Product Program Value (Marketing) (Competitiveness)
  • 25. 1.Distribution Driven • Some companies are distribution-driven, meaning, their product must be available when and where customers expect them to be. Their location are the single most important factor in their business.
  • 26. 2. Selling – Driven • Some companies are selling driven especially when products are only available through the salesman.
  • 27. 3. Sales Promo – Driven •Other companies that are sales promo driven are fast food parlors like Jolibee and Mc Donalds which have at least eight major promo campaign yearly to bring back consumers to the store as often as possible.
  • 28. 4. Price – Driven •Makro is a price driven brand. Without any fancy display, Makro boasts of rock-bottom prices everyday, which attract people to visit the hypermarket.
  • 29. 5. Advertising – Driven •Coke is advertising-driven. It intends to be top-of-mind in the soft drinks industry as it constantly reminds consumers of the different usage occasions for Coke. Its ad-driven strategy is supported with a heavy distribution effort, sales promo support and parity pricing with competition.
  • 30. Diagnostic Marketing Mix •Diagnostic marketing mix entails the matching of correctly defined marketing problems with the proper marketing solution. Marketing Problem Marketing Solution Low awareness level Advertising Low Availability Placement Low Trial Rate Pricing and/or Promotions Low Repeat Purchase Product and/or Service Quality
  • 31. •The marketing mix of a company seldom stays the same. •Marketers must therefore have a systematic way of reviewing what worked and why, what didn’t work and why. •Answering these queries are a prerequisite before planning what should be added or what should be dropped in order to attain, enhance or maintain competitive edge.
  • 32. • Competitive advantage is secured by providing better or best value in the perception of the customer, relative to all your competitors. • A company’s capabilities can become a true competitive advantage if the following 5 criteria are met: 1. It is valuable in the marketplace 2. It is superior in the marketplace 3. It is difficult to match or imitate 4. It is difficult to substitute 5. It is difficult to trade and gain
  • 33. Marketing Plan •The marketing mix is actually the heart of an important company document called the marketing plan, which outlines how the company intends to grow in the marketplace and win against competition. •The marketing plan is usually formulated annually, but results are reviewed monthly.
  • 34. Format of a Marketing Plan Executive Summary Business Review (performance of the previous years) Environmental Analysis Key Factors for Success Strengths and Weaknesses Analysis Threats and Opportunities Analysis Market Segmentation Marketing Objectives and Goals Marketing Strategy Product Positioning Customer Satisfaction Strategy Preferred Brand Strategy Contingency Plan Marketing Budget Marketing Implementation Guide Appendix
  • 35. 4S’s in Marketing Plan • The marketing mix can change over time. However, all marketing programs must be able to meet the 4 basic criteria to be considered a diligently through-out campaign 1. Sufficiency – the marketing mix must be able to adequately meet the defined marketing objectives. This means ambitious growth objectives would naturally need the corresponding heavier investment in marketing support programs.
  • 36. 2. Selective – the marketer must be able to consider all potential alternatives of each marketing mix before short-listing all possible combinations of the marketing mix that can meet their marketing objectives. The one that can provide the best profitability is the one logically to be chosen. This is not easy as there are literally millions of combinations. But the least the marketing man can do is to short list the more obvious one and apply due diligence in planning each possible option.
  • 37. 3. Synchronize – when the marketing mix is selected, the different elements must combine harmoniously for the brand become successful. For example, a marketer cannot choose to invest in heavy advertising of a low quality product sold on a high price. In such a case, the elements of the marketing mix is not logically synchronized. 4. Sustainability – the marketing mix that is finally chosen must be able to last in the long term vis-à-vis competition. For instance, a lower price strategy not only risks a price war but is not sustainable unless the firm is the cost leader in the industry.