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MARINEMARINE
PHARMACOGNOPHARMACOGNOSYSY
 Definition of Marine Pharmacognosy.
 History of Marine Pharmacognosy.
 Classification of Marine Drugs.
 Collection of Marine Organisms.
 Handling of Marine Organisms.
 Storage of Marine Drugs.
 References.
 Marine Pharmacognosy is a sub-branch of
Pharmacognosy, which is mainly concerned
with the naturally occurring substances of
medicinal value from marine.
 Generally the drugs are obtained from the
marine species of bacteria, virus, algae fungi,
sponges, etc.
◦ The oceans cover more than 70% of the earths surface and contain
over 3,00000 Invertebrates and Algal species and rich in Fauna &
flora.
◦ Marine Pharmacognosy is not a new area for Pharmacognosy even
the early civilizations of Greece, Japan, China and India have
explored marine life as a source of drugs
◦ In the western medicine Agar, Alginic acid, Carrageenan,
Protamine sulphate, Spermaceti and Cod & halibut liver oils are
the marine medicinal established products.
◦ Macroalgae or seaweeds have been used as crude drugs in the
treatment of Iodine deficiency states such as Goiter, etc.
 Some seaweeds have also been utilized as sources of
additional vitamins and in the treatment of Anaemia
during pregnancy.
 Marine flora and fauna play significant role as a source of
new molecular entity.
 The oceans of the world contain over 5 million species in
about 30 phyla. Because of the derivatives of marine
organism and habitats, marine natural products enclose a
wide variety of chemical classes, including Terpenes,
Shikimates, Polyketides, Acetogenins, Peptides, Alkaloids
of varying structures and multitude of compounds of
mixed biosynthesis.
 The marine environment may contain over 80% of the
worlds plant and animal species.
o During the past 30-40 years, Numerous novel compounds
have been isolated from marine organisms having
biological activities such as antibacterial, antiviral, anti-
tumour, anti-parasitic, anticoagulants, antimicrobial, anti-
inflammatory and cardiovascular compounds.
Compound
name
Biological
Source
Chemical Structure Uses
Acanthellin-1
C16H25N
isonitrile
sesquiterpenes(Cl
ass)
Acanthella acuta
(sponge-yellow)
Active against
mycobacterium.
Chondriol
C15H18BrClO2
Indolocarbazoles
(class)
Laurencia
Filiformis
(red algae)
Antimicrobial
agent.
Prepacifenol
C15H21Br2ClO2
steroid (class)
Laurencia
johnstonii(red
algae)
Antimicrobial
agent.
Compound name Biological
source
Chemical
structure
Uses
AvarolC21H30O2
Sesquiterpenoid
hydroquinone
Disidea
avara
(blue purple
sponge)
Used in the treatment
of AIDS.
Avarone
C21H28O2
Sesquiterpene
Quinones
Disidea
avara
(blue purple
sponge)
Its also used in the
treatment of AIDS.
It have the ability to
cross B.B.B.
Eudistomin-AC15H10BrN
3O
Β-carboline class of
heterocyclic amine
Eudistoma
oivaceum
(red algae)
It inhibit
immunodeficiency
virus.
Compound
name
Biological
source
Chemical Structure Uses
ZonarolC21H30O2
sesquiterpene
Dictyopteris
zonoroid
(brown algae)
It has fungicial
property.
Isozonorol Dictyopteris
zonoroid
(brown algae)
Antifungal
agent.
Thelphin Thelepus
setosus
(annelida-
worms)
Antimicrobial
agent.
Compound name Biological
source
Chemical
structure
Uses
Laurinterol
C15H19BrO
sesquiterpenoids
Laurencia
johnstonii
(red algae)
Active
antimicrobial
agent.
Aerophysinin-1
C9H9Br2NO3
marinomycins
Aplysina
Aerophoba
(sponge-bright
yellow masses
of tubes)
Antimicrobial
agent.
Bromopyrones
C5H3BrO2
dibromoditerpenes
Ptilonia
australasica
(red alga)
They are toxic
as well as
Antimicrobial
agent.
Compound
name
Biological
source
Chemical structure Uses
Cephalosporin-c Cephalosporium
acrimonium
(fungus)
Antibiotic agent.
Istamycin-A Streptomyces
tenjimariensis
In-vitro activity is
observed against
Gr(-) and Gr(+)
bacteria.
Istamycin-B Streptomyces
tenjimariensis
In-vitro activity is
observed aganst
Gr(-) and Gr(+)
bacteria.
Compoun
d name
Biological
source
Chemical structure Uses
Eunicin
C20H30O4
Eunicia mammosa
(Bushy or
candelabrum)
Anti-microbial
agent.
Compound name Biological source Chemical
structure
Uses
α-kainic acid
C10H15NO4
kainoids
Digenia simplex
(red algae)
Used for the
treatment of
Ascariasis.
Convulsant.
Anthelmintic.
Domoic acidC15H21
NO6
Alsidium
corallinum
(red algae)
Used as Calcium
channel blocker.
Compound name Biological
source
Chemical structure Uses
1. Bryostatin-1
C47H68O17
20 bryostatins have
been identified.
First isolated in 1960-
George Pettit
oxygenated
cyclic macrolides
Bugula neritina-
Bugulidae
(marine colonial
animal)
-Sub Arctic
and
sub Antarctic
regions
It has
antineoplastic
activity.
2. SinularinC20H30O4
Forst isolated in
1978-Kazlauskas
cyclostellettamine
Sinularia
flexibilis-
Alcyoniidae
(soft coral)
-Pacific
eastern India
n Oceans.
It has more
anticancer
activity.
Compound name Biological
source
Chemical
structure
Uses
1. Angelasidine-A
C26H40ClN5
7,9-dialkylpurinium
salts
11 comp. (Agelasine A -
I, epiagelasine C and
ageline B)
Sesquiterpene
Okinawa sea
sponge
Agela spp.
FAMILY-
Oroidin
-Okinawan
Sea, South
China Sea
It has very
potent
Antispasmodic
activity.
Compound name Biological source Chemical
structure
Uses
1. Eledoisin
C54H85N13O15S
First isolated from the
posterior salivary
glands- Mollusk
muschata and Eledone
aldrovandi in 1962
Secretagogues
Eledone moschata-
Octopodidae
(Cephalopod-
octopuses, squid,
and cuttlefish)
-Mediterranean
Sea, Atlantic
Ocean, coast of
Portugal
Stimulate extra
vascular
smooth muscle.
2. Octopamine
C8H11NO2
Octopamine was first
discovered from salivary
glands of Octopus
vulgaris by Vittorio
Erspamer in 1948
GPCR-G protein-coupled
Octopus vulgaris-
Octopodidae
-Mediterranean
Sea and East
Atlantic.
Shows
Adrenergic
(adrenaline,
noradrenaline)
responses.
Act as
Neurotransmitt
er.
Compound
name
Biological
source
Chemical
structure
Uses
1. Bio-indole
C8H7N
Indole alkaloids
Rivularia firma-
Rivulariaceae
(blue-green
algae:cynobacteri
um)
-Indian Ocean
Active
antiinflammatory
activity.
2. Butanolide
C13H24O4
O-glycosyl
Euplexaura flava-
Butenolidae
(liverworts-
flowerless green
plant)
-South china sea
Antiinflammatory
agent.
Compound name Biological
source
Chemical
structure
Uses
1. Nereistoxin
C5H11NS2
first manufactured in
Japan in 1966
Lumbriconereis
heteropoda-
Lumbrineridae
(marine annelid)
-Central
Queensland,
Australia.
It shows Ganglion
blocking effects.
block both muscle
and neuronal
nicotinic
acetylcholine
receptors
2. Cartap
C7H16ClN3O2S2
first introduced in
Japan in 1967
Lumbriconereis
heterpoda-
Lumbrineridae
(marine annelid)
-Central
Queensland,
Australia.
Insecticidal agent.
Compound
name
Biological source Chemical structure Uses
1.Carrageenan
C24H36O25S2
-2
first isolated
in 1984
Condrus crispus-
Gigartinaceae
(red-purple edible
seaweed)
-Baltic
Sea to southernS
pain.
Anti coagulant.
Activation of
Thrombin.
2. Fucoidan
C7H14O7S
first isolated
from brown
algae in1913
Fucus vesiculosus
Fucaceae
(brown algae and
brown seaweed)
-Baltic Sea,
Atlantic and
Pacific Oceans.
Anti-thrombin
activity.
Mediator for
Heparin
cofactor-II
Compound
name
Biological source Chemical structure Uses
1. Prostaglandin
A2
first isolated in
1935
Gracilaria
verrucosa-
Gracilariaceae
-red algae
(Rhodophyta)
-Pacific Ocean
Active CNS agent.
Control induced
child birth, regulate
Blood pressure.
Suppress blood
platelet aggregation.
2. 15epi-PGA2
(esper-Sponge
Spongia)
new
prostaglandin
derivatives
first been isolat
ed 1972
Plexaura
homomalla-
Plexauridae
(black sea rod or
Caribbean sea
whip)
-Caribbean sea,
Florida, Venezuela
Smooth muscle
relaxant.
Inhibit gastric acid
secretion.
Treat Asthma,
Peptic ulcers.
Group of physiologically active lipid compounds called Eicosanoids
having diverse hormone-like effects in animals. (proteins)-
synthesized from arachidonic acid(liver, brain,
and glandular organs).
Compound
name
Biological source Chemical structure Uses
Saxitoxin
C10H17N7O4
paralytic
shellfish toxin
Gonyaulax calenella-
Gonyaulacaceae
(dinoflagellate)
-eastern coast of
North America.
Hypotensive
effect,
potent
neurotoxin
Holothurin-A
C54H85NaO27S
Saponin
Helix pomatia-
Helicidae
(saponin-sea
cucumber)-
central Italy, Black
Sea.
Haemolytic
activity.
Antifungal
activity.
Aplysins
C15H19BrO
Demospongiae
Aplysia depilans-
Aplysiidae
(sea hare)
-British Channel
Islands, France to
Mediterranean, West
Toxical agent
first line
chemotherapy for a
large variety of solid
and hematological
tumors.
 Marine organisms are the Source of thousands of different products.
 Many of these compounds have been shown to be extremely toxic in
mammalian system.
 Caution should always be taken in handling marine organism.
 Proper protective Equipment such as Gloves & Eye protective
should always be worn.
 In many organisms such as Hydroids and Sponges have highly
Irritating compounds that cause immediate itching & ash formation
in some individuals
EX: Tedania ignis (fire sponge)
All marine specimens and extrudes should be handled with caution.
 Collection of organisms should be documented.
 Record the longitude, latitude, depth, current surge,
water Temperature, salinity and dates of collection.
 Habitat of collection (eg:- reference, in-crevice- (a
narrow opening or fissure), Under rock, on bottom
side of rock, on front face of rock, on surface of another
Organism) should be recorded.
 Careful description of organism like colour, odour,
morphology consistency, Thickness of mucus, and
reproductive state.
 The presence of associated Organism inside or outside
should be noted.
 It is common to find worms, mollusks, copepods, brittle stars,
Anemons and even small fish living with larger marine
invertebrates.
 Epiphytes & Zooanthids are commonly observed in association
with marine invertebrates and may effect the chemistry
encountered.
 Voucher specimens should be prepared to allow for complete
identification
 Voucher are also necessary to document an invention.
 Voucher specimen are the representative of the entire specimen.
 Ex:
 Marine Organisms are often collected at remote places where
laboratory facilities are limited.
 Many begin to due on exposure to air & rapidly begin to decompose,
therefore Organisms need to be either dried, extracted or frozen
immediately to reduces spoilage & chemical degradation.
 The verongid sponges, can begin to degrade and polymerize
immediately up on being touched.
 This is indicated by a rapid color change from white, yellow or
Orange to dark blue-black, even when maintained in sea water.
 After collection the organisms should be frozen immediately at-
20˚C. In some cases, organisms are placed into an alcohol such as
methanol, ethanol or Isopropanol.
 If facilities are available, the samples can be lypohilized-
10% NH3-water after collection
 Ashutoshkar- Text book of Pharmacognosy & Pharma-
cobiotechnology (pg.no-469-480)
 William. C and Trease- Text book of Pharmacognosy(pg.no:-723-
740)
 Shah & Seth- Text book of Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry
(pg.no:-461-470)
 E.Edwin Jarald- Text book of Pharmacognosy (pg.no:-637-658)
 Tyler-Brady-Robbers-Text book of Pharmacognosy(pg.no:-325-
335)
 Vinod. D.Rangari-Text book of Pharmacognosy. (pg.no:-263-285)
 Dr.S.H.Ansari-Text book of Pharmacognosy (pg.no:-637-658)
 Mohammed Ali-Text book of Pharmacognosy (pg.no:-68-94)
 A.N.Kalia-Text book of Pharmacognosy. Pg,no:-163-175)
 C.K.Kokate-Text book of Pharmacognosy. (pg.no:-5.01-5.12)
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Marine drugs

  • 2.  Definition of Marine Pharmacognosy.  History of Marine Pharmacognosy.  Classification of Marine Drugs.  Collection of Marine Organisms.  Handling of Marine Organisms.  Storage of Marine Drugs.  References.
  • 3.  Marine Pharmacognosy is a sub-branch of Pharmacognosy, which is mainly concerned with the naturally occurring substances of medicinal value from marine.  Generally the drugs are obtained from the marine species of bacteria, virus, algae fungi, sponges, etc.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6. ◦ The oceans cover more than 70% of the earths surface and contain over 3,00000 Invertebrates and Algal species and rich in Fauna & flora. ◦ Marine Pharmacognosy is not a new area for Pharmacognosy even the early civilizations of Greece, Japan, China and India have explored marine life as a source of drugs ◦ In the western medicine Agar, Alginic acid, Carrageenan, Protamine sulphate, Spermaceti and Cod & halibut liver oils are the marine medicinal established products. ◦ Macroalgae or seaweeds have been used as crude drugs in the treatment of Iodine deficiency states such as Goiter, etc.
  • 7.  Some seaweeds have also been utilized as sources of additional vitamins and in the treatment of Anaemia during pregnancy.  Marine flora and fauna play significant role as a source of new molecular entity.  The oceans of the world contain over 5 million species in about 30 phyla. Because of the derivatives of marine organism and habitats, marine natural products enclose a wide variety of chemical classes, including Terpenes, Shikimates, Polyketides, Acetogenins, Peptides, Alkaloids of varying structures and multitude of compounds of mixed biosynthesis.  The marine environment may contain over 80% of the worlds plant and animal species.
  • 8. o During the past 30-40 years, Numerous novel compounds have been isolated from marine organisms having biological activities such as antibacterial, antiviral, anti- tumour, anti-parasitic, anticoagulants, antimicrobial, anti- inflammatory and cardiovascular compounds.
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12. Compound name Biological Source Chemical Structure Uses Acanthellin-1 C16H25N isonitrile sesquiterpenes(Cl ass) Acanthella acuta (sponge-yellow) Active against mycobacterium. Chondriol C15H18BrClO2 Indolocarbazoles (class) Laurencia Filiformis (red algae) Antimicrobial agent. Prepacifenol C15H21Br2ClO2 steroid (class) Laurencia johnstonii(red algae) Antimicrobial agent.
  • 13.
  • 14. Compound name Biological source Chemical structure Uses AvarolC21H30O2 Sesquiterpenoid hydroquinone Disidea avara (blue purple sponge) Used in the treatment of AIDS. Avarone C21H28O2 Sesquiterpene Quinones Disidea avara (blue purple sponge) Its also used in the treatment of AIDS. It have the ability to cross B.B.B. Eudistomin-AC15H10BrN 3O Β-carboline class of heterocyclic amine Eudistoma oivaceum (red algae) It inhibit immunodeficiency virus.
  • 15.
  • 16. Compound name Biological source Chemical Structure Uses ZonarolC21H30O2 sesquiterpene Dictyopteris zonoroid (brown algae) It has fungicial property. Isozonorol Dictyopteris zonoroid (brown algae) Antifungal agent. Thelphin Thelepus setosus (annelida- worms) Antimicrobial agent.
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19.
  • 20. Compound name Biological source Chemical structure Uses Laurinterol C15H19BrO sesquiterpenoids Laurencia johnstonii (red algae) Active antimicrobial agent. Aerophysinin-1 C9H9Br2NO3 marinomycins Aplysina Aerophoba (sponge-bright yellow masses of tubes) Antimicrobial agent. Bromopyrones C5H3BrO2 dibromoditerpenes Ptilonia australasica (red alga) They are toxic as well as Antimicrobial agent.
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23. Compound name Biological source Chemical structure Uses Cephalosporin-c Cephalosporium acrimonium (fungus) Antibiotic agent. Istamycin-A Streptomyces tenjimariensis In-vitro activity is observed against Gr(-) and Gr(+) bacteria. Istamycin-B Streptomyces tenjimariensis In-vitro activity is observed aganst Gr(-) and Gr(+) bacteria.
  • 24.
  • 25. Compoun d name Biological source Chemical structure Uses Eunicin C20H30O4 Eunicia mammosa (Bushy or candelabrum) Anti-microbial agent.
  • 26.
  • 27. Compound name Biological source Chemical structure Uses α-kainic acid C10H15NO4 kainoids Digenia simplex (red algae) Used for the treatment of Ascariasis. Convulsant. Anthelmintic. Domoic acidC15H21 NO6 Alsidium corallinum (red algae) Used as Calcium channel blocker.
  • 28.
  • 29. Compound name Biological source Chemical structure Uses 1. Bryostatin-1 C47H68O17 20 bryostatins have been identified. First isolated in 1960- George Pettit oxygenated cyclic macrolides Bugula neritina- Bugulidae (marine colonial animal) -Sub Arctic and sub Antarctic regions It has antineoplastic activity. 2. SinularinC20H30O4 Forst isolated in 1978-Kazlauskas cyclostellettamine Sinularia flexibilis- Alcyoniidae (soft coral) -Pacific eastern India n Oceans. It has more anticancer activity.
  • 30.
  • 31. Compound name Biological source Chemical structure Uses 1. Angelasidine-A C26H40ClN5 7,9-dialkylpurinium salts 11 comp. (Agelasine A - I, epiagelasine C and ageline B) Sesquiterpene Okinawa sea sponge Agela spp. FAMILY- Oroidin -Okinawan Sea, South China Sea It has very potent Antispasmodic activity.
  • 32.
  • 33. Compound name Biological source Chemical structure Uses 1. Eledoisin C54H85N13O15S First isolated from the posterior salivary glands- Mollusk muschata and Eledone aldrovandi in 1962 Secretagogues Eledone moschata- Octopodidae (Cephalopod- octopuses, squid, and cuttlefish) -Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic Ocean, coast of Portugal Stimulate extra vascular smooth muscle. 2. Octopamine C8H11NO2 Octopamine was first discovered from salivary glands of Octopus vulgaris by Vittorio Erspamer in 1948 GPCR-G protein-coupled Octopus vulgaris- Octopodidae -Mediterranean Sea and East Atlantic. Shows Adrenergic (adrenaline, noradrenaline) responses. Act as Neurotransmitt er.
  • 34.
  • 35. Compound name Biological source Chemical structure Uses 1. Bio-indole C8H7N Indole alkaloids Rivularia firma- Rivulariaceae (blue-green algae:cynobacteri um) -Indian Ocean Active antiinflammatory activity. 2. Butanolide C13H24O4 O-glycosyl Euplexaura flava- Butenolidae (liverworts- flowerless green plant) -South china sea Antiinflammatory agent.
  • 36.
  • 37. Compound name Biological source Chemical structure Uses 1. Nereistoxin C5H11NS2 first manufactured in Japan in 1966 Lumbriconereis heteropoda- Lumbrineridae (marine annelid) -Central Queensland, Australia. It shows Ganglion blocking effects. block both muscle and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors 2. Cartap C7H16ClN3O2S2 first introduced in Japan in 1967 Lumbriconereis heterpoda- Lumbrineridae (marine annelid) -Central Queensland, Australia. Insecticidal agent.
  • 38.
  • 39. Compound name Biological source Chemical structure Uses 1.Carrageenan C24H36O25S2 -2 first isolated in 1984 Condrus crispus- Gigartinaceae (red-purple edible seaweed) -Baltic Sea to southernS pain. Anti coagulant. Activation of Thrombin. 2. Fucoidan C7H14O7S first isolated from brown algae in1913 Fucus vesiculosus Fucaceae (brown algae and brown seaweed) -Baltic Sea, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Anti-thrombin activity. Mediator for Heparin cofactor-II
  • 40.
  • 41. Compound name Biological source Chemical structure Uses 1. Prostaglandin A2 first isolated in 1935 Gracilaria verrucosa- Gracilariaceae -red algae (Rhodophyta) -Pacific Ocean Active CNS agent. Control induced child birth, regulate Blood pressure. Suppress blood platelet aggregation. 2. 15epi-PGA2 (esper-Sponge Spongia) new prostaglandin derivatives first been isolat ed 1972 Plexaura homomalla- Plexauridae (black sea rod or Caribbean sea whip) -Caribbean sea, Florida, Venezuela Smooth muscle relaxant. Inhibit gastric acid secretion. Treat Asthma, Peptic ulcers. Group of physiologically active lipid compounds called Eicosanoids having diverse hormone-like effects in animals. (proteins)- synthesized from arachidonic acid(liver, brain, and glandular organs).
  • 42.
  • 43. Compound name Biological source Chemical structure Uses Saxitoxin C10H17N7O4 paralytic shellfish toxin Gonyaulax calenella- Gonyaulacaceae (dinoflagellate) -eastern coast of North America. Hypotensive effect, potent neurotoxin Holothurin-A C54H85NaO27S Saponin Helix pomatia- Helicidae (saponin-sea cucumber)- central Italy, Black Sea. Haemolytic activity. Antifungal activity. Aplysins C15H19BrO Demospongiae Aplysia depilans- Aplysiidae (sea hare) -British Channel Islands, France to Mediterranean, West Toxical agent first line chemotherapy for a large variety of solid and hematological tumors.
  • 44.
  • 45.
  • 46.  Marine organisms are the Source of thousands of different products.  Many of these compounds have been shown to be extremely toxic in mammalian system.  Caution should always be taken in handling marine organism.  Proper protective Equipment such as Gloves & Eye protective should always be worn.  In many organisms such as Hydroids and Sponges have highly Irritating compounds that cause immediate itching & ash formation in some individuals EX: Tedania ignis (fire sponge) All marine specimens and extrudes should be handled with caution.
  • 47.
  • 48.
  • 49.
  • 50.  Collection of organisms should be documented.  Record the longitude, latitude, depth, current surge, water Temperature, salinity and dates of collection.  Habitat of collection (eg:- reference, in-crevice- (a narrow opening or fissure), Under rock, on bottom side of rock, on front face of rock, on surface of another Organism) should be recorded.  Careful description of organism like colour, odour, morphology consistency, Thickness of mucus, and reproductive state.  The presence of associated Organism inside or outside should be noted.  It is common to find worms, mollusks, copepods, brittle stars, Anemons and even small fish living with larger marine invertebrates.
  • 51.
  • 52.  Epiphytes & Zooanthids are commonly observed in association with marine invertebrates and may effect the chemistry encountered.  Voucher specimens should be prepared to allow for complete identification  Voucher are also necessary to document an invention.  Voucher specimen are the representative of the entire specimen.  Ex:
  • 53.
  • 54.  Marine Organisms are often collected at remote places where laboratory facilities are limited.  Many begin to due on exposure to air & rapidly begin to decompose, therefore Organisms need to be either dried, extracted or frozen immediately to reduces spoilage & chemical degradation.  The verongid sponges, can begin to degrade and polymerize immediately up on being touched.  This is indicated by a rapid color change from white, yellow or Orange to dark blue-black, even when maintained in sea water.  After collection the organisms should be frozen immediately at- 20˚C. In some cases, organisms are placed into an alcohol such as methanol, ethanol or Isopropanol.  If facilities are available, the samples can be lypohilized- 10% NH3-water after collection
  • 55.
  • 56.
  • 57.
  • 58.
  • 59.  Ashutoshkar- Text book of Pharmacognosy & Pharma- cobiotechnology (pg.no-469-480)  William. C and Trease- Text book of Pharmacognosy(pg.no:-723- 740)  Shah & Seth- Text book of Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry (pg.no:-461-470)  E.Edwin Jarald- Text book of Pharmacognosy (pg.no:-637-658)  Tyler-Brady-Robbers-Text book of Pharmacognosy(pg.no:-325- 335)  Vinod. D.Rangari-Text book of Pharmacognosy. (pg.no:-263-285)  Dr.S.H.Ansari-Text book of Pharmacognosy (pg.no:-637-658)  Mohammed Ali-Text book of Pharmacognosy (pg.no:-68-94)  A.N.Kalia-Text book of Pharmacognosy. Pg,no:-163-175)  C.K.Kokate-Text book of Pharmacognosy. (pg.no:-5.01-5.12)