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MANAGING CONFLICTS
Presented by : Shashi Prakash
Introduction
• Conflict is everywhere. Every relationship has conflict. It exists
inside us. It exists around us. It is natural and inevitable part of
all human social relationships. It occurs at all levels of society -
intrapsychic, interpersonal, intragroup, intergroup, intranational
and international (Sandole & Staroste, 1987).
Introduction
• Conflict is the root of personal and social change. Hence, the
organizations have conflict because of its ever-changing
environment. Conflict prevents stagnation. It stimulates interest
and curiosity. Conflict management is very popular in business
schools. The role of the administrator or a manager in an
organization is to handle day to day conflict in the allocation of
limited resources.
Definitions
a. Conflict is a state of opposition, disagreement or incompatibility between
two or more people or groups of people.
b. A state of opposition between persons or ideas or interests.
c. A hostile encounter between two or more people.
d. Conflict is usually based upon a difference over goals, objectives, or
expectations between individuals or groups. Conflict also occurs when two
or more people, or groups, compete over limited resources and/or
perceived, or actual, incompatible goals.
Conflict in Organizations.
(a) Incompatibility of goals
(b) Differences over interpretations of facts
(c) Disagreements based on behavioural expectations
Transitions in Conflict Thought
• Traditional View of Conflict is the belief that all conflict is harmful and
must be avoided. Causes are poor communication, lack of openness and
failure to respond to employee needs
• Human Relations View of Conflict is the belief that conflict is a natural
and inevitable outcome in any group
• Interactionist View of Conflict is the belief that conflict is not only a
positive force in a group but that it is absolutely necessary for a group to
perform effectively
Contemporary Perspectives on
Intergroup Conflict
A. Functional conflict: Enhances/benefits organizational
performance. It occurs when the groups disagree on the best means
to achieve a goal, not on the goal itself; typically results in selection of
a better means alternative. Positive contributions of functional conflict
are:
a) Plays an essential role in preventing group or organizational
stagnation and resistance to change
b) Can lead to increased awareness of problems that need to be
addressed.
c) Can result in broader and more productive searches for solutions.
d) Can facilitate change, adaptation, and innovation.
Contemporary Perspectives on
Intergroup Conflict
B. Dysfunctional conflict: Any conflict that hinders the
achievement of organizational goals. Management must seek to
eliminate such conflict. Functional intergroup conflict can turn into
dysfunctional conflict.
Contemporary Perspectives on
Intergroup Conflict
B. Dysfunctional conflict: Any conflict that hinders the
achievement of organizational goals. Management must seek to
eliminate such conflict. Functional intergroup conflict can turn into
dysfunctional conflict.
The Consequences of
Dysfunctional Intergroup Conflict
The changes within groups:
1. Increased group cohesiveness—the group puts aside differences and closes ranks.
2. Emphasis on loyalty—group norm for conformity becomes more important; group goals
become more important than member satisfaction.
3. Rise in autocratic leadership—comes in response to the demand for group direction
and members' desire for strong leadership.
4. Focus on activity—members focus on doing what the group does well; group becomes
more task‐oriented.
The Consequences of
Dysfunctional Intergroup Conflict
Changes between groups:
1. Distorted perceptions—each group views itself as a better performer than the
opposing group and as more important to the organization.
2. Negative stereotyping—all negative stereotypes ever developed about the
opposing group are reinforced. Each group underestimates differences within their
group and exaggerates differences between the two groups.
3. Decreased communication—communications between groups usually break
down.
Types of Conflict
• Task Conflict‐ Conflicts over content and goals of the work
• Relationship Conflict‐Conflict based on interpersonal
relationships
• Process Conflict‐Conflict over how work gets done
What Causes Intergroup Conflict?
A. Interdependence: Conflict potential increases when groups are interdependent. The
different types of Interdependence are as follows:
1. Pooled interdependence
2. Sequential interdependence
3. Reciprocal interdependence
B. Goals Difference
C. Perceptual Differences
Stages of Conflict
Stage I: Potential Opposition or
Incompatibility
a) Communication‐Semantic difficulties, misunderstandings, and “noise”
b) Structure‐Size and specialization of jobs, Jurisdictional clarity/ambiguity, Member/goal
incompatibility, Leadership styles (close or participative), Reward systems (win‐lose),
Dependence/interdependence of groups
c) Personal Variables‐Differing individual value systems, Personality types
Stage II: Cognition and
Personalization
a. Perceived conflict—a cognitive awareness on the part of at least one group that events or
conditions make overt conflict possible.
b. Felt conflict—an escalation, which includes emotional involvement creating anxiety, tenseness,
frustration, or hostility.
• Before attempting resolution is possible, both parties must perceive and feel conflict. Resolution is
more likely to have good results at this stage.
Stage III: Intentions
• Intentions are decisions to act in a given way. It can be based on :
a. Cooperativeness‐Attempting to satisfy the other party’s concerns
b. Assertiveness‐Attempting to satisfy one’s own concerns
Stage III: Intentions
• Competing (assertive and uncooperative) ‐A desire to satisfy one’s interests,
regardless of the impact on the other party to the conflict
• Collaborating (assertive and cooperative) ‐A situation in which the parties to
a conflict each desire to satisfy fully the concerns of all parties
• Avoiding (unassertive and uncooperative) ‐The desire to withdraw from or
suppress a conflict
• Accommodating (unassertive and cooperative) ‐‐The willingness of one
party in a conflict to place the opponent’s interests above his or her own
• Compromising (moderate assertive and moderate cooperative) ‐A situation
in which each party to a conflict is willing to give up something
Stage IV: Behavior
• Manifest conflict—groups actively engage in conflict behaviour. Most difficult to deal with conflict
at this stage and most likely to have longer lasting effects.
• Conflict‐Intensity Continuum ranges from no conflict‐minor disagreement or misunderstandings‐
overt questioning or challenging of others‐assertive verbal attacks‐threats and ultimatums‐
aggressive physical attacks‐overt efforts to destroy the other party (annihilatory conflict)
• Source: Based on S.P. Robbins, Managing Organizational Conflict: A Nontraditional Approach
(Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1974), pp. 93–97; and F. Glasi, “The Process of Conflict
Escalation and the Roles of Third Parties,” in G.B.J. Bomers and R. Peterson (eds.), Conflict
Management and Industrial Relations (Boston: Kluwer‐Nijhoff, 1982), pp. 119–40
Conflict Management
• The use of resolution and stimulation techniques to achieve the desired level of conflict.
• Managing Intergroup Conflict Through Resolution
• Internal focus—extent to which a group is intent upon addressing its own concerns in a conflict
situation. External focus—extent to which a group is intent on addressing the concerns of the other
group(s) involved in the conflict. Varying degrees of external and internal focus yield different
resolution approaches.
Conflict Management
• Five approaches for resolving conflicts categorized by relative internal/external focus.
• Dominating—maximum focus on internal concerns.
• Accommodating—maximum emphasis on meeting needs of the other group and
minimizing own concerns.
• Problem solving—theoretically the best approach, but can be extremely difficult.
• Avoiding‐May not bring long‐term benefits. It is useful as a temporary alternative.
• Compromising
Conflict Management
• Use of Competition is recommended:
a) When quick, decisive action is vital (in emergencies); on important issues
b) Where unpopular actions need implementing (in cost cutting, enforcing
unpopular rules, discipline)
c) On issues vital to the organization’s welfare
d) When one knows one is right?
e) Against people who take advantage of non-competitive behavior
Conflict Management
• Use of Collaboration is recommended:
a) To find an integrative solution when both sets of concerns are too
important to be compromised
b) When objective is to learn
c) To merge insights from people with different perspectives
d) To gain commitment by incorporating concerns into a consensus
e) To work through feelings that have interfered with a relationship
Conflict Management
• Use of Avoidance is recommended:
a) When an issue is trivial, or more important issues are pressing
b) When one perceives no chance of satisfying one’s concerns
c) When potential disruption outweighs the benefits of resolution
d) To let people, cool down and regain perspective
e) When gathering information supersedes immediate decision
f) When others can resolve the conflict effectively
g) When issues seem tangential or symptomatic of other issues
Conflict Management
• Use of Accommodation is recommended:
a) When one finds one is wrong and to allow a better position to be heard
b) To learn, and to show your reasonableness
c) When issues are more important to others than to yourself and to satisfy others and maintain
cooperation
d) To build social credits for later issues
e) To minimize loss when outmatched and losing
f) When harmony and stability are especially important
g) To allow employees to develop by learning from mistakes
Conflict Management
• Use of Compromise is recommended:
a) When goals are important but not worth the effort of potential disruption of more
assertive approaches
b) When opponents with equal power are committed to mutually exclusive goals
c) To achieve temporary settlements to complex issues
d) To arrive at expedient solutions under time pressure
e) As a backup when collaboration or competition is unsuccessful.
Conflict Management
• Managing Intergroup Conflict Through Stimulation
a) Bringing Outside Individuals into the Group
b) Altering the Organization’s Structure
c) Stimulating Competition
d) Making use of programmed conflict
Stage V: Outcomes
Stage V: Outcomes
• Functional Outcomes from Conflict‐Increased group performance, improved
quality of decisions, stimulation of creativity and innovation, encouragement of
interest and curiosity, provision of a medium for problem‐solving, creation of an
environment for self‐evaluation and change. Functional Conflict can be created
by rewarding dissent and punishing conflict avoiders
• Dysfunctional Outcomes from Conflict‐Development of discontent, reduced
group effectiveness, retarded communication, reduced group cohesiveness and
infighting among group members overcomes group goals
Stage V: Outcomes
• Conflict and organizational performance-Each organization has an
optimal level of intergroup conflict. Too little hinders innovation and change
and too much can produce chaos and threaten the organization's survival.
• Conflict and Unit Performance-When level of conflict is low or none, type
of conflict is dysfunctional, unit’s internal characteristics is apathetic,
stagnant, nonresponsive to change and lack of new ideas and unit
performance is low.
Conflict management: challenges
experienced by nurse-leaders in the
hospital environment
Simone, Vania et al
• Aim: To understand the main conflicts experienced by nurses-leaders in the hospital environment,
as well as the strategies adopted to face them.
• Research approach: qualitative descriptive type approach, which was used in the case study as
research strategy.
• Sample: 25 nurses who worked in three hospitals in the city of Florianopolis, Santa Catarina.
Information was obtained in the months of May to December of 2010 through semi-structured
interviews, non-participant observation and dialogical workshops.
• Data were analyzed using the Thematic Analysis.
• Result: The results demonstrated the predominant of interpersonal conflicts involving the
multidisciplinary team, nurses and the nursing staff. Adopting a participatory leadership, based on
dialogue emerges as a strategy for coping with conflicts in the hospital environment.
Thank You

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MANAGING CONFLICTS (Nursing Management)pptx

  • 2. Introduction • Conflict is everywhere. Every relationship has conflict. It exists inside us. It exists around us. It is natural and inevitable part of all human social relationships. It occurs at all levels of society - intrapsychic, interpersonal, intragroup, intergroup, intranational and international (Sandole & Staroste, 1987).
  • 3. Introduction • Conflict is the root of personal and social change. Hence, the organizations have conflict because of its ever-changing environment. Conflict prevents stagnation. It stimulates interest and curiosity. Conflict management is very popular in business schools. The role of the administrator or a manager in an organization is to handle day to day conflict in the allocation of limited resources.
  • 4. Definitions a. Conflict is a state of opposition, disagreement or incompatibility between two or more people or groups of people. b. A state of opposition between persons or ideas or interests. c. A hostile encounter between two or more people. d. Conflict is usually based upon a difference over goals, objectives, or expectations between individuals or groups. Conflict also occurs when two or more people, or groups, compete over limited resources and/or perceived, or actual, incompatible goals.
  • 5. Conflict in Organizations. (a) Incompatibility of goals (b) Differences over interpretations of facts (c) Disagreements based on behavioural expectations
  • 6. Transitions in Conflict Thought • Traditional View of Conflict is the belief that all conflict is harmful and must be avoided. Causes are poor communication, lack of openness and failure to respond to employee needs • Human Relations View of Conflict is the belief that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group • Interactionist View of Conflict is the belief that conflict is not only a positive force in a group but that it is absolutely necessary for a group to perform effectively
  • 7. Contemporary Perspectives on Intergroup Conflict A. Functional conflict: Enhances/benefits organizational performance. It occurs when the groups disagree on the best means to achieve a goal, not on the goal itself; typically results in selection of a better means alternative. Positive contributions of functional conflict are: a) Plays an essential role in preventing group or organizational stagnation and resistance to change b) Can lead to increased awareness of problems that need to be addressed. c) Can result in broader and more productive searches for solutions. d) Can facilitate change, adaptation, and innovation.
  • 8. Contemporary Perspectives on Intergroup Conflict B. Dysfunctional conflict: Any conflict that hinders the achievement of organizational goals. Management must seek to eliminate such conflict. Functional intergroup conflict can turn into dysfunctional conflict.
  • 9. Contemporary Perspectives on Intergroup Conflict B. Dysfunctional conflict: Any conflict that hinders the achievement of organizational goals. Management must seek to eliminate such conflict. Functional intergroup conflict can turn into dysfunctional conflict.
  • 10. The Consequences of Dysfunctional Intergroup Conflict The changes within groups: 1. Increased group cohesiveness—the group puts aside differences and closes ranks. 2. Emphasis on loyalty—group norm for conformity becomes more important; group goals become more important than member satisfaction. 3. Rise in autocratic leadership—comes in response to the demand for group direction and members' desire for strong leadership. 4. Focus on activity—members focus on doing what the group does well; group becomes more task‐oriented.
  • 11. The Consequences of Dysfunctional Intergroup Conflict Changes between groups: 1. Distorted perceptions—each group views itself as a better performer than the opposing group and as more important to the organization. 2. Negative stereotyping—all negative stereotypes ever developed about the opposing group are reinforced. Each group underestimates differences within their group and exaggerates differences between the two groups. 3. Decreased communication—communications between groups usually break down.
  • 12. Types of Conflict • Task Conflict‐ Conflicts over content and goals of the work • Relationship Conflict‐Conflict based on interpersonal relationships • Process Conflict‐Conflict over how work gets done
  • 13. What Causes Intergroup Conflict? A. Interdependence: Conflict potential increases when groups are interdependent. The different types of Interdependence are as follows: 1. Pooled interdependence 2. Sequential interdependence 3. Reciprocal interdependence B. Goals Difference C. Perceptual Differences
  • 15. Stage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility a) Communication‐Semantic difficulties, misunderstandings, and “noise” b) Structure‐Size and specialization of jobs, Jurisdictional clarity/ambiguity, Member/goal incompatibility, Leadership styles (close or participative), Reward systems (win‐lose), Dependence/interdependence of groups c) Personal Variables‐Differing individual value systems, Personality types
  • 16. Stage II: Cognition and Personalization a. Perceived conflict—a cognitive awareness on the part of at least one group that events or conditions make overt conflict possible. b. Felt conflict—an escalation, which includes emotional involvement creating anxiety, tenseness, frustration, or hostility. • Before attempting resolution is possible, both parties must perceive and feel conflict. Resolution is more likely to have good results at this stage.
  • 17. Stage III: Intentions • Intentions are decisions to act in a given way. It can be based on : a. Cooperativeness‐Attempting to satisfy the other party’s concerns b. Assertiveness‐Attempting to satisfy one’s own concerns
  • 18. Stage III: Intentions • Competing (assertive and uncooperative) ‐A desire to satisfy one’s interests, regardless of the impact on the other party to the conflict • Collaborating (assertive and cooperative) ‐A situation in which the parties to a conflict each desire to satisfy fully the concerns of all parties • Avoiding (unassertive and uncooperative) ‐The desire to withdraw from or suppress a conflict • Accommodating (unassertive and cooperative) ‐‐The willingness of one party in a conflict to place the opponent’s interests above his or her own • Compromising (moderate assertive and moderate cooperative) ‐A situation in which each party to a conflict is willing to give up something
  • 19. Stage IV: Behavior • Manifest conflict—groups actively engage in conflict behaviour. Most difficult to deal with conflict at this stage and most likely to have longer lasting effects. • Conflict‐Intensity Continuum ranges from no conflict‐minor disagreement or misunderstandings‐ overt questioning or challenging of others‐assertive verbal attacks‐threats and ultimatums‐ aggressive physical attacks‐overt efforts to destroy the other party (annihilatory conflict) • Source: Based on S.P. Robbins, Managing Organizational Conflict: A Nontraditional Approach (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1974), pp. 93–97; and F. Glasi, “The Process of Conflict Escalation and the Roles of Third Parties,” in G.B.J. Bomers and R. Peterson (eds.), Conflict Management and Industrial Relations (Boston: Kluwer‐Nijhoff, 1982), pp. 119–40
  • 20. Conflict Management • The use of resolution and stimulation techniques to achieve the desired level of conflict. • Managing Intergroup Conflict Through Resolution • Internal focus—extent to which a group is intent upon addressing its own concerns in a conflict situation. External focus—extent to which a group is intent on addressing the concerns of the other group(s) involved in the conflict. Varying degrees of external and internal focus yield different resolution approaches.
  • 21. Conflict Management • Five approaches for resolving conflicts categorized by relative internal/external focus. • Dominating—maximum focus on internal concerns. • Accommodating—maximum emphasis on meeting needs of the other group and minimizing own concerns. • Problem solving—theoretically the best approach, but can be extremely difficult. • Avoiding‐May not bring long‐term benefits. It is useful as a temporary alternative. • Compromising
  • 22. Conflict Management • Use of Competition is recommended: a) When quick, decisive action is vital (in emergencies); on important issues b) Where unpopular actions need implementing (in cost cutting, enforcing unpopular rules, discipline) c) On issues vital to the organization’s welfare d) When one knows one is right? e) Against people who take advantage of non-competitive behavior
  • 23. Conflict Management • Use of Collaboration is recommended: a) To find an integrative solution when both sets of concerns are too important to be compromised b) When objective is to learn c) To merge insights from people with different perspectives d) To gain commitment by incorporating concerns into a consensus e) To work through feelings that have interfered with a relationship
  • 24. Conflict Management • Use of Avoidance is recommended: a) When an issue is trivial, or more important issues are pressing b) When one perceives no chance of satisfying one’s concerns c) When potential disruption outweighs the benefits of resolution d) To let people, cool down and regain perspective e) When gathering information supersedes immediate decision f) When others can resolve the conflict effectively g) When issues seem tangential or symptomatic of other issues
  • 25. Conflict Management • Use of Accommodation is recommended: a) When one finds one is wrong and to allow a better position to be heard b) To learn, and to show your reasonableness c) When issues are more important to others than to yourself and to satisfy others and maintain cooperation d) To build social credits for later issues e) To minimize loss when outmatched and losing f) When harmony and stability are especially important g) To allow employees to develop by learning from mistakes
  • 26. Conflict Management • Use of Compromise is recommended: a) When goals are important but not worth the effort of potential disruption of more assertive approaches b) When opponents with equal power are committed to mutually exclusive goals c) To achieve temporary settlements to complex issues d) To arrive at expedient solutions under time pressure e) As a backup when collaboration or competition is unsuccessful.
  • 27. Conflict Management • Managing Intergroup Conflict Through Stimulation a) Bringing Outside Individuals into the Group b) Altering the Organization’s Structure c) Stimulating Competition d) Making use of programmed conflict
  • 29. Stage V: Outcomes • Functional Outcomes from Conflict‐Increased group performance, improved quality of decisions, stimulation of creativity and innovation, encouragement of interest and curiosity, provision of a medium for problem‐solving, creation of an environment for self‐evaluation and change. Functional Conflict can be created by rewarding dissent and punishing conflict avoiders • Dysfunctional Outcomes from Conflict‐Development of discontent, reduced group effectiveness, retarded communication, reduced group cohesiveness and infighting among group members overcomes group goals
  • 30. Stage V: Outcomes • Conflict and organizational performance-Each organization has an optimal level of intergroup conflict. Too little hinders innovation and change and too much can produce chaos and threaten the organization's survival. • Conflict and Unit Performance-When level of conflict is low or none, type of conflict is dysfunctional, unit’s internal characteristics is apathetic, stagnant, nonresponsive to change and lack of new ideas and unit performance is low.
  • 31. Conflict management: challenges experienced by nurse-leaders in the hospital environment Simone, Vania et al • Aim: To understand the main conflicts experienced by nurses-leaders in the hospital environment, as well as the strategies adopted to face them. • Research approach: qualitative descriptive type approach, which was used in the case study as research strategy. • Sample: 25 nurses who worked in three hospitals in the city of Florianopolis, Santa Catarina. Information was obtained in the months of May to December of 2010 through semi-structured interviews, non-participant observation and dialogical workshops. • Data were analyzed using the Thematic Analysis. • Result: The results demonstrated the predominant of interpersonal conflicts involving the multidisciplinary team, nurses and the nursing staff. Adopting a participatory leadership, based on dialogue emerges as a strategy for coping with conflicts in the hospital environment.