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MANUFACTURE OF GLASS
SYNOPSIS
• INTRODUCTION
•TYPES
•METHODS
THE GLASS WAS DISCOVERED IN THE
REGION OF SYRIA AROUND 5000BC
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
•The glass was first discovered in the region of
syria around 5000 BC
•It is an amorphous compound
•It is also known as super cooled liquid
•It has no melting point
•It has high viscosity which prevents from
crystallizing
TYPES OF GLASS MATERIAL
Variety of ophthalmic glass material
 Crown glass >>>>> RI= 1.523
 Barium crown glass >>>>> RI= 1.6
 Borosilicate crown glass >>>>> RI= 1.53
 Flint glass >>>>> RI= 1.75
COMPOSITION OF CROWN
GLASS
 70% of silica [si]
12% of calcium oxide (or) lime [cao]
15% of sodium oxide [Nao]
Small percentages of following compound acts as
refining materials which improves the quality of
glass
Potassium [Ka]
Borax [Na2B4O7.10H2O]
Antimony [sb]
Arsenic [As]
CROWN GLASS
COMPOSITION OF BARIUM
CROWN GLASS
35% of barium oxide[Bao]
30%of silica[Si]
Small percentage of following materials
Lime[Cao]
Zinc[Zn]
Alumina[Al]
Borax[Na2B4O7.10H2O]
NOTE:the effect of barium oxide is to increase
the refractive index
BARIUM CROWN GLASS
BOROSILICATE CROWN GLASS
• Borosilicate crown glass is used for
windows,lenses and prisms
• Transmission ranges between 0.4µm to
1.4µm
BOROSILICATE CROWN GLASS
COMPOSITION OF FLINT GLASS
60% of lead oxide
30% of silica
8% of soda and potash
Small percentage of arsenic and antimony
NOTE:the effect of lead oxide is to increase the
refractive index
FLINT GLASS
METHODS
There are two methods of manufacturing of glass
Individual batch method
Continuous flow method
• Six stages are common in both method
Mixing
Melting
Fining
Stirring
Forming
Annealing
THANK YOU 
REFERENCE:
 http://www.historyofglass.com/
 http://www.pfg.co.za/all-about-glass.aspx
 http://www.slideshare.net/Alizeeshansuhail/spectacle-
lens-materials
 http://www.janostech.com/knowledge-center/optical-
materials-guide/borosilicate-crown-glass-bk-7.html
 The principles of ophthalmic lenses- M.jalie

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Gadgets for management of stored product pests_Dr.UPR.pdfGadgets for management of stored product pests_Dr.UPR.pdf
Gadgets for management of stored product pests_Dr.UPR.pdf
 

Manufacture of glass(composition)