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STUDY ON THE CONSUMER’S BUYING
BEHAVIOUR’S IN THE CELL PHONE
MARKET AMONG COLLEGE GOING
STUDENTS
RAHUL HELA
2015-2017
MASTER OF FASHION MANAGEMENT
DEPARTMENT OF FASHION MANAGEMENT STUDIES
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY
KOLKATA
STUDY ON THE CONSUMER’S BUYING
BEHAVIOUR’S IN THE CELL PHONE
MARKET AMONG COLLEGE GOING
STUDENTS
A report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the
completion of Semester I in
Master of Fashion Management
Under the guidance by:
Dr Sougata Banerjee
Submitted by:
Rahul Hela
Department of Fashion Management Studies
National Institute of Fashion Technology
Kolkata
DECLARATION
I Rahul Hela hereby declare that the Project entitled “Study of the consumer buying
behaviour of cell phone market among college going students “submitted towards, partial
fulfilment of the Degree of Master of Fashion Management is our original work and no part
of the project has been copied from any other reports or any other work carried by someone
else which has been submitted for any other degree/award.However,any material taken from
any other published source has been suitably referred and acknowledged at various places.
Rahul Hela
Batch: 2015-2017
Centre: Kolkata
Date:
Place: Kolkata
CERTIFICATE FROM GUIDE REGARDING COMPLETION OF WORK
This is to certify that the Project entitled “Study on the consumer buying behaviour of cell
phone market among college going students “submitted towards the partial fulfilment of
the Degree of Master of Fashion Management by Rahul Hela is their original work under my
guidance and the results are based on the research done by him.
Dr Sougata Banerjee
Assistant Professor
FMS Department
NIFT
Date
Place-Kolkata
Acknowledgement
I grateful to NIFT for providing us an opportunity to do research work on “Study on the
consumer buying behaviour of cell phone market among college going students. I
express our whole hearted thanks to our project guide, Dr Sougata Banerjee, Assistant
Professor, NIFT Kolkata for the encouragement and moral support in organizing my work
and giving us valuable tips for making it presentable.
My thanks are also due to Mr Dibyendu Bikas Datta, Associate Professor, NIFT Kolkata for
his advice in collecting data and other relevant information and being a source of motivation
always.
I will be failing in our duty if I do not mention the name of our faculty, Dr Anannya Deb
Roy, Assistant Professor, NIFT Kolkata for his constant support and other faculty members
for their help in my Degree Project.
I also thankful to all the students of National Institute of Fashion Technology (N.I.F.T.) who
participated in the study, for their valuable contribution and the time they gave so willingly.
I thanks to my family and friends, for their feedback and support during this study.
Rahul Hela
Master of Fashion Management
Date of submission:
Executive Summary
Branding permits customers to develop association with the brand and eases the purchase
decision. According(Jobber, 2007) strong brands benefit consumers in that they provide
quality certification, which can aid decision – making of purchasing. The study investigates
the brand preference on mobile purchase among the students of National Institute of Fashion
Technology (N.I.F.T.). On this basis , this report deals with various choice criteria’s
(economic,social,personal and technical ) that students can use for decision making on
purchasing of branded mobile phone.
With the use of a 10questions among 100 students followed by a survey, it finds that students
see technical criteria (durability, reliability and performance) on making choice of purchase
of branded mobile phones. The study further notifies that economic criteria (price) also
become a important factor that influences the purchasing process. On analysis of personal
criteria suggest that students do not prefer branded mobile for creating self-image however
they choose it because they believe branded mobile reduce the unexpected kinds of risk that
may occurs. The report also says students do not prefer branded mobile in order to maintain
social status (social criteria) while taking decision of purchase.
In addition to this study shows most of the students used internet and takes recommendation
from the friends for choosing a particular brand of mobile phone no matter what the brand of
mobile phone owned .Finally apple is the most preferred brand among the students of
National Institute of Fashion Technology (N.I.F.T.). with highest level of satisfaction too.
To sum up technical criteria and economic criteria plays a very important role to prefer brand.
Internet and friends are the main two sources from which students collect information on
purchasing the mobile and apple is the most preferred brand over other in National Institute
of Fashion Technology (N.I.F.T.).
TABLES OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Background and Rationale of the study
1.3 Telecom Sector in India
1.4 Various players and marketing mix
1.5 Conceptual Area
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Literature Review:
CHAPTER 3: OBJECTIVES, SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS
3.1 Primary Objective
3.2 Secondary Objective
3.3 Scope
3.4 Limitations
CHAPTER 4: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
4.1 Research Design
4.2 Research Time
4.3 Research Method
4.4 Process of data collection
4.5 Data collegiate tour
4.6 Sampling Process
4.7 Sample size
4.8 Sample unit
4.9 Sample flame
4.10 Data analysis tool
4.11 Types of analysis
CHAPTER 7: SUMMARY
CHAPTER 8:CONCLUSION &FUTURE RESEARCH
CHAPTER 10: ANNEXURE
CHAPTER 12: BIBLOGRAPLHY
CHAPTER 1:
INTRODUCTION
1.1 INTRODUCTION
This study was undertaken in order to get a clear idea of the consumer behaviour, exhibited
by the students, in purchasing the Mobile handset. The invention of telecommunication has
been a milestone in the attempt of bringing the world with- in reach. The telephone, with the
time has evolved into the ‘Mobile’. It was invented in an attempt to make communication
wireless. The present generation of the mobile phones is called as ‘Smart Phones’.
The main objective behind this study is to understand the importance of Consumer behaviour
in the context of mobile phone manufacturer. The research aims to study the consumer
behaviour exhibited by college going students while making a purchase decision for mobile
handset. The research will examine the impact of various factors like price, quality etc. on the
consumer behaviour. Along with the objective mentioned earlier, we will study, the brand
awareness among the consumers; the purchasing criteria, used by college going students in
purchasing mobile handsets; the mobile brand preferences as indicated by the students; the
impact of price on the consumer behaviour in purchasing mobile; the impact of quality, on
the consumer behaviour in purchasing mobile; different aspects of quality by virtue of
consumer’s perception; the brand loyalty among the consumer; and specifically verify the
findings of(Liu, 2002)and also to verify the findings of(Karjalubto, 2005)in the context of
Indian consumers.
1.2 Backgroundand Rationale of the study:
(Heikki, 2005)found strong evidence that although mobile phones are developing at a rapid
pace closer to personal digital assistants (PDAs), many consumers tend to be unaware of the
properties and services the new models in the market contain. They showed that seven factors
play a great role to characterize mobile phone choice: they are pricing,reliability,outside
influence, brand and basic properties, design, multimedia and innovative services.
According to(Mei-jian, Haibo, & Qoing, 2012)Brand emotion of the web consumers, group
effect, enterprises networking marketing methods, perceived brand identity are the four
factors that influenced the choice behavior of web consumer in a different degree and way.
The former two factors will affect choice behavior through the consumer preference.
Whereas the second two factors affect brand choice behavior indirectly through preference.
By empirical study, they concluded that the promotion have neither significantly positive
effects nor significant negative ones. Perceived brand identity does not directly produce
effect on choice behavior through the preference, but affects it through the brand emotion of
web consumers. It is because only when brand identity agrees with the brand emotion of web
consumers will produce choice behavior.
(Khurana, 2011)Showed in his empirical research, product price, quality and availability, and
promotion are also important factors to influence the consumers in Hissar's mobile phone
market. These are the factors which helps the consumers to make their purchasing decisions
on the one hand and leads to higher consumer perception indirectly on the other hand. It has
been found that very fewer studies conducted which focus on brand preference preferred by
users while purchasing mobile especially focused among students. The study is based on the
marketing theory consumer buying decision making process. So the present study attempts to
fill the gap that exists in the brand awareness and brand preference among students along
with the possible reasons of brand preference. The benefit of this research extends beyond
professional field to academic field.
1.3 TelecomSectorin India
India has come in a close second in the sale of mobile phones in the year 2006. China has led
the race of mobile sales being the highest in the world. In India however the GSM phones rul
e over the CDMA handsets. Leading the categories are Nokia, Samsung, Sony Erickson while
Reliance takes a large size share in the corporate segment. Subscribers in India are basking in
the glory of the ever increasing number of subscriber patronage. They want to be seen with b
etter handsets as there is a quaintfeeling that the mobile should match the designation or
just make a status statement
with a smartand expensive phone. Hence with such attitudes ruling the market everyone want
s to stand out with the handset they own. Mobile Phones have a huge market in the world and
especially in India. The sharks in this system like Motorola,Nokia,Samsung,Sony Ericsson,L
G,Vodafone etc.continuously introduced latest Mobile Phone models at regular
intervals in order to keep the smaller fishes aware of their superiority in the business.The rang
e of accessories available for each handset caters to the demands of all kinds of users. With th
e rising living standardsmany Mobile Phone Stores have come up in India that offers the entir
e range available along with special offers and free gifts. The Mobile phone sales have touche
d a new high ever since the introduction of technologies like Camera, Games, polyphonic Rin
gtones, extendable memories in the form of Memory Cards, Video Recording, Bluetooth, Wi-
Fi, GPRS etc.MobiePhones Games have captured the interests of youngsters and
adults alike.Manypeople are actually addicted to them. The large and bulky gaming devices h
ave reduced to either handheld video games that are certainly passé or the play stations that ar
e way too expensive.
At the end of 2005-2006, there were 90 million mobile subscribers in India in comparison to
50 million subscribers for landlines. The main aim of this paper is to estimate future trends an
d analyze the pattern and rate of adoption of mobile phones in India. Consequently, the mobil
e subscriber base is projected to increase from 90 million in 2005-2006 to 433 million in 201
0- 2011 and nearly 900 million in 2015-2016. The projected rapid growth in the mobile subsc
riberbase will have important implications for future plans of mobile operators,
infrastructure providers, handset suppliers and vendors.
1.4 Various players and marketing mix:-
The increasing competition between the telecom service providers has increased demand for
both mobile telecom services as well as the handsets. According to Indian Brand Equity
Foundation (2005), the mobile handset market, which was worth about $ 2 Billion two years
ago, had shown a growth of 60% per annum. The GSM (Global System for Mobile
Communications) handsets had 84% share and CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)
handsets has 16% market share. There are various players in the GSM market. Nokia was
leading the market with 59% market share(Prashant, 2005) among the other players; the
prominent are Sony Ericsson, Samsung, Motorola and LG. They are offering wide range of
models for the users of different preferences. The manufacturers are introducing newer and
newer models in quick succession of time. They are motivated to do so because Indian
mobile subscribers are prepared to pay for upgrades, value-based services, and advanced
models. The cut throat competition between manufacturers has forced manufacturers to
reduce their costs and therefore, they are thinking of manufacturing handsets in India. The
low wage rates will help manufacturers to reduce their costs (Indian Brand Equity
Foundation, 2005). Besides this, the service providers and manufacturers are offering value
added services to make up losses in revenues, which have resulted due to decrease in tariff
rates. Thus mobile value added services has become an important element in the growth of
mobile telephony in India.
1.5 ConceptualArea
1.5.1 Consumer Behaviour:-
According to some authors, ‘Consumer behaviour’ refers to the behaviour that the consumers
display in their search for, purchasing, using, evaluating, and disposing of products and
services that they expect will satisfy their needs.
The AMA (American Marketing Association) defines ‘Consumer behaviour’ as, “the
dynamic interaction between the cognition, behaviour, and environmental events by which
human beings conduct the exchange part of their lives.”
1.5.2 Marketing Area
Currently Domestic Mobile phone manufacturers get a tax holiday for 15 years, by
Department of Telecomm and lower uniform VAT rate among other relaxations. Domestic
market demand for mobile phones is expected to hit 1 lakh chore for the first time in 2015.
As per the report of Indian Cellular Association, mobile phone exports are expected to fall to
zero in 2015, from Rs. 2450 core, since suspension of handset production at Nokia’s Chennai
plant.
The government has joined hands with the industry to rejuvenate nation’s mobile phone
manufacturing ecosystem with a view to achieve a production of 500 million units of mobile
handsets by 2019.
With all above recent developments, it is golden opportunity for Indian mobile manufacturers
to grow with full potential. But in order to achieve the stipulated growth, it is extremely
necessary to be aware of the consumer mind-sets, behaviour while purchasing mobile
handsets.
CHAPTER 2:
LITERATURE REVIEW
2. Literature Review and Survey
2.1 Literature Review:-
Consumer choices ofMobile phone:-
SocialFactor:-
1.(Taylol & Todd, 1995)Social factor is a factor from society that influences an
individual personality, attitudes and lifestyle. Influencers from important ones and
surroundings (i.e. friends, family, work associates and etc.) are important factors that will
lead to changes in behaviour. This results from the interaction with each other in the society.
2.(Moschis & Hawkins, 1976,1998) also indicated that the final purchasing decision are
normally influenced by social groups on whether to buy a specific product and which brand
or model to choose among competing alternatives. In addition, Products that are relatively
luxurious (i.e. televisions, automobiles, expensive furniture) are in the category for which
consumers purchasing decisions are more likely to be influence by social factors.
3. Mobile phone falls under this relatively luxurious category. Moreover, study done
by(Osman, Talib, Sanusi, Shiang-Yen, & Alwi, 2012)found out that trend in community is
the most important criterion that influence consumer mobile phone purchasing decision in
Malaysia.
4.Base on the study of (Khan & Rohj, 2013) of which the author cited(Schiffman & Kanuk,
1997)that states friend and family recommendations are becoming an increasingly significant
factor influencing the consumer brand choice and purchase decision. Friends’ options and
preferences are an important influential factor determining the products or brand selection,
especially for a single individual who lives alone.
5 .Agreed upon by(Ash & Venkatesen, 1973)that found out peers who are present at the time
of purchase, play a crucial role in choosing a specific brand, especially with concern to
product and rational impact.
New Technology:-
1.(Kotlaer, 2007)Product feature is define as an attribute of a product that to meet with the
satisfaction level of consumers' needs and wants through the owning of the product, usage
and utilization of a product.
2.(Saif, 2007)There is a study conducted by) on factors influencing consumer’s decision
making when buying mobile phone in Pakistan. Results found Page | 8 out that consumer’s
value new technology features as the most important variable and it also acts as a
motivational forces that influence consumer to buy mobile phone. It motivates consumers due
to the fact that they show that their existing phone is not appropriate anymore compare to the
new technology such as better built-in cameras, better memory, better processor or even
lighter phone.
3.(Liu, 2000)study by in the Philippines showed that choices between mobile phone brands
were affected by new technology features more than size. Thus, it is expected that new
technology features influence customer to acquire new mobile phone, and therefore the
author develop this
Brand Name:-
1. (Mei, Dean a(Mei, Dean, & White, 1999)Brand name is another factor that influence
consumers' purchasing decision when buying mobile phones. Companies are forced to seek
competitive advantage in order to differentiate them among their competitors these days.
2. Likewise, in thearticle, top ten consumer brands in the Philippines,(Sewali, 2012)says,
“Nokia topped the mobile phone brand as it provides a wide range of handsets models from
basic to sophisticated models. In short, there is a mobile phone that suits your budget and
your lifestyle. Holds true foremost Filipinos, since we have embraced the latest technology
on mobile, on brand have been dominating the Philippines market.(Sewali, 2012).Top ten
consumer brands in the Philippines.
3. Brand name is an arbitrarily adopted name that is given by a manufacturer or merchant to
an article or service to distinguish it as produced or sold by that manufacturer or merchant
and that may be used and protected as a trademark .Base on the study of CIRP (Consumer
Intelligence Research Partners) the study examines what phones Samsung and Apple buyers
used previously and also lists some demographic information. The study was based on four
quarterly CIRP surveys of smartphone buyers from July 2012 to June 2013. The survey
composed of 500 subjects who had purchased a mobile phone in previous 90days. The survey
resulted that Apple users switched to Samsung by32%.Previous brand, buyers switched
brands.(Seltzer, 2013)
Price:-
1.(Kabadayi, Calyk, Figen, & Ersoy, 2008)In similar vein, mobile phone customers have
perceived price as a key identification of brands’ perceived value and brands’ quality,
whereby high price indicates advanced technology, design, and improved features.
2.(Malasi, 2012)Furthermore, a recent survey has described that consumers will purchase a
product when its price is reduced). Therefore, it can be assumed that there is a relationship
between price and selection of mobile phones by young costumers. Hence, the following
hypothesis can be formulated:
3.(Mokhils & Yaakop, 2012)Price has been identified as a critical factor affecting the choice
of mobile phone, especially among younger people.
4.(Dziworm, 2013)revealed that consumers’ choice of purchasing mobile phone was mostly
affected by price, as the consumers are likely to associate the price charged and the product
quality.
5.(Khan & Rohj, 2013)Price is the amount of the product in terms of money, the current price
at which an asset or service can be sold. On the study of(Khan & Rohj, 2013)the author states
that price has a vital role in consumer’s purchase decision ,most of consumer’s buying
behaviour and choices determinant is the price. It can act as a dominant and the most
important factor affecting the decision making and purchase process. For youths, price can be
a key factor of attraction, when selecting out of varying mobile phone models; consumers
usually prefer brands of which they have familiarity with. Price of the mobile phone
identified as a key factor in selecting of mobile phones, especially on the young consumers.
6.(Nilson, Kotler, & Amstrong, 1989)that stated the product’s price may vary based on
economic conditions and perceptions of the consumers. It may affect the brands’ perceived
value. Price is used by many of the consumers as an indication of the brands ’quality which is
a vital factor in the purchase decision.
Physicalappearance:-
1.Research conducted by(Yang, He, & Lee, 2007)found out that phone design and
appearance are the most important factor in purchasing a mobile phone, because Chinese
counterparts intend more to impress themselves and others with their mobile phones’ fancy
design and appearance. Companies, including Siemens group, are trying to show the
personality of the consumers through the physical appearance of the phone. In 2002, Siemens
launched a series of GSM with personalization of colour faceplates and tagline
2. In addition,(Liu, 2000)also concluded that consumers value larger screen size mobile
phone as a convenient usage factor. Upon the above discussion, it is initiated the fifth
hypotheses:
Other Factor
1.(Basha & Lakshmanna, 2007).Attempted to find the variables/factors that affect the
consumer buying. The study of consumer behaviour understands of how individuals or
organisations behave in the purchase situation. The results indicate that that the usage of
mobiles in college going students was very high, selection of mobile is made on the services
derived and hold for longer duration based on the quality of the product and price. Most of
the students asked for mobile phones ranging in 15k to 20k.
CHAPTER 3:
OBJECTIVES, SCOPE
AND LIMITATIONS
3. ResearchObjective
3.1 Primary Objective
The objective of this study was to examine consumer buying behavior of mobile phones and
to investigate the reasons underlying mobile phone handsets change.
3.2 SecondaryObjective
This study was guided by the following research hypothesis:
1. To study the behavior of consumers towards cellular phones.
2. Find out preferences of consumers in mobile handsets at the time of purchase.
3. Find out the satisfaction & dissatisfaction level of consumers & reasons for that.
4. The effect of demographics on the evaluations of different attributes related to mobile
phone handsets choice.
5. The effect of psychographics on the evaluations of different attributes related to mobile
phone handsets choice.
6. The effect of behavior on the evaluations of different attributes related to mobile phone
handsets choice.
3.3 Scope of the Study
The result of this study may be useful to help the following beneficiaries:
1. Mobile Phone Market Industry-the use of information presented in this study, they would
be able to enhance the attributes of their product gaining edge over its competitors.
2. Mobile Phone Retailers -this study would help them to plan on what brand and mobile
attributes or features should they be selling in their stores.
3. Customer/Client-that they would be able to know what particular mobile phone attributes
that could help them in their shopping behaviour.
4.Entrepreneur-they will have a basis on what are the attributes that must be consider of their
product when they plan to venture into this line of business.
5. Future researcher-which they could use a reference to any future researches or exploration
that involved on attributes affecting online shopping.
3.4 Limitation of the study
Consumer test and preference keep on changing day by day so the findings from the survey
may not be applicable in all cases. Surveys should thus be undertaken periodically in order to
gauge changing consumer mobile phone usage patterns and perceptions over time. The
current study is the first step of the researcher. This study wills follow next round of study
too. So in this study the following are the limitation.
1. The study is focused exclusively within college going students and the specific target
respondent is its students. This may generates generalized results to all mobile phone users in
College.
2. The sampling methods used in this study may result biasness because it focuses solely of
100 students and the bias of location where the questionnaire spreads out within business
school or other schools. Acknowledging these limitations help to conduct future research in a
wider scope which will produce more accurate and unbiased information.
3. Thus, further investigation to extend this study on factors impacting consumer buying
behaviour of purchasing mobile phone should covers larger region so that other variables will
take into consideration as different type groups of respondents have different buying
behaviour.
4. One of the flaws in this work might be that the research covers only University student
brand preference while mobile purchase mobiles phones which represents small portion of
university students, so the findings of this research might not be the reflection of student
brand preference for the whole India given the scope of this research study.
5. The various criteria defined for the survey was based on the literature review integrating
with the theory of marketing. It is in the sense the researcher want to drive the project
according to the criteria the researcher have chosen in his will. So there seem to be some bias
on the project. This can be reduced to some extent from the opinion the respondent during the
questionnaires session also.
6. The study of branding was only confined to a small theory of marketing. Many
components of branding were not included.
7. Only 15 structured questions for the survey were designed which is based on the criteria
established by theory of marketing. They were written in English Language. So this might be
the possible bias of the study because the survey were collected in the College students and
the answers given by the same respondents might be different if it were collected in Danish
Language. Open end question might be useful to conduct the survey, which was not used in
this study.
8. The analysis was only limited on the descriptive test only. Test of null and alternative
hypothesis can be done based on the literature review. Only integrating the literature review
with the theory was done.
9. The sample size 100 students chosen from the entire population of the University were not
based on the statistical method of determining the sample size from the known population.
10. The study can be further analysed in terms of different dimension like brand preference
among nationality, gender wise, income wise as well as various factor they choose on mobile
phones which is not included in the current study though the sample has been collected from
students because of page time of 40 to 50 page.
CHAPTER 4:
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
4. ResearchMethodology
4.1 ResearchDesign:
This study involves the data found out by the questionnaire and previous reports. The present
study describes the consumer behaviour in context of a mobile purchase. Hence the research
is of ‘Descriptive’ type. The authors have made use of structured questionnaire as well as,
previous research papers as the research instrument for base of data collection. We have used
pie-charts; tabular comparisons; Likert scale (five- point) scores; as well as percentage
comparison, and the hypothesis testing (z-test) to analyse the data collected.
4.2 ResearchTime
4.3 ResearchMethod
4.4 ProcessofData Collection
According(Altinary & Paraskevas, 2008)there are various techniques for collecting
qualitative data such as telephone interviews, observations, Questionnaires. Among them the
study use survey or structured questionnaires to obtain specific information such as ways of
information search to obtain information, perceptions, attitudes , factors and behaviour
regarding mobile phones. The data was collected by means of 15 questionnaires among
students of NIFT. Researcher himself participated in the data collection approaching
personally in different locations such as lecture rooms, libraries and Cafeterias, travelling in
train.
4.5 Data collectiontool
Selfdesigned questionnaire was used to college at
Kolkatadistrict.Data was collected on a seven point’s Likert type scale where one
indicates minimum agreement & seven indicate maximum agreement.
4.6 Sampling Process
4.7 Sampling size
100 Respondents in National Institute of Fashion Technology (N.I.F.T.) Kolkata at Kolkata
district.
4.8 Sample Unit
Customer on the basis of age, gender, income, occupation, education in college at Kolkata
district.
4.9 Sample Area
National Institute of fashion Technology (N.I.F.T.) Kolkata
4.10 Data analysis tool
Stratified Random Sampling & Appropriate statistical tool to be applied to interpret data like
Test of significance, Chi square test.
4.11 Types of analysis
MARKET RESEARCH WORDDOC
CHAPTER 6:
DATA COLLECTION AND
ANALYSIS
Demographics:
Questions which gave information about the demographic profiles of the respondents were as
follows:
1. Gender profile of the respondents:
Gender Percentage
Male 76%
Female 24%
Other 0%
76% of the respondents were Males and 24% of the respondents were Females.
2. Age:-
Age Group
Below 20 years
20-25 years
25-30 years
above 30 years
Age Percentage
Below 20 years 16%
20-25 years 48%
25-30 years 24%
Above 30 years 12%
16% respondents were below 20 years and 48% were 20-25 years and 24% were 25-30
years or 12% respondents were above 30 years.
3. Education Qualification:
Educational Qualification Percentage
Undergraduate 52%
Graduate 26%
Post Graduate 12%
Professionally Qualified 10%
Almost 52% of the respondents were undergraduate students and 26% were graduates.
And 12% were Post Graduate.
4. Annual Family Income level(per month):-
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Undergraduate
Graduate
Post Graduate
Professionally qualified
Educational Qualification
Educational Qualification
From the above graph, it can be inferred that most of the respondents (44%) Income
Group lies above 30,000 and 36% were 20,000-30,000 and 22% lies between 10,000-
20,000 and only 8% lies between 10,000.
Geographic
5. Region:
Region Percentage
8
22
36
44
10,000
10,000-20,000
20,000-30,000
above 30,000
Income Group
Income Group
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
North
East
South
West
Region
Region
North 22%
East 52%
South 16%
West 10%
52% respondent were belonged East India and 22% were North India and 16% or 10%
were belonged to South and West India respectively.
6. Location:-
Location Percentage
Tier 1 65%
Tier 2 28%
Tier 3 6%
Most of the respondents were 65 % Tier 1.
SectionB: About Mobile Phone
7. Mobile Phone user:
0 1 2 3 4 5
Tier 1
Tier 2
Tier 3
Location
Location
Mobile User Percentage
Yes 84%
No 16%
84% respondents were used mobile phone
8. Mobile Brand user:-
Mobile Brand Percentage
Microsoft 26%
Samsung 39%
Sony Ericson 05%
Apple 08%
HTC 04%
Lg 08%
Micromax 06%
Mobile Phone User
Yes
No
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Mobile Brand
Mobile Brand
Most of the respondent were used Samsung Mobile Phone (39%) and 26% were used
Microsoft,8% were used Apple and LG.
9. Preference:-
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Brand Price Physical
Appreance
Durability Service
Strongly Agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
MARKET RESEARCH WORDDOC
CHAPTER 7:
SUMMARY
CHAPTER
9:CONCLUSION AND
FUTURE SCOPE
9. Conclusion
This research study explores brand preference on mobile purchase among the students of
college having analysed the empirical data obtained from the survey of 100students. This
investigation was based on the conceptual framework established by the theoryconsumer
buying decision making process with related literature review provided severalclear
conclusions. The following were the conclusions.
1. Apple has a strong brand preference over brand. According to(Aaker, 1991)isthat strongest
brands, the ones with extremely high quality, will have a large number ofcommitted (loyal)
customer. The scores obtained from the empirical data supports the abovestatement. The
students of Roskilde University prefer apple brand as their first choice scoringmore than fifty
per cent in total survey (56 %). The Samsung and Nokia have only 14 % and13% coverage
among the students respectively while other mobile brands have very lesscoverage.
2. The study shows most of the students used internet (83 %) and takes recommendationfrom
the friends (75%) for choosing a particular brand of mobile phone no matter what the brandof
mobile phone owned. This further says students also used family and advertising media
tocollect information about branded mobile however it is less than half (31 %) than the
previoustwo sources. However the information students take from their neighbours in order
to makepurchase decision is very poor only 4 % in totality.
3. The study investigates the main reason to prefer the brand of any company with thecriteria
established by the conceptual framework. These are the technical criteria were used to
identify to what extend does students see technicalrequirement to choose the branded mobile
product when they want to purchase? The resultshows that students prefer branded mobile for
durability, performance and reliabilityresponding positive response with a total of strongly
agree and agree percentage 63%. 77 %& 68.68 % respectively. This suggests that students
use technical criteria while making.
Decision about the purchase of branded mobile product. Accordingly(Jobber, 2007)Technical
criteria are related to the performance of the product or services.(Jobber, 2007) states that
social criteria concern the impact that purchase makes onthe person’s perceived relationship
with others people and the influence of social norms onthe person. The purchase of a BMW
car may be due to status considerations as much as anytechnical advantages over its rivals.
The result from the data 59.6 % shows that students donot prefer branded mobile in order to
maintain social status while taking decision regardingpurchasing. Statistically 39.4 %, 20.2 %
and 27.3 % of the response of students respectivelystrongly disagree, disagree and remain
neutral that they will have any social status havingbranded mobile phones.Analysis of
personal criteria suggest that students do not prefer branded mobile for creatingself-image
however they choose it because they believe branded mobile reduce theunexpected kinds of
risk that may occurs.
4.Finally economic criteria suggest that the price is one of the crucial factors that may have
greaterinfluences for the students to think to make decision regarding the purchase.
5. Lastly the study measures the level of satisfaction of the brand user on their particular
ownedbrand. The result shows apple users are highly satisfied than other mobile brand users.
As stated earlier in the research purpose, the purpose of the research is to analyse the
studentpreference on mobile purchase among the students of Roskilde University. The study
analysiswhich criteria are used by students most for making decision of purchase of mobile
phonesbased on the theoretical concept established by the theory .Hence it can be said that
thepurpose of this research study is fulfilled.
In conclusion, Technical criteria and Economic Criteria plays a very important role to
preferbrand and internet and friends are the main two sources from where they get
informationabout the branded mobile phones .
8. FUTURE RESEARCH
The following possibilities for future research emerge from this study:
1. The findings of this study are based entirely upon the research conducted among the
students of National Institute of Fashion Technology (N.I.F.T.) and hence may not be
representation of whole preference of students of Calcutta. This survey should be carried out
on a wider scale taking sample from the different University students. In future work the
researcher encourages the replication of this study in involving the students of different
university taking the open end question too.
2. Each of the variables covered in the literature review should be analysed in greater depth
creating hypothesis and try to find the significant difference from those research areas
included on the literature review and in the context of Calcutta.
3. Additional research can be carried out in branding concepts like brand loyalty, brand
awareness, brand equity, in terms of Indian Consumer Market Perception.
4. Consumer need identification process can also be viewed as it is the first step in consumer
buying decision making process.
CHAPTER 10:
ANNEXE
10. Questionnaire
Questionnaire on MarketSurvey on the ConsumerBuying Behaviour on
the cellphone marketamong college going students
I, the Fashion Management students of National Institute of Fashion Technology, Kolkata
under the Ministry of Textiles, Government of India, seek your valuable opinion for the
successful completion of our research on Consumer Buying Behaviour in the cell phone
market among college going students. We request you to take some time out of your busy
schedule and fill in the questionnaire.
Section A: Personal Information
1. Gender
□Male □Female □Third Gender
2. Age:
□Below 20years □20-25 year’s □25-30years □above 30years
3.Education:
□Undergraduate □Graduate □Post Graduate □Professionally Qualified
3. Annual family income Level (per month)
□Less than 10,000 □10,00O – 2O, 000 □20,00O – 30,000 □above30, 000
4. Which region of the country you currently belong to:
□North □South □East □West
5. Where are you located? (Based on the population of your city as per the 2001 census)
□Tier -1(1, 00,000 and above) □Tier 2 (50,000 to 99,999) □Tier 3 (20,000 to 49,999)
Section B: About mobile phones
6. Do you have mobile phone?
□Yes □No.
If yes please answer the following
7. What brand of mobile phone do you own?
□Nokia □Samsung □Sony Ericson □Apple
□HTC □LG □Miromax □others specify …
8. Strongly Agree-1, Agree-2, Neutral-3, Disagree-4, Strongly Disagree-5
Strongly
agree
Agree Neutral Disagree
Strongly
disagree
Brand name is
symbol of
quality
1 2 3 4 5
The price of
mobile
indicates high
quality
1 2 3 4 5
I would
preferred
bright colour
mobile
1 2 3 4 5
Durability 1 2 3 4 5
After Sales
Service
1 2 3 4 5
9. I would prefer my new mobile to be having, (Rate from 1 to 5 in the increasing order
of your preference).
1 2 3 4 5
Robust built
Large
display
Long battery
Aptly Sized
Attractive
colored
Latest O.S
Great Sound
CHAPTER 12:
BIBLOGRAPLHY
Aaker.(1991).
Ash,& Venkatesen.(1973).
Basha,S., & Lakshmanna,C. (2007).
Basha,S., & Lakshmanna,C. (2007).
Brown,Hamel,Prahalad,Kumar,& Negel.(1991).
Dziworm.(2013).
Gerstheimer,&Lupp.(2004).
Heikki,J.(2005).
Heikki,J.(2005).
Jobber,D.(2007). 330.
Jobber,D.(2007).
Kabadayi,Calyk,Figen,&Ersoy.(2008).
Karjalubto.(2005).
Khan,S.,& Rohj,S.(2013).
Khurana,S. (2011).
Kotlaer.(2007).
Liu.(2000).
Liu.(2002).
Malasi.(2012).
Mei,Dean,& White.(1999).
Mei-jian,Haibo,&Qoing.(2012).
Mokhils,&Yaakop. (2012).
Moschis,& Hawkins. (1976,1998).
Nilson,Kotler,&Amstrong.(1989).
Osman,Talib,Sanusi,Shiang-Yen,&Alwi.(2012).
Prashant.(2005).
Saif.(2007).
Saif.(2012).
Schiffman,&Kanuk.(1997).
Seltzer,L.(2013).
Sewali,R.(2012).
Taylol,& Todd.(1995).
Yang, He,& Lee.(2007).
Although mobile phones have become a fundamental part of personal communication across
the globe during the past ten years, consumer research has devoted little specific attention to
motives and choice underlying the mobile phone buying decision process. There are
numerous complex factors that need to be taken into account when exploring mobile phone
buying decision process, including both macro- and microeconomic conditions that affect the
evolution of mobile phone market in general and individual consumer’s motives and decision
making in particular. Moreover, it is important to distinguish be- tween buying behaviour
referring to the choice between different mobile phone models and brands and change aspects
referring to reasons that affect change. As the mobile phone market is a typical technology
push driven market where products are created ahead of the recognition of existing
recognized consumer needs(Gerstheimer & Lupp, 2004)mobile phone development is based
on consumers’ possible future needs and thus companies that best hunch the technologies and
services of future will be the leaders in the discipline (for discussion of technology push see,
e.g.(Brown, Hamel, Prahalad, Kumar, & Negel, 1991)

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MARKET RESEARCH WORDDOC

  • 1. STUDY ON THE CONSUMER’S BUYING BEHAVIOUR’S IN THE CELL PHONE MARKET AMONG COLLEGE GOING STUDENTS RAHUL HELA 2015-2017 MASTER OF FASHION MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT OF FASHION MANAGEMENT STUDIES NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY KOLKATA
  • 2. STUDY ON THE CONSUMER’S BUYING BEHAVIOUR’S IN THE CELL PHONE MARKET AMONG COLLEGE GOING STUDENTS A report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the completion of Semester I in Master of Fashion Management Under the guidance by: Dr Sougata Banerjee Submitted by: Rahul Hela Department of Fashion Management Studies National Institute of Fashion Technology Kolkata
  • 3. DECLARATION I Rahul Hela hereby declare that the Project entitled “Study of the consumer buying behaviour of cell phone market among college going students “submitted towards, partial fulfilment of the Degree of Master of Fashion Management is our original work and no part of the project has been copied from any other reports or any other work carried by someone else which has been submitted for any other degree/award.However,any material taken from any other published source has been suitably referred and acknowledged at various places. Rahul Hela Batch: 2015-2017 Centre: Kolkata Date: Place: Kolkata
  • 4. CERTIFICATE FROM GUIDE REGARDING COMPLETION OF WORK This is to certify that the Project entitled “Study on the consumer buying behaviour of cell phone market among college going students “submitted towards the partial fulfilment of the Degree of Master of Fashion Management by Rahul Hela is their original work under my guidance and the results are based on the research done by him. Dr Sougata Banerjee Assistant Professor FMS Department NIFT Date Place-Kolkata
  • 5. Acknowledgement I grateful to NIFT for providing us an opportunity to do research work on “Study on the consumer buying behaviour of cell phone market among college going students. I express our whole hearted thanks to our project guide, Dr Sougata Banerjee, Assistant Professor, NIFT Kolkata for the encouragement and moral support in organizing my work and giving us valuable tips for making it presentable. My thanks are also due to Mr Dibyendu Bikas Datta, Associate Professor, NIFT Kolkata for his advice in collecting data and other relevant information and being a source of motivation always. I will be failing in our duty if I do not mention the name of our faculty, Dr Anannya Deb Roy, Assistant Professor, NIFT Kolkata for his constant support and other faculty members for their help in my Degree Project. I also thankful to all the students of National Institute of Fashion Technology (N.I.F.T.) who participated in the study, for their valuable contribution and the time they gave so willingly. I thanks to my family and friends, for their feedback and support during this study. Rahul Hela Master of Fashion Management Date of submission:
  • 6. Executive Summary Branding permits customers to develop association with the brand and eases the purchase decision. According(Jobber, 2007) strong brands benefit consumers in that they provide quality certification, which can aid decision – making of purchasing. The study investigates the brand preference on mobile purchase among the students of National Institute of Fashion Technology (N.I.F.T.). On this basis , this report deals with various choice criteria’s (economic,social,personal and technical ) that students can use for decision making on purchasing of branded mobile phone. With the use of a 10questions among 100 students followed by a survey, it finds that students see technical criteria (durability, reliability and performance) on making choice of purchase of branded mobile phones. The study further notifies that economic criteria (price) also become a important factor that influences the purchasing process. On analysis of personal criteria suggest that students do not prefer branded mobile for creating self-image however they choose it because they believe branded mobile reduce the unexpected kinds of risk that may occurs. The report also says students do not prefer branded mobile in order to maintain social status (social criteria) while taking decision of purchase. In addition to this study shows most of the students used internet and takes recommendation from the friends for choosing a particular brand of mobile phone no matter what the brand of mobile phone owned .Finally apple is the most preferred brand among the students of National Institute of Fashion Technology (N.I.F.T.). with highest level of satisfaction too. To sum up technical criteria and economic criteria plays a very important role to prefer brand. Internet and friends are the main two sources from which students collect information on purchasing the mobile and apple is the most preferred brand over other in National Institute of Fashion Technology (N.I.F.T.).
  • 7. TABLES OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Background and Rationale of the study 1.3 Telecom Sector in India 1.4 Various players and marketing mix 1.5 Conceptual Area CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. Literature Review: CHAPTER 3: OBJECTIVES, SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS 3.1 Primary Objective 3.2 Secondary Objective 3.3 Scope 3.4 Limitations CHAPTER 4: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 4.1 Research Design 4.2 Research Time 4.3 Research Method 4.4 Process of data collection 4.5 Data collegiate tour 4.6 Sampling Process 4.7 Sample size
  • 8. 4.8 Sample unit 4.9 Sample flame 4.10 Data analysis tool 4.11 Types of analysis CHAPTER 7: SUMMARY CHAPTER 8:CONCLUSION &FUTURE RESEARCH CHAPTER 10: ANNEXURE CHAPTER 12: BIBLOGRAPLHY
  • 10. 1.1 INTRODUCTION This study was undertaken in order to get a clear idea of the consumer behaviour, exhibited by the students, in purchasing the Mobile handset. The invention of telecommunication has been a milestone in the attempt of bringing the world with- in reach. The telephone, with the time has evolved into the ‘Mobile’. It was invented in an attempt to make communication wireless. The present generation of the mobile phones is called as ‘Smart Phones’. The main objective behind this study is to understand the importance of Consumer behaviour in the context of mobile phone manufacturer. The research aims to study the consumer behaviour exhibited by college going students while making a purchase decision for mobile handset. The research will examine the impact of various factors like price, quality etc. on the consumer behaviour. Along with the objective mentioned earlier, we will study, the brand awareness among the consumers; the purchasing criteria, used by college going students in purchasing mobile handsets; the mobile brand preferences as indicated by the students; the impact of price on the consumer behaviour in purchasing mobile; the impact of quality, on the consumer behaviour in purchasing mobile; different aspects of quality by virtue of consumer’s perception; the brand loyalty among the consumer; and specifically verify the findings of(Liu, 2002)and also to verify the findings of(Karjalubto, 2005)in the context of Indian consumers. 1.2 Backgroundand Rationale of the study: (Heikki, 2005)found strong evidence that although mobile phones are developing at a rapid pace closer to personal digital assistants (PDAs), many consumers tend to be unaware of the properties and services the new models in the market contain. They showed that seven factors play a great role to characterize mobile phone choice: they are pricing,reliability,outside influence, brand and basic properties, design, multimedia and innovative services. According to(Mei-jian, Haibo, & Qoing, 2012)Brand emotion of the web consumers, group effect, enterprises networking marketing methods, perceived brand identity are the four factors that influenced the choice behavior of web consumer in a different degree and way. The former two factors will affect choice behavior through the consumer preference. Whereas the second two factors affect brand choice behavior indirectly through preference. By empirical study, they concluded that the promotion have neither significantly positive effects nor significant negative ones. Perceived brand identity does not directly produce
  • 11. effect on choice behavior through the preference, but affects it through the brand emotion of web consumers. It is because only when brand identity agrees with the brand emotion of web consumers will produce choice behavior. (Khurana, 2011)Showed in his empirical research, product price, quality and availability, and promotion are also important factors to influence the consumers in Hissar's mobile phone market. These are the factors which helps the consumers to make their purchasing decisions on the one hand and leads to higher consumer perception indirectly on the other hand. It has been found that very fewer studies conducted which focus on brand preference preferred by users while purchasing mobile especially focused among students. The study is based on the marketing theory consumer buying decision making process. So the present study attempts to fill the gap that exists in the brand awareness and brand preference among students along with the possible reasons of brand preference. The benefit of this research extends beyond professional field to academic field. 1.3 TelecomSectorin India India has come in a close second in the sale of mobile phones in the year 2006. China has led the race of mobile sales being the highest in the world. In India however the GSM phones rul e over the CDMA handsets. Leading the categories are Nokia, Samsung, Sony Erickson while Reliance takes a large size share in the corporate segment. Subscribers in India are basking in the glory of the ever increasing number of subscriber patronage. They want to be seen with b etter handsets as there is a quaintfeeling that the mobile should match the designation or just make a status statement with a smartand expensive phone. Hence with such attitudes ruling the market everyone want s to stand out with the handset they own. Mobile Phones have a huge market in the world and especially in India. The sharks in this system like Motorola,Nokia,Samsung,Sony Ericsson,L G,Vodafone etc.continuously introduced latest Mobile Phone models at regular intervals in order to keep the smaller fishes aware of their superiority in the business.The rang e of accessories available for each handset caters to the demands of all kinds of users. With th e rising living standardsmany Mobile Phone Stores have come up in India that offers the entir e range available along with special offers and free gifts. The Mobile phone sales have touche d a new high ever since the introduction of technologies like Camera, Games, polyphonic Rin gtones, extendable memories in the form of Memory Cards, Video Recording, Bluetooth, Wi- Fi, GPRS etc.MobiePhones Games have captured the interests of youngsters and
  • 12. adults alike.Manypeople are actually addicted to them. The large and bulky gaming devices h ave reduced to either handheld video games that are certainly passé or the play stations that ar e way too expensive. At the end of 2005-2006, there were 90 million mobile subscribers in India in comparison to 50 million subscribers for landlines. The main aim of this paper is to estimate future trends an d analyze the pattern and rate of adoption of mobile phones in India. Consequently, the mobil e subscriber base is projected to increase from 90 million in 2005-2006 to 433 million in 201 0- 2011 and nearly 900 million in 2015-2016. The projected rapid growth in the mobile subsc riberbase will have important implications for future plans of mobile operators, infrastructure providers, handset suppliers and vendors. 1.4 Various players and marketing mix:- The increasing competition between the telecom service providers has increased demand for both mobile telecom services as well as the handsets. According to Indian Brand Equity Foundation (2005), the mobile handset market, which was worth about $ 2 Billion two years ago, had shown a growth of 60% per annum. The GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) handsets had 84% share and CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) handsets has 16% market share. There are various players in the GSM market. Nokia was leading the market with 59% market share(Prashant, 2005) among the other players; the prominent are Sony Ericsson, Samsung, Motorola and LG. They are offering wide range of models for the users of different preferences. The manufacturers are introducing newer and newer models in quick succession of time. They are motivated to do so because Indian mobile subscribers are prepared to pay for upgrades, value-based services, and advanced models. The cut throat competition between manufacturers has forced manufacturers to reduce their costs and therefore, they are thinking of manufacturing handsets in India. The low wage rates will help manufacturers to reduce their costs (Indian Brand Equity Foundation, 2005). Besides this, the service providers and manufacturers are offering value added services to make up losses in revenues, which have resulted due to decrease in tariff rates. Thus mobile value added services has become an important element in the growth of mobile telephony in India. 1.5 ConceptualArea 1.5.1 Consumer Behaviour:-
  • 13. According to some authors, ‘Consumer behaviour’ refers to the behaviour that the consumers display in their search for, purchasing, using, evaluating, and disposing of products and services that they expect will satisfy their needs. The AMA (American Marketing Association) defines ‘Consumer behaviour’ as, “the dynamic interaction between the cognition, behaviour, and environmental events by which human beings conduct the exchange part of their lives.” 1.5.2 Marketing Area Currently Domestic Mobile phone manufacturers get a tax holiday for 15 years, by Department of Telecomm and lower uniform VAT rate among other relaxations. Domestic market demand for mobile phones is expected to hit 1 lakh chore for the first time in 2015. As per the report of Indian Cellular Association, mobile phone exports are expected to fall to zero in 2015, from Rs. 2450 core, since suspension of handset production at Nokia’s Chennai plant. The government has joined hands with the industry to rejuvenate nation’s mobile phone manufacturing ecosystem with a view to achieve a production of 500 million units of mobile handsets by 2019. With all above recent developments, it is golden opportunity for Indian mobile manufacturers to grow with full potential. But in order to achieve the stipulated growth, it is extremely necessary to be aware of the consumer mind-sets, behaviour while purchasing mobile handsets.
  • 15. 2. Literature Review and Survey 2.1 Literature Review:- Consumer choices ofMobile phone:- SocialFactor:- 1.(Taylol & Todd, 1995)Social factor is a factor from society that influences an individual personality, attitudes and lifestyle. Influencers from important ones and surroundings (i.e. friends, family, work associates and etc.) are important factors that will lead to changes in behaviour. This results from the interaction with each other in the society. 2.(Moschis & Hawkins, 1976,1998) also indicated that the final purchasing decision are normally influenced by social groups on whether to buy a specific product and which brand or model to choose among competing alternatives. In addition, Products that are relatively luxurious (i.e. televisions, automobiles, expensive furniture) are in the category for which consumers purchasing decisions are more likely to be influence by social factors. 3. Mobile phone falls under this relatively luxurious category. Moreover, study done by(Osman, Talib, Sanusi, Shiang-Yen, & Alwi, 2012)found out that trend in community is the most important criterion that influence consumer mobile phone purchasing decision in Malaysia. 4.Base on the study of (Khan & Rohj, 2013) of which the author cited(Schiffman & Kanuk, 1997)that states friend and family recommendations are becoming an increasingly significant factor influencing the consumer brand choice and purchase decision. Friends’ options and preferences are an important influential factor determining the products or brand selection, especially for a single individual who lives alone. 5 .Agreed upon by(Ash & Venkatesen, 1973)that found out peers who are present at the time of purchase, play a crucial role in choosing a specific brand, especially with concern to product and rational impact. New Technology:- 1.(Kotlaer, 2007)Product feature is define as an attribute of a product that to meet with the satisfaction level of consumers' needs and wants through the owning of the product, usage and utilization of a product.
  • 16. 2.(Saif, 2007)There is a study conducted by) on factors influencing consumer’s decision making when buying mobile phone in Pakistan. Results found Page | 8 out that consumer’s value new technology features as the most important variable and it also acts as a motivational forces that influence consumer to buy mobile phone. It motivates consumers due to the fact that they show that their existing phone is not appropriate anymore compare to the new technology such as better built-in cameras, better memory, better processor or even lighter phone. 3.(Liu, 2000)study by in the Philippines showed that choices between mobile phone brands were affected by new technology features more than size. Thus, it is expected that new technology features influence customer to acquire new mobile phone, and therefore the author develop this Brand Name:- 1. (Mei, Dean a(Mei, Dean, & White, 1999)Brand name is another factor that influence consumers' purchasing decision when buying mobile phones. Companies are forced to seek competitive advantage in order to differentiate them among their competitors these days. 2. Likewise, in thearticle, top ten consumer brands in the Philippines,(Sewali, 2012)says, “Nokia topped the mobile phone brand as it provides a wide range of handsets models from basic to sophisticated models. In short, there is a mobile phone that suits your budget and your lifestyle. Holds true foremost Filipinos, since we have embraced the latest technology on mobile, on brand have been dominating the Philippines market.(Sewali, 2012).Top ten consumer brands in the Philippines. 3. Brand name is an arbitrarily adopted name that is given by a manufacturer or merchant to an article or service to distinguish it as produced or sold by that manufacturer or merchant and that may be used and protected as a trademark .Base on the study of CIRP (Consumer Intelligence Research Partners) the study examines what phones Samsung and Apple buyers used previously and also lists some demographic information. The study was based on four quarterly CIRP surveys of smartphone buyers from July 2012 to June 2013. The survey composed of 500 subjects who had purchased a mobile phone in previous 90days. The survey resulted that Apple users switched to Samsung by32%.Previous brand, buyers switched brands.(Seltzer, 2013)
  • 17. Price:- 1.(Kabadayi, Calyk, Figen, & Ersoy, 2008)In similar vein, mobile phone customers have perceived price as a key identification of brands’ perceived value and brands’ quality, whereby high price indicates advanced technology, design, and improved features. 2.(Malasi, 2012)Furthermore, a recent survey has described that consumers will purchase a product when its price is reduced). Therefore, it can be assumed that there is a relationship between price and selection of mobile phones by young costumers. Hence, the following hypothesis can be formulated: 3.(Mokhils & Yaakop, 2012)Price has been identified as a critical factor affecting the choice of mobile phone, especially among younger people. 4.(Dziworm, 2013)revealed that consumers’ choice of purchasing mobile phone was mostly affected by price, as the consumers are likely to associate the price charged and the product quality. 5.(Khan & Rohj, 2013)Price is the amount of the product in terms of money, the current price at which an asset or service can be sold. On the study of(Khan & Rohj, 2013)the author states that price has a vital role in consumer’s purchase decision ,most of consumer’s buying behaviour and choices determinant is the price. It can act as a dominant and the most important factor affecting the decision making and purchase process. For youths, price can be a key factor of attraction, when selecting out of varying mobile phone models; consumers usually prefer brands of which they have familiarity with. Price of the mobile phone identified as a key factor in selecting of mobile phones, especially on the young consumers. 6.(Nilson, Kotler, & Amstrong, 1989)that stated the product’s price may vary based on economic conditions and perceptions of the consumers. It may affect the brands’ perceived value. Price is used by many of the consumers as an indication of the brands ’quality which is a vital factor in the purchase decision. Physicalappearance:- 1.Research conducted by(Yang, He, & Lee, 2007)found out that phone design and appearance are the most important factor in purchasing a mobile phone, because Chinese counterparts intend more to impress themselves and others with their mobile phones’ fancy
  • 18. design and appearance. Companies, including Siemens group, are trying to show the personality of the consumers through the physical appearance of the phone. In 2002, Siemens launched a series of GSM with personalization of colour faceplates and tagline 2. In addition,(Liu, 2000)also concluded that consumers value larger screen size mobile phone as a convenient usage factor. Upon the above discussion, it is initiated the fifth hypotheses: Other Factor 1.(Basha & Lakshmanna, 2007).Attempted to find the variables/factors that affect the consumer buying. The study of consumer behaviour understands of how individuals or organisations behave in the purchase situation. The results indicate that that the usage of mobiles in college going students was very high, selection of mobile is made on the services derived and hold for longer duration based on the quality of the product and price. Most of the students asked for mobile phones ranging in 15k to 20k.
  • 20. 3. ResearchObjective 3.1 Primary Objective The objective of this study was to examine consumer buying behavior of mobile phones and to investigate the reasons underlying mobile phone handsets change. 3.2 SecondaryObjective This study was guided by the following research hypothesis: 1. To study the behavior of consumers towards cellular phones. 2. Find out preferences of consumers in mobile handsets at the time of purchase. 3. Find out the satisfaction & dissatisfaction level of consumers & reasons for that. 4. The effect of demographics on the evaluations of different attributes related to mobile phone handsets choice. 5. The effect of psychographics on the evaluations of different attributes related to mobile phone handsets choice. 6. The effect of behavior on the evaluations of different attributes related to mobile phone handsets choice. 3.3 Scope of the Study The result of this study may be useful to help the following beneficiaries: 1. Mobile Phone Market Industry-the use of information presented in this study, they would be able to enhance the attributes of their product gaining edge over its competitors. 2. Mobile Phone Retailers -this study would help them to plan on what brand and mobile attributes or features should they be selling in their stores. 3. Customer/Client-that they would be able to know what particular mobile phone attributes that could help them in their shopping behaviour. 4.Entrepreneur-they will have a basis on what are the attributes that must be consider of their product when they plan to venture into this line of business.
  • 21. 5. Future researcher-which they could use a reference to any future researches or exploration that involved on attributes affecting online shopping. 3.4 Limitation of the study Consumer test and preference keep on changing day by day so the findings from the survey may not be applicable in all cases. Surveys should thus be undertaken periodically in order to gauge changing consumer mobile phone usage patterns and perceptions over time. The current study is the first step of the researcher. This study wills follow next round of study too. So in this study the following are the limitation. 1. The study is focused exclusively within college going students and the specific target respondent is its students. This may generates generalized results to all mobile phone users in College. 2. The sampling methods used in this study may result biasness because it focuses solely of 100 students and the bias of location where the questionnaire spreads out within business school or other schools. Acknowledging these limitations help to conduct future research in a wider scope which will produce more accurate and unbiased information. 3. Thus, further investigation to extend this study on factors impacting consumer buying behaviour of purchasing mobile phone should covers larger region so that other variables will take into consideration as different type groups of respondents have different buying behaviour. 4. One of the flaws in this work might be that the research covers only University student brand preference while mobile purchase mobiles phones which represents small portion of university students, so the findings of this research might not be the reflection of student brand preference for the whole India given the scope of this research study. 5. The various criteria defined for the survey was based on the literature review integrating with the theory of marketing. It is in the sense the researcher want to drive the project according to the criteria the researcher have chosen in his will. So there seem to be some bias on the project. This can be reduced to some extent from the opinion the respondent during the questionnaires session also.
  • 22. 6. The study of branding was only confined to a small theory of marketing. Many components of branding were not included. 7. Only 15 structured questions for the survey were designed which is based on the criteria established by theory of marketing. They were written in English Language. So this might be the possible bias of the study because the survey were collected in the College students and the answers given by the same respondents might be different if it were collected in Danish Language. Open end question might be useful to conduct the survey, which was not used in this study. 8. The analysis was only limited on the descriptive test only. Test of null and alternative hypothesis can be done based on the literature review. Only integrating the literature review with the theory was done. 9. The sample size 100 students chosen from the entire population of the University were not based on the statistical method of determining the sample size from the known population. 10. The study can be further analysed in terms of different dimension like brand preference among nationality, gender wise, income wise as well as various factor they choose on mobile phones which is not included in the current study though the sample has been collected from students because of page time of 40 to 50 page.
  • 24. 4. ResearchMethodology 4.1 ResearchDesign: This study involves the data found out by the questionnaire and previous reports. The present study describes the consumer behaviour in context of a mobile purchase. Hence the research is of ‘Descriptive’ type. The authors have made use of structured questionnaire as well as, previous research papers as the research instrument for base of data collection. We have used pie-charts; tabular comparisons; Likert scale (five- point) scores; as well as percentage comparison, and the hypothesis testing (z-test) to analyse the data collected. 4.2 ResearchTime 4.3 ResearchMethod 4.4 ProcessofData Collection According(Altinary & Paraskevas, 2008)there are various techniques for collecting qualitative data such as telephone interviews, observations, Questionnaires. Among them the study use survey or structured questionnaires to obtain specific information such as ways of information search to obtain information, perceptions, attitudes , factors and behaviour regarding mobile phones. The data was collected by means of 15 questionnaires among students of NIFT. Researcher himself participated in the data collection approaching personally in different locations such as lecture rooms, libraries and Cafeterias, travelling in train. 4.5 Data collectiontool Selfdesigned questionnaire was used to college at Kolkatadistrict.Data was collected on a seven point’s Likert type scale where one indicates minimum agreement & seven indicate maximum agreement. 4.6 Sampling Process
  • 25. 4.7 Sampling size 100 Respondents in National Institute of Fashion Technology (N.I.F.T.) Kolkata at Kolkata district. 4.8 Sample Unit Customer on the basis of age, gender, income, occupation, education in college at Kolkata district. 4.9 Sample Area National Institute of fashion Technology (N.I.F.T.) Kolkata 4.10 Data analysis tool Stratified Random Sampling & Appropriate statistical tool to be applied to interpret data like Test of significance, Chi square test. 4.11 Types of analysis
  • 28. Demographics: Questions which gave information about the demographic profiles of the respondents were as follows: 1. Gender profile of the respondents: Gender Percentage Male 76% Female 24% Other 0% 76% of the respondents were Males and 24% of the respondents were Females. 2. Age:- Age Group Below 20 years 20-25 years 25-30 years above 30 years
  • 29. Age Percentage Below 20 years 16% 20-25 years 48% 25-30 years 24% Above 30 years 12% 16% respondents were below 20 years and 48% were 20-25 years and 24% were 25-30 years or 12% respondents were above 30 years. 3. Education Qualification: Educational Qualification Percentage Undergraduate 52% Graduate 26% Post Graduate 12% Professionally Qualified 10% Almost 52% of the respondents were undergraduate students and 26% were graduates. And 12% were Post Graduate. 4. Annual Family Income level(per month):- 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Undergraduate Graduate Post Graduate Professionally qualified Educational Qualification Educational Qualification
  • 30. From the above graph, it can be inferred that most of the respondents (44%) Income Group lies above 30,000 and 36% were 20,000-30,000 and 22% lies between 10,000- 20,000 and only 8% lies between 10,000. Geographic 5. Region: Region Percentage 8 22 36 44 10,000 10,000-20,000 20,000-30,000 above 30,000 Income Group Income Group 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 North East South West Region Region
  • 31. North 22% East 52% South 16% West 10% 52% respondent were belonged East India and 22% were North India and 16% or 10% were belonged to South and West India respectively. 6. Location:- Location Percentage Tier 1 65% Tier 2 28% Tier 3 6% Most of the respondents were 65 % Tier 1. SectionB: About Mobile Phone 7. Mobile Phone user: 0 1 2 3 4 5 Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Location Location
  • 32. Mobile User Percentage Yes 84% No 16% 84% respondents were used mobile phone 8. Mobile Brand user:- Mobile Brand Percentage Microsoft 26% Samsung 39% Sony Ericson 05% Apple 08% HTC 04% Lg 08% Micromax 06% Mobile Phone User Yes No 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Mobile Brand Mobile Brand
  • 33. Most of the respondent were used Samsung Mobile Phone (39%) and 26% were used Microsoft,8% were used Apple and LG. 9. Preference:- 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Brand Price Physical Appreance Durability Service Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree
  • 37. 9. Conclusion This research study explores brand preference on mobile purchase among the students of college having analysed the empirical data obtained from the survey of 100students. This investigation was based on the conceptual framework established by the theoryconsumer buying decision making process with related literature review provided severalclear conclusions. The following were the conclusions. 1. Apple has a strong brand preference over brand. According to(Aaker, 1991)isthat strongest brands, the ones with extremely high quality, will have a large number ofcommitted (loyal) customer. The scores obtained from the empirical data supports the abovestatement. The students of Roskilde University prefer apple brand as their first choice scoringmore than fifty per cent in total survey (56 %). The Samsung and Nokia have only 14 % and13% coverage among the students respectively while other mobile brands have very lesscoverage. 2. The study shows most of the students used internet (83 %) and takes recommendationfrom the friends (75%) for choosing a particular brand of mobile phone no matter what the brandof mobile phone owned. This further says students also used family and advertising media tocollect information about branded mobile however it is less than half (31 %) than the previoustwo sources. However the information students take from their neighbours in order to makepurchase decision is very poor only 4 % in totality.
  • 38. 3. The study investigates the main reason to prefer the brand of any company with thecriteria established by the conceptual framework. These are the technical criteria were used to identify to what extend does students see technicalrequirement to choose the branded mobile product when they want to purchase? The resultshows that students prefer branded mobile for durability, performance and reliabilityresponding positive response with a total of strongly agree and agree percentage 63%. 77 %& 68.68 % respectively. This suggests that students use technical criteria while making. Decision about the purchase of branded mobile product. Accordingly(Jobber, 2007)Technical criteria are related to the performance of the product or services.(Jobber, 2007) states that social criteria concern the impact that purchase makes onthe person’s perceived relationship with others people and the influence of social norms onthe person. The purchase of a BMW car may be due to status considerations as much as anytechnical advantages over its rivals. The result from the data 59.6 % shows that students donot prefer branded mobile in order to maintain social status while taking decision regardingpurchasing. Statistically 39.4 %, 20.2 % and 27.3 % of the response of students respectivelystrongly disagree, disagree and remain neutral that they will have any social status havingbranded mobile phones.Analysis of personal criteria suggest that students do not prefer branded mobile for creatingself-image however they choose it because they believe branded mobile reduce theunexpected kinds of risk that may occurs. 4.Finally economic criteria suggest that the price is one of the crucial factors that may have greaterinfluences for the students to think to make decision regarding the purchase. 5. Lastly the study measures the level of satisfaction of the brand user on their particular ownedbrand. The result shows apple users are highly satisfied than other mobile brand users. As stated earlier in the research purpose, the purpose of the research is to analyse the studentpreference on mobile purchase among the students of Roskilde University. The study analysiswhich criteria are used by students most for making decision of purchase of mobile phonesbased on the theoretical concept established by the theory .Hence it can be said that thepurpose of this research study is fulfilled. In conclusion, Technical criteria and Economic Criteria plays a very important role to preferbrand and internet and friends are the main two sources from where they get informationabout the branded mobile phones .
  • 39. 8. FUTURE RESEARCH The following possibilities for future research emerge from this study: 1. The findings of this study are based entirely upon the research conducted among the students of National Institute of Fashion Technology (N.I.F.T.) and hence may not be representation of whole preference of students of Calcutta. This survey should be carried out on a wider scale taking sample from the different University students. In future work the researcher encourages the replication of this study in involving the students of different university taking the open end question too. 2. Each of the variables covered in the literature review should be analysed in greater depth creating hypothesis and try to find the significant difference from those research areas included on the literature review and in the context of Calcutta. 3. Additional research can be carried out in branding concepts like brand loyalty, brand awareness, brand equity, in terms of Indian Consumer Market Perception. 4. Consumer need identification process can also be viewed as it is the first step in consumer buying decision making process.
  • 41. 10. Questionnaire Questionnaire on MarketSurvey on the ConsumerBuying Behaviour on the cellphone marketamong college going students I, the Fashion Management students of National Institute of Fashion Technology, Kolkata under the Ministry of Textiles, Government of India, seek your valuable opinion for the successful completion of our research on Consumer Buying Behaviour in the cell phone market among college going students. We request you to take some time out of your busy schedule and fill in the questionnaire. Section A: Personal Information 1. Gender □Male □Female □Third Gender 2. Age: □Below 20years □20-25 year’s □25-30years □above 30years 3.Education: □Undergraduate □Graduate □Post Graduate □Professionally Qualified 3. Annual family income Level (per month) □Less than 10,000 □10,00O – 2O, 000 □20,00O – 30,000 □above30, 000 4. Which region of the country you currently belong to: □North □South □East □West 5. Where are you located? (Based on the population of your city as per the 2001 census) □Tier -1(1, 00,000 and above) □Tier 2 (50,000 to 99,999) □Tier 3 (20,000 to 49,999) Section B: About mobile phones 6. Do you have mobile phone?
  • 42. □Yes □No. If yes please answer the following 7. What brand of mobile phone do you own? □Nokia □Samsung □Sony Ericson □Apple □HTC □LG □Miromax □others specify … 8. Strongly Agree-1, Agree-2, Neutral-3, Disagree-4, Strongly Disagree-5 Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree Brand name is symbol of quality 1 2 3 4 5 The price of mobile indicates high quality 1 2 3 4 5 I would preferred bright colour mobile 1 2 3 4 5 Durability 1 2 3 4 5 After Sales Service 1 2 3 4 5 9. I would prefer my new mobile to be having, (Rate from 1 to 5 in the increasing order of your preference). 1 2 3 4 5 Robust built Large display Long battery Aptly Sized Attractive colored Latest O.S
  • 45. Aaker.(1991). Ash,& Venkatesen.(1973). Basha,S., & Lakshmanna,C. (2007). Basha,S., & Lakshmanna,C. (2007). Brown,Hamel,Prahalad,Kumar,& Negel.(1991). Dziworm.(2013). Gerstheimer,&Lupp.(2004). Heikki,J.(2005). Heikki,J.(2005). Jobber,D.(2007). 330. Jobber,D.(2007). Kabadayi,Calyk,Figen,&Ersoy.(2008). Karjalubto.(2005). Khan,S.,& Rohj,S.(2013). Khurana,S. (2011). Kotlaer.(2007). Liu.(2000). Liu.(2002). Malasi.(2012). Mei,Dean,& White.(1999). Mei-jian,Haibo,&Qoing.(2012). Mokhils,&Yaakop. (2012). Moschis,& Hawkins. (1976,1998). Nilson,Kotler,&Amstrong.(1989). Osman,Talib,Sanusi,Shiang-Yen,&Alwi.(2012). Prashant.(2005). Saif.(2007).
  • 46. Saif.(2012). Schiffman,&Kanuk.(1997). Seltzer,L.(2013). Sewali,R.(2012). Taylol,& Todd.(1995). Yang, He,& Lee.(2007). Although mobile phones have become a fundamental part of personal communication across the globe during the past ten years, consumer research has devoted little specific attention to motives and choice underlying the mobile phone buying decision process. There are numerous complex factors that need to be taken into account when exploring mobile phone buying decision process, including both macro- and microeconomic conditions that affect the evolution of mobile phone market in general and individual consumer’s motives and decision making in particular. Moreover, it is important to distinguish be- tween buying behaviour referring to the choice between different mobile phone models and brands and change aspects referring to reasons that affect change. As the mobile phone market is a typical technology push driven market where products are created ahead of the recognition of existing recognized consumer needs(Gerstheimer & Lupp, 2004)mobile phone development is based on consumers’ possible future needs and thus companies that best hunch the technologies and services of future will be the leaders in the discipline (for discussion of technology push see, e.g.(Brown, Hamel, Prahalad, Kumar, & Negel, 1991)