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67
Homicide mechanisms and enablers
higher shares of homicides by firearm, such as
Southern Europe and Northern Africa (see map
3.1). This seems to confirm that a complex mixture
of factors influences homicide levels, the homicide
mechanism being only one of many elements that
combine to determine homicide levels and trends.
Homicide mechanism and typology
In the identification of patterns of association
between types of homicide and weapons used,
detailed and comprehensive statistical information
is needed in order to disaggregate killing mecha-
nism by type of homicide (or vice versa). However,
from available information, it is not possible to
derive a general understanding of patterns of asso-
ciation between homicide mechanisms and homi-
cide typologies.
Studies conducted in high-income countries, which
tend to have lower levels of homicide, have shown
strong correlations between gun availability in the
home and female homicide rates, but a slightly
weaker correlation with male homicide rates.4
As a
4	 See Hemenway, D., T. Shinoda-Tagawa and M. Miller
(2002), in Journal of the American Medical Women’s Association
57; Killias, M., J. van Kesteren, and M. Rindlisbacher (2001),
in Canadian Journal of Criminology 43; Geneva Declaration
Secretariat (2011). P. 131; Shaw, M. (2013). Small Arms
Survey. Everyday Dangers, chapter 2.
result, having a gun in the home places women at
a higher risk of victimization, particularly in the
home, where they are more likely to be killed by
their intimate partners or family members.5
The hypothesis that firearm homicide is not only
prevalent in homicide related to other criminal
activities is further supported when considering
the respective trends in gun homicides and other
violent crime in the United States. All forms of
violent crime have significantly decreased in the
United States in the last 20 years, but while the
respective trends in firearm homicide, non-fatal
firearm victimization,6
violent victimization and
serious violent victimization7
followed a similar
path in the 1990s, the pace of decline in firearm
homicide has slowed remarkably since 2000 (see
figure 3.3).
5	 UNODC (2011). Global Study on Homicide. P. 58.
6	 This refers to the victimization rate of people who have been
the victim of violent crime (rape, sexual assault, robbery,
aggravated and simple assault) during which the perpetrator(s)
had showed or used a firearm (see Planty M. and J. Truman
(2013), United States Bureau of Justice Statistics).
7	 This refers to the victimization rate of people who have been
the victim of serious violent crime, which includes rape,
sexual assault, robbery and aggravated assault (see Lauritsen
J.L. and M.L. Rezey (2013), United States Bureau of Jus-
tice Statistics; and Truman J., Langton L. and M. Planty
M.(2013), United States Bureau of Justice Statistics).
Eastern Europe
Northern America
Eastern Asia
South America
Oceania
Northern Africa
Middle Africa
Southern Asia
Central Asia
Western Africa
Eastern Africa
Western Asia
Southern Africa
Central America
South-Eastern Asia
Northern Europe
Western Europe
Southern Europe
Caribbean
Note: The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.
Homicide mechanism
Firearms
Sharp objects
Other means
Map 3.1:	 Percentage distribution of homicide mechanisms, by sub-region (2012 or latest year)
Note: The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.
Source: UNODC Homicide Statistics (2013).
2014_GLOBAL HOMICIDE_BOOK.indb 67 17/03/2014 14:47:54

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Arbitration, conciliation and alternative dispute resolution file
 

Map 3.1

  • 1. 67 Homicide mechanisms and enablers higher shares of homicides by firearm, such as Southern Europe and Northern Africa (see map 3.1). This seems to confirm that a complex mixture of factors influences homicide levels, the homicide mechanism being only one of many elements that combine to determine homicide levels and trends. Homicide mechanism and typology In the identification of patterns of association between types of homicide and weapons used, detailed and comprehensive statistical information is needed in order to disaggregate killing mecha- nism by type of homicide (or vice versa). However, from available information, it is not possible to derive a general understanding of patterns of asso- ciation between homicide mechanisms and homi- cide typologies. Studies conducted in high-income countries, which tend to have lower levels of homicide, have shown strong correlations between gun availability in the home and female homicide rates, but a slightly weaker correlation with male homicide rates.4 As a 4 See Hemenway, D., T. Shinoda-Tagawa and M. Miller (2002), in Journal of the American Medical Women’s Association 57; Killias, M., J. van Kesteren, and M. Rindlisbacher (2001), in Canadian Journal of Criminology 43; Geneva Declaration Secretariat (2011). P. 131; Shaw, M. (2013). Small Arms Survey. Everyday Dangers, chapter 2. result, having a gun in the home places women at a higher risk of victimization, particularly in the home, where they are more likely to be killed by their intimate partners or family members.5 The hypothesis that firearm homicide is not only prevalent in homicide related to other criminal activities is further supported when considering the respective trends in gun homicides and other violent crime in the United States. All forms of violent crime have significantly decreased in the United States in the last 20 years, but while the respective trends in firearm homicide, non-fatal firearm victimization,6 violent victimization and serious violent victimization7 followed a similar path in the 1990s, the pace of decline in firearm homicide has slowed remarkably since 2000 (see figure 3.3). 5 UNODC (2011). Global Study on Homicide. P. 58. 6 This refers to the victimization rate of people who have been the victim of violent crime (rape, sexual assault, robbery, aggravated and simple assault) during which the perpetrator(s) had showed or used a firearm (see Planty M. and J. Truman (2013), United States Bureau of Justice Statistics). 7 This refers to the victimization rate of people who have been the victim of serious violent crime, which includes rape, sexual assault, robbery and aggravated assault (see Lauritsen J.L. and M.L. Rezey (2013), United States Bureau of Jus- tice Statistics; and Truman J., Langton L. and M. Planty M.(2013), United States Bureau of Justice Statistics). Eastern Europe Northern America Eastern Asia South America Oceania Northern Africa Middle Africa Southern Asia Central Asia Western Africa Eastern Africa Western Asia Southern Africa Central America South-Eastern Asia Northern Europe Western Europe Southern Europe Caribbean Note: The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations. Homicide mechanism Firearms Sharp objects Other means Map 3.1: Percentage distribution of homicide mechanisms, by sub-region (2012 or latest year) Note: The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations. Source: UNODC Homicide Statistics (2013). 2014_GLOBAL HOMICIDE_BOOK.indb 67 17/03/2014 14:47:54