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Prof. Jo Bitonio
DM 214 Strategic Planning
Reporter:
YVONNE C. TAYDE
Management Functions
P
O
S
D
Co
R
B
PLANNING
ORGANIZING
STAFFING
DIRECTING
CO-ORDINATING
REPORTING
BUDGETING
POSDCoRB
Created by Luther Gulick and Lyndall
Urwick in their “Papers on the Science
of Administration” (1937)
Based of Fayol’s 14 Principles of
Management,
Outlines the 7 functions of the executives
Developed as a means to structure and
analyze management activities; it sets
a new paradigm in Public
Administration.
POSDCoRB
 According to Gullick the POSDCoRB
activities are common to all
organisations. They are the common
problems of management which are
found in different agencies regardless
of the nature of the work they do.
POSDCoRB gives unity, certainty, and
definiteness and makes the study more
systematic.
Criticism
The critics pointed out that the
POSDCoRB activities were neither the
whole of administration, nor even the
most important part of it. The
POSDCoRB view overlooks the fact that
different agencies are faced with
different administrative problems, which
are peculiar to the nature of the services,
they render and the functions they
performed.
Criticism
The POSDCoRB view takes into consideration only
the common techniques of the administration and
ignores the study of the ‘subject matter’ with
which the agency is concerned. A major defect is
that the POSDCoRB view does not contain any
reference to the formulation and implementation
of the policy. Therefore, the scope of
administration is defined very narrowly, being too
inward looking and too conscious of the top
management.
Is defining goals, establishing
strategy to meet them,
establish plans to coordinate
activities, outline methods
for doing them to
accomplish purpose set by
the cooperative.
P L A N N I N G
Planning
Gulick: outlining the things that need
to be done and the methods for doing
them to accomplish the purpose set for
the enterprise
Joseph Massie: planning is a process
by which a manager looks to future
and discovers alternatives.
Kreitner : planning is process coping
with uncertainty by formulating a
future course of action to achieve
specified results
Strategic Planning
Tactical Planning
Operational Planning
Disaster Planning
Succession Planning
Crisis Planning
Compensation Planning
Example of Planning in Business or
Government
PRINCIPLES of Planning
• Must be realistic
• Must be based on felt needs
• Must be flexible
• Must be democratic
• Must start with simple projects
• Must include social responsibility
Organizing
establishment of the formal structure of authority through
which work subdivisions are arranged, defined, and co-
ordinated for the defined objective
Organize:
teams tasks projects
How to Organize?
Determine the
roles needed
Obtain resources
and allocate them to
roles
Organize offices
and data
systems.
Assign resources to
roles and delegate
authority and
responsibility to
them.
Assign tasks to
the roles
Determine best
resource (people
or equipment) for
the role
STAFFING
The whole personnel function of bringing in
and training the staff and maintaining favorable
conditions of work
 HR Planning
 Recruitment
 Selection
 Orientation
 Training and Development
 Performance Appraisal
 Transfer, Promotion, Demotion
 Separation, Termination, Retirement
DIRECTING
continuous task of making decisions and
embodying them in specific and general orders
and instructions and serving as the leader of the
enterprise
Motivation
(induces and
inspires to
perform better))
Communication
Competent
leadership (
work w/ zeal &
confidence)
Pull, Don’t Push
Pull
• Pull (lead people) by
effective directing
• Motivate
• Assist and inspire
Push
• sit back and give
orders
COORDINATING
- The all important duty of interrelating the various parts of the work
- The very essence of management. It is required in each & every
function and at each & every stage & therefore it cannot be
separated.
responsibility
of every
manager right
from the
bottom to the
top
Synchronized
efforts
understanding
of
interpersonal
and horizontal
relationships
of people
good
communicati
on
integrating the various plans through mutual
discussion, exchange of ideas. e.g. - co-ordination
between finance budget and purchases budget
when a manager groups and assigns various
activities to subordinates, and when he creates
department’s co-ordination uppermost in his
mind.
A manager should bear in mind that the right no.
of personnel in various positions with right type of
education and skills are taken which will ensure
right men on the right job.
PLANNING AND
COORDINATION
STAFFING AND
COORDINATION.
ORGANIZING AND
COORDINATION.
.
The purpose of giving orders, instructions &
guidance to the subordinates is served only when
there is a harmony between superiors &
subordinates
DIRECTING AND
COORDINATION.
.
REPORTING
Reporting is keeping those to whom
the executive is responsible informed
as to what is going on, which thus
includes keeping himself and his
subordinates informed through
records, research and inspections
BUDGETING
- means fiscal planning, control and accounting-
- Quantification of plans
- Financial planning
- Monitoring & controlling scarce resources
through performance measurement
Managerial
Skills
Conceptual
Technical
Human
Decision
Making
Problem
Solving
MANAGERIAL SKILLS
CONCEPTUAL SKILLS
Ability to see
the ‘big picture’,
to recognize and
understand
significant
elements in a
situation.
Creation Phase:
 Establish positive
thinking
 Develop creative ideas
 Combine
 Refine
 Re-arrange
 Simplify
Knowledge of
and proficiency
in activities
involving
methods,
processes and
procedures.
 Development of your
technical skills as an
integral part of your
personal development
 Strong technical skills can
save you time and increase
income
TECHNICAL SKILLS
Ability to work
with people.
Creation of an
environment in
which people feel
secure and free to
express their
opinions.
 HR is most important
career skill
 One’s ability to get along
is the single most
important factor
affecting chances of
success in the workplace
HUMAN SKILLS
 Ability to solve
problems that will
benefit enterprise.
Also ability to
design a workable
solution to the
problems and to
avoid them in
future
Simple tips:
- get all the facts
- weigh
- decide
- act
Post Implementation:
- monitor
- verify results
- document
- celebrate success
DECISION MAKING SKILL
PROBLEM SOLVING
Prevention Principle
– Solve problem @ the source.
Live by the 1 – 10 – 100 rule
Practice Principle
Fix Problem
Before it Reaches
Customer
Fix Problem
After it Goes to
Customer
100
10
1
Cost
•If problem is not fixed when it occurs it will become
costlier to fix later – money and time
1 – 10 – 100 Rule
Problem Solving
Prevent Problem
Time
Lately in public administration
POSDECoRB
Managerial Function
1 Planning
2 Organizing
3 Staffing
4 Directing/Influencing
5 Coordinating/Reviewing
6 Budgeting
Middle Level
First-Line
Workers
2
1
4
Top Level
Management
LEVEL OF MANAGEMENT
3
Levels of Management
Responsible for working out
strategies and plans to
implement decisions and
policies made by top level
managers.
Responsible for
ensuring work is done
according to plans.
Top
First-Line
Middle
determines the objectives,
policies and plans of the
organization.
Managerial Skill
Design/Human
Skills
Technical
Conceptual/Design
Managerial Skills
First Line Technical
Design / Human Skills
Conceptual / Design
Middle
Top Level
Middle Level
First-Line
PANELCO III ORG. CHART
Top Level
Management
Middle Level
First-Line
Reflective of
the above
discussion, CDA
BOA Resolution
No. 32-S-2011
provides the
organizational
structure of
primary
cooperatives
under RA
The Organizational Structure of a Primary
Cooperative. Source : CDA BOA Resolution No. 32-S-2011
Governance Framework
GA
• General Assembly
BOD
• Board of Directors
OO
• Other Officers
MS
• Management Staff
Source: Bitonio (2012)
The cooperative governance framework as exhibited in the operation
and management of cooperatives.
• General Assembly
• Board of Directors
• Other Officers
• Management Staff
Source: Bitonio (2012)
GA
BOD
OO
MS
Flow of Accountability
45
25
20
5
35 30
20 15
5
15
30
50
TOP
MIDDLE
FIRST
Plan Org Leading Coordinating
Managerial Functions
A.Interpersonal Roles (figurehead,
liaison, leads)
B.Decision Maker ( entrepreneur,
disturbance handler, resource allocator,
negotiator)
C.Informational Roles (monitors,
disseminator, spokesperson)
Managerial Roles
Management Issues Faced by the
Coop.
• Low collection efficiency(high A/R)
• High operating Costs
• High tax assessment by the BIR
Financial
• Interference of politics
• Postponement of BOD electionsInstitutional
• High system loss
• Rampant pilferage/illegal connections
• Frequent loan of materials by
contractors
Technical
http://www.slideshare.net/saadmunami/coordination-
18794957?from_search=3, retrieved: 09/30/13
http://my.safaribooksonline.com/book/management/9789332501416/1
dot-introduction-to-management/ch01_sub6_xhtml, retrieved: 10/1/13.
Reference:
http:// www.vectorstudy.com/management theories/POSDORB.htm
http://www.slideshare.net/jobitonio/principle-of-management-jbb-2 accessed Oct 5,
2013
http://www.slideshare.net/jobitonio/management-functions-jbb-3 accessed Oct 5,
2013
Daft, R. L., & Marcic, D. (2010). Understanding Management (7th Ed). Cengage Learning
Johnson, D. (2002). Thinking government: ideas, policies, institutions, and public-sector
management. Broadview press
http:// www.vectorstudy.com/management theories/POSDORB.htm
THANK YOU FOR
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Management Functions by Y. Tayde

  • 1. Prof. Jo Bitonio DM 214 Strategic Planning Reporter: YVONNE C. TAYDE
  • 3. POSDCoRB Created by Luther Gulick and Lyndall Urwick in their “Papers on the Science of Administration” (1937) Based of Fayol’s 14 Principles of Management, Outlines the 7 functions of the executives Developed as a means to structure and analyze management activities; it sets a new paradigm in Public Administration.
  • 4. POSDCoRB  According to Gullick the POSDCoRB activities are common to all organisations. They are the common problems of management which are found in different agencies regardless of the nature of the work they do. POSDCoRB gives unity, certainty, and definiteness and makes the study more systematic.
  • 5. Criticism The critics pointed out that the POSDCoRB activities were neither the whole of administration, nor even the most important part of it. The POSDCoRB view overlooks the fact that different agencies are faced with different administrative problems, which are peculiar to the nature of the services, they render and the functions they performed.
  • 6. Criticism The POSDCoRB view takes into consideration only the common techniques of the administration and ignores the study of the ‘subject matter’ with which the agency is concerned. A major defect is that the POSDCoRB view does not contain any reference to the formulation and implementation of the policy. Therefore, the scope of administration is defined very narrowly, being too inward looking and too conscious of the top management.
  • 7. Is defining goals, establishing strategy to meet them, establish plans to coordinate activities, outline methods for doing them to accomplish purpose set by the cooperative. P L A N N I N G
  • 8. Planning Gulick: outlining the things that need to be done and the methods for doing them to accomplish the purpose set for the enterprise Joseph Massie: planning is a process by which a manager looks to future and discovers alternatives. Kreitner : planning is process coping with uncertainty by formulating a future course of action to achieve specified results
  • 9. Strategic Planning Tactical Planning Operational Planning Disaster Planning Succession Planning Crisis Planning Compensation Planning Example of Planning in Business or Government
  • 10. PRINCIPLES of Planning • Must be realistic • Must be based on felt needs • Must be flexible • Must be democratic • Must start with simple projects • Must include social responsibility
  • 11. Organizing establishment of the formal structure of authority through which work subdivisions are arranged, defined, and co- ordinated for the defined objective Organize: teams tasks projects
  • 12. How to Organize? Determine the roles needed Obtain resources and allocate them to roles Organize offices and data systems. Assign resources to roles and delegate authority and responsibility to them. Assign tasks to the roles Determine best resource (people or equipment) for the role
  • 13. STAFFING The whole personnel function of bringing in and training the staff and maintaining favorable conditions of work  HR Planning  Recruitment  Selection  Orientation  Training and Development  Performance Appraisal  Transfer, Promotion, Demotion  Separation, Termination, Retirement
  • 14. DIRECTING continuous task of making decisions and embodying them in specific and general orders and instructions and serving as the leader of the enterprise Motivation (induces and inspires to perform better)) Communication Competent leadership ( work w/ zeal & confidence)
  • 15. Pull, Don’t Push Pull • Pull (lead people) by effective directing • Motivate • Assist and inspire Push • sit back and give orders
  • 16. COORDINATING - The all important duty of interrelating the various parts of the work - The very essence of management. It is required in each & every function and at each & every stage & therefore it cannot be separated. responsibility of every manager right from the bottom to the top Synchronized efforts understanding of interpersonal and horizontal relationships of people good communicati on
  • 17. integrating the various plans through mutual discussion, exchange of ideas. e.g. - co-ordination between finance budget and purchases budget when a manager groups and assigns various activities to subordinates, and when he creates department’s co-ordination uppermost in his mind. A manager should bear in mind that the right no. of personnel in various positions with right type of education and skills are taken which will ensure right men on the right job. PLANNING AND COORDINATION STAFFING AND COORDINATION. ORGANIZING AND COORDINATION. . The purpose of giving orders, instructions & guidance to the subordinates is served only when there is a harmony between superiors & subordinates DIRECTING AND COORDINATION. .
  • 18. REPORTING Reporting is keeping those to whom the executive is responsible informed as to what is going on, which thus includes keeping himself and his subordinates informed through records, research and inspections
  • 19. BUDGETING - means fiscal planning, control and accounting- - Quantification of plans - Financial planning - Monitoring & controlling scarce resources through performance measurement
  • 21. CONCEPTUAL SKILLS Ability to see the ‘big picture’, to recognize and understand significant elements in a situation. Creation Phase:  Establish positive thinking  Develop creative ideas  Combine  Refine  Re-arrange  Simplify
  • 22. Knowledge of and proficiency in activities involving methods, processes and procedures.  Development of your technical skills as an integral part of your personal development  Strong technical skills can save you time and increase income TECHNICAL SKILLS
  • 23. Ability to work with people. Creation of an environment in which people feel secure and free to express their opinions.  HR is most important career skill  One’s ability to get along is the single most important factor affecting chances of success in the workplace HUMAN SKILLS
  • 24.  Ability to solve problems that will benefit enterprise. Also ability to design a workable solution to the problems and to avoid them in future Simple tips: - get all the facts - weigh - decide - act Post Implementation: - monitor - verify results - document - celebrate success DECISION MAKING SKILL
  • 25. PROBLEM SOLVING Prevention Principle – Solve problem @ the source. Live by the 1 – 10 – 100 rule Practice Principle
  • 26. Fix Problem Before it Reaches Customer Fix Problem After it Goes to Customer 100 10 1 Cost •If problem is not fixed when it occurs it will become costlier to fix later – money and time 1 – 10 – 100 Rule Problem Solving Prevent Problem Time
  • 27. Lately in public administration POSDECoRB Managerial Function 1 Planning 2 Organizing 3 Staffing 4 Directing/Influencing 5 Coordinating/Reviewing 6 Budgeting
  • 29. Levels of Management Responsible for working out strategies and plans to implement decisions and policies made by top level managers. Responsible for ensuring work is done according to plans. Top First-Line Middle determines the objectives, policies and plans of the organization. Managerial Skill Design/Human Skills Technical Conceptual/Design
  • 30. Managerial Skills First Line Technical Design / Human Skills Conceptual / Design Middle Top Level
  • 32. Top Level Management Middle Level First-Line Reflective of the above discussion, CDA BOA Resolution No. 32-S-2011 provides the organizational structure of primary cooperatives under RA The Organizational Structure of a Primary Cooperative. Source : CDA BOA Resolution No. 32-S-2011
  • 33. Governance Framework GA • General Assembly BOD • Board of Directors OO • Other Officers MS • Management Staff Source: Bitonio (2012) The cooperative governance framework as exhibited in the operation and management of cooperatives.
  • 34. • General Assembly • Board of Directors • Other Officers • Management Staff Source: Bitonio (2012) GA BOD OO MS Flow of Accountability
  • 35. 45 25 20 5 35 30 20 15 5 15 30 50 TOP MIDDLE FIRST Plan Org Leading Coordinating Managerial Functions
  • 36. A.Interpersonal Roles (figurehead, liaison, leads) B.Decision Maker ( entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator) C.Informational Roles (monitors, disseminator, spokesperson) Managerial Roles
  • 37. Management Issues Faced by the Coop. • Low collection efficiency(high A/R) • High operating Costs • High tax assessment by the BIR Financial • Interference of politics • Postponement of BOD electionsInstitutional • High system loss • Rampant pilferage/illegal connections • Frequent loan of materials by contractors Technical
  • 38.
  • 39. http://www.slideshare.net/saadmunami/coordination- 18794957?from_search=3, retrieved: 09/30/13 http://my.safaribooksonline.com/book/management/9789332501416/1 dot-introduction-to-management/ch01_sub6_xhtml, retrieved: 10/1/13. Reference: http:// www.vectorstudy.com/management theories/POSDORB.htm http://www.slideshare.net/jobitonio/principle-of-management-jbb-2 accessed Oct 5, 2013 http://www.slideshare.net/jobitonio/management-functions-jbb-3 accessed Oct 5, 2013 Daft, R. L., & Marcic, D. (2010). Understanding Management (7th Ed). Cengage Learning Johnson, D. (2002). Thinking government: ideas, policies, institutions, and public-sector management. Broadview press http:// www.vectorstudy.com/management theories/POSDORB.htm