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Pacific Southwest Research Station
Sustainable Wetlands Adaptation and
Mitigation Program
Richard A. MacKenzie, Randy Kolka, Cynthia
Mackie, Mathew Warren, J. Boone Kauffman,
Joko Purbospito, Daniel Murdiyarso, Carl
Trettin, Erik Lilleskov
Pacific Southwest Research Station
Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia,
May 5 - May 6, 2014
Pacific Southwest Research Station
Provide management agencies, policy makers, and scientists
from Southeast Asia with credible scientific information
needed to make sound decisions relating to the role of tropical
wetlands in climate change adaptation and mitigation
strategies
Sustainable Wetlands Adaptation and Mitigation
Program (SWAMP) objective:
Pacific Southwest Research Station
1. Quantify greenhouse gas emissions arising
from intact wetland forests and sites that have
undergone land cover change
2. Quantify C stocks of tropical forested
wetlands of the world and associated land
uses
3. Develop ecosystem modeling tools and
remote sensing technology to scale up C
measurements
4. Quantify the role of tropical wetland systems
in climate change adaptation and mitigation
5. Develop capacity building and outreach
activities with associated countries that will
lead to sustainability of local communities,
livelihoods and infrastructure
Sustainable Wetlands Adaptation and Mitigation
Program (SWAMP) goals:
Pacific Southwest Research Station
Comparable – SWAMP has been/is being used in 22 different
countriesForest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia,
May 5 - May 6, 2014
Using SWAMP to assess Carbon pools
Pacific Southwest Research Station
Reference Source :
Kauffman, J.B. and Donato, D.C. 2012 Protocols
for the measurement, monitoring and reporting
of structure, biomass and carbon stocks in
mangrove forests.
Working Paper 86. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia.
the SWAMP Protocol
“The purpose is provide ideas and
approaches to accurately measure, monitor
and report species composition and
structure, aboveground biomass, and carbon
stocks of mangrove ecosystems.”
Pacific Southwest Research Station
Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia,
May 5 - May 6, 2014
flagging tape
Subplot layout
Subplot 1
Subplot 2
Subplot 3
Subplot 4
Subplot 5
25m25m
25m25m
N
Plot layout
Outline of 0.25 ha plot
(50 x 50 m) to measure
trees > 10cm if present
A B
Pacific Southwest Research Station
Trees
Downed/dead wood
Forest floor
Non-tree
vegetation
Soil
x
Pacific Southwest Research Station
Vermeer and Rahmstorf 2008
Worst case
Best case
1) Sea-level rise has nearly doubled since 1990 (5.4 cm at 3.2 mm/yr)
2) Sea-level is predicted to increase by 75-190 cm by 2100
Sea-level rise threatens ecosystem services that mangroves provide
Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia,
May 5 - May 6, 2014
Pacific Southwest Research Station
Sedimentation rate = sea-level rise
Alongi 2008
Majority of mangroves are currently keeping up with sea-level rise
Sea-level Rise → Mangroves
Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia,
May 5 - May 6, 2014
Pacific Southwest Research Station
Semeniuk 1994
Sea-level Rise → Mangroves
Forces mangroves to retreat landwards but success of migration depends on multiple
factors.
Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia,
May 5 - May 6, 2014
Pacific Southwest Research Station
Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia,
May 5 - May 6, 2014
Pacific Southwest Research Station
Hawaii
Guam
New
Caledonia
Palau
Yap
Japan
Tahiti
American
Samoa
Chuuk
Philippines
Pohnpei
Fiji
CNMI
Marshall
Islands
Kosrae
Indonesia
Pacific Sea Level Rise Monitoring Network
Goals:p risk-spreading strategies to address uncertainties of climate change
1) Identify and protect critical areas naturally positioned to survive climate
change
2) Establish baseline data and monitor the responses of mangroves to climate
change
Pacific Southwest Research Station
Krauss et al 2010
1) Rod surface elevation tables (rSETS)Mangrove forest floor elevation
Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia,
May 5 - May 6, 2014
Pacific Southwest Research Station
Krauss et al 2010
1) Rod surface elevation tables (rSETS)Mangrove forest floor elevation
Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia,
May 5 - May 6, 2014
Pacific Southwest Research Station
Krauss et al 2010
1) Rod surface elevation tables (rSETS)Mangrove forest floor elevation
Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia,
May 5 - May 6, 2014
Pacific Southwest Research Station
Pacific Southwest Research Station
Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia,
May 5 - May 6, 2014
Pacific Southwest Research Station
Krauss et al 2010
2) Surface accretionMangrove forest floor elevation
1
2
3
Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia,
May 5 - May 6, 2014
Pacific Southwest Research Station
3) RadionuclidesMangrove elevation
Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia,
May 5 - May 6, 2014
Pacific Southwest Research Station
Vietnam
Republic of Palau
Sedimentation rate = sea-level rise
Modified from Alongi 2008
Preliminary results
Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia,
May 5 - May 6, 2014
Pacific Southwest Research Station
Mangrove conservation and restoration cannot be done alone! It requires
many people and partners who are willing to get dirty!
Thank you!
rmackenzie@fs.fed.us
Pacific Southwest Research Station
Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia,
May 5 - May 6, 2014
Thank you!
Pacific Southwest Research Station
Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia,
May 5 - May 6, 2014
D1 B0 U1 B375 U1B0 U3B0 T6P6
BelowgroundCaccumulation(MgCha
-1
yr
-1
)
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
Republic of Palau
Vietnam
Pacific Southwest Research Station
Strategies to promote mangrove resilience: (McLeod and Salm 2006)
1) Apply risk-spreading strategies to address uncertainties of climate change
2) Identify and protect critical areas naturally positioned to survive climate change
3) Manage human stressors on mangroves
4) Establish buffer zones to allow inland migration of mangroves
5) Restore degraded areas that have demonstrated resilience
6) Understand and preserve connectivity
7) Establish baseline data and monitor the responses of mangroves to climate change
8) Implement adaptive strategies to compensate for changes in species ranges
9) Develop alternative livelihoods for mangrove-dependent communities
10)Build partnerships to generate necessary finances and support to respond to climate
change
Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia,
May 5 - May 6, 2014
Pacific Southwest Research Station
Strategies to promote mangrove resilience: (McLeod and Salm 2006)
1) Apply risk-spreading strategies to address uncertainties of climate change
2) Identify and protect critical areas naturally positioned to survive climate change
3) Manage human stressors on mangroves
4) Establish buffer zones to allow inland migration of mangroves
5) Restore degraded areas that have demonstrated resilience
6) Understand and preserve connectivity
7) Establish baseline data and monitor the responses of mangroves to climate change
8) Implement adaptive strategies to compensate for changes in species ranges
9) Develop alternative livelihoods for mangrove-dependent communities
10)Build partnerships to generate necessary finances and support to respond to climate
change
Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia,
May 5 - May 6, 2014
Pacific Southwest Research Station
Palau U3 B0
Depth (cm)
0 20 40 60
210PBActivity(pCi/g)
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
Palau U1 B0
Depth (cm)
0 20 40 60
210
PbActivity(pCi/g)
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia,
May 5 - May 6, 2014
Pacific Southwest Research Station
Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia,
May 5 - May 6, 2014
Pacific Southwest Research Station
Pacific Sea Level Rise Monitoring Network
Hawaii
Guam
New
Caledonia
Palau
Yap
Japan
Tahiti
American
Samoa
Chuuk
Philippines
Pohnpei
Fiji
CNMI
Marshall
Islands
Kosrae
Indonesia
Pacific Southwest Research Station
Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia,
May 5 - May 6, 2014
Pacific Southwest Research Station
Krauss et al. 2010
Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia,
May 5 - May 6, 2014
Pacific Southwest Research Station
Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia,
May 5 - May 6, 2014

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Sustainable Wetlands Adaptation and Mitigation Program

  • 1. Pacific Southwest Research Station Sustainable Wetlands Adaptation and Mitigation Program Richard A. MacKenzie, Randy Kolka, Cynthia Mackie, Mathew Warren, J. Boone Kauffman, Joko Purbospito, Daniel Murdiyarso, Carl Trettin, Erik Lilleskov
  • 2. Pacific Southwest Research Station Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia, May 5 - May 6, 2014
  • 3. Pacific Southwest Research Station Provide management agencies, policy makers, and scientists from Southeast Asia with credible scientific information needed to make sound decisions relating to the role of tropical wetlands in climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies Sustainable Wetlands Adaptation and Mitigation Program (SWAMP) objective:
  • 4. Pacific Southwest Research Station 1. Quantify greenhouse gas emissions arising from intact wetland forests and sites that have undergone land cover change 2. Quantify C stocks of tropical forested wetlands of the world and associated land uses 3. Develop ecosystem modeling tools and remote sensing technology to scale up C measurements 4. Quantify the role of tropical wetland systems in climate change adaptation and mitigation 5. Develop capacity building and outreach activities with associated countries that will lead to sustainability of local communities, livelihoods and infrastructure Sustainable Wetlands Adaptation and Mitigation Program (SWAMP) goals:
  • 5. Pacific Southwest Research Station Comparable – SWAMP has been/is being used in 22 different countriesForest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia, May 5 - May 6, 2014 Using SWAMP to assess Carbon pools
  • 6. Pacific Southwest Research Station Reference Source : Kauffman, J.B. and Donato, D.C. 2012 Protocols for the measurement, monitoring and reporting of structure, biomass and carbon stocks in mangrove forests. Working Paper 86. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia. the SWAMP Protocol “The purpose is provide ideas and approaches to accurately measure, monitor and report species composition and structure, aboveground biomass, and carbon stocks of mangrove ecosystems.”
  • 7. Pacific Southwest Research Station Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia, May 5 - May 6, 2014 flagging tape Subplot layout Subplot 1 Subplot 2 Subplot 3 Subplot 4 Subplot 5 25m25m 25m25m N Plot layout Outline of 0.25 ha plot (50 x 50 m) to measure trees > 10cm if present A B
  • 8. Pacific Southwest Research Station Trees Downed/dead wood Forest floor Non-tree vegetation Soil x
  • 9. Pacific Southwest Research Station Vermeer and Rahmstorf 2008 Worst case Best case 1) Sea-level rise has nearly doubled since 1990 (5.4 cm at 3.2 mm/yr) 2) Sea-level is predicted to increase by 75-190 cm by 2100 Sea-level rise threatens ecosystem services that mangroves provide Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia, May 5 - May 6, 2014
  • 10. Pacific Southwest Research Station Sedimentation rate = sea-level rise Alongi 2008 Majority of mangroves are currently keeping up with sea-level rise Sea-level Rise → Mangroves Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia, May 5 - May 6, 2014
  • 11. Pacific Southwest Research Station Semeniuk 1994 Sea-level Rise → Mangroves Forces mangroves to retreat landwards but success of migration depends on multiple factors. Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia, May 5 - May 6, 2014
  • 12. Pacific Southwest Research Station Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia, May 5 - May 6, 2014
  • 13. Pacific Southwest Research Station Hawaii Guam New Caledonia Palau Yap Japan Tahiti American Samoa Chuuk Philippines Pohnpei Fiji CNMI Marshall Islands Kosrae Indonesia Pacific Sea Level Rise Monitoring Network Goals:p risk-spreading strategies to address uncertainties of climate change 1) Identify and protect critical areas naturally positioned to survive climate change 2) Establish baseline data and monitor the responses of mangroves to climate change
  • 14. Pacific Southwest Research Station Krauss et al 2010 1) Rod surface elevation tables (rSETS)Mangrove forest floor elevation Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia, May 5 - May 6, 2014
  • 15. Pacific Southwest Research Station Krauss et al 2010 1) Rod surface elevation tables (rSETS)Mangrove forest floor elevation Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia, May 5 - May 6, 2014
  • 16. Pacific Southwest Research Station Krauss et al 2010 1) Rod surface elevation tables (rSETS)Mangrove forest floor elevation Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia, May 5 - May 6, 2014
  • 18. Pacific Southwest Research Station Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia, May 5 - May 6, 2014
  • 19. Pacific Southwest Research Station Krauss et al 2010 2) Surface accretionMangrove forest floor elevation 1 2 3 Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia, May 5 - May 6, 2014
  • 20. Pacific Southwest Research Station 3) RadionuclidesMangrove elevation Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia, May 5 - May 6, 2014
  • 21. Pacific Southwest Research Station Vietnam Republic of Palau Sedimentation rate = sea-level rise Modified from Alongi 2008 Preliminary results Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia, May 5 - May 6, 2014
  • 22. Pacific Southwest Research Station Mangrove conservation and restoration cannot be done alone! It requires many people and partners who are willing to get dirty! Thank you! rmackenzie@fs.fed.us
  • 23. Pacific Southwest Research Station Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia, May 5 - May 6, 2014 Thank you!
  • 24. Pacific Southwest Research Station Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia, May 5 - May 6, 2014 D1 B0 U1 B375 U1B0 U3B0 T6P6 BelowgroundCaccumulation(MgCha -1 yr -1 ) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 Republic of Palau Vietnam
  • 25. Pacific Southwest Research Station Strategies to promote mangrove resilience: (McLeod and Salm 2006) 1) Apply risk-spreading strategies to address uncertainties of climate change 2) Identify and protect critical areas naturally positioned to survive climate change 3) Manage human stressors on mangroves 4) Establish buffer zones to allow inland migration of mangroves 5) Restore degraded areas that have demonstrated resilience 6) Understand and preserve connectivity 7) Establish baseline data and monitor the responses of mangroves to climate change 8) Implement adaptive strategies to compensate for changes in species ranges 9) Develop alternative livelihoods for mangrove-dependent communities 10)Build partnerships to generate necessary finances and support to respond to climate change Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia, May 5 - May 6, 2014
  • 26. Pacific Southwest Research Station Strategies to promote mangrove resilience: (McLeod and Salm 2006) 1) Apply risk-spreading strategies to address uncertainties of climate change 2) Identify and protect critical areas naturally positioned to survive climate change 3) Manage human stressors on mangroves 4) Establish buffer zones to allow inland migration of mangroves 5) Restore degraded areas that have demonstrated resilience 6) Understand and preserve connectivity 7) Establish baseline data and monitor the responses of mangroves to climate change 8) Implement adaptive strategies to compensate for changes in species ranges 9) Develop alternative livelihoods for mangrove-dependent communities 10)Build partnerships to generate necessary finances and support to respond to climate change Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia, May 5 - May 6, 2014
  • 27. Pacific Southwest Research Station Palau U3 B0 Depth (cm) 0 20 40 60 210PBActivity(pCi/g) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 Palau U1 B0 Depth (cm) 0 20 40 60 210 PbActivity(pCi/g) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia, May 5 - May 6, 2014
  • 28. Pacific Southwest Research Station Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia, May 5 - May 6, 2014
  • 29. Pacific Southwest Research Station Pacific Sea Level Rise Monitoring Network Hawaii Guam New Caledonia Palau Yap Japan Tahiti American Samoa Chuuk Philippines Pohnpei Fiji CNMI Marshall Islands Kosrae Indonesia
  • 30. Pacific Southwest Research Station Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia, May 5 - May 6, 2014
  • 31. Pacific Southwest Research Station Krauss et al. 2010 Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia, May 5 - May 6, 2014
  • 32. Pacific Southwest Research Station Forest Asia Summit, Jakarta, Indonesia, May 5 - May 6, 2014