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University Teaching Department
Rajasthan Technical University
A Seminar Presentation on the topic
“LOCAL BACKUP PROTECTION FOR HVDC GRIDS”
Presented To:-
Mr. S C Mittal
Associate Professor
Presented By:-
Yash Kumar Natani
Roll No. 13/095
B.Tech Final Year
Introduction
• DC faults in HVDC grids lead to quickly increasing currents which should be
interrupted sufficiently fast to prevent damages to power electronics
components. This presentation presents a local backup relaying algorithm for
HVDC grids, which leads to a short delay between primary and backup
protective actions. The proposed algorithm, consisting of breaker and relay
failure subsystems, uses classifiers which detect primary protection mal-
functions based on the voltage and current waveforms associated with dc
breaker operation. The algorithm initiates detection of un-cleared faults during
primary protection operation, which results in accelerated actions by the
backup protection after primary protection failure. The algorithm is applied to
a four-terminal HVDC grid. The proposed algorithm accurately detects un-
cleared faults, identifies the source of primary protection malfunction and
expedites backup protective actions by operating during the fault current
interruption interval of the primary protection.
Types of protection for HVDC system
1. Primary Protection
2. Backup Protection
Types of fault in HVDC system
1. POLE TO GROUND FAULT –
• The occurrence of pole-to-ground faults on DC link is the most common fault in
HVDC system. It was observed that with the occurrence of DC pole to ground faults
leads to substantial over current in the DC grid system which may lead to damage of
the converter valve.It occurs in the case of high impedence system. In case of pole-
to-ground faults in a high impedance grounded system, the fault current in the
faulted pole oscillates and returns to zero
2. POLE TO POLE FAULT –
It occurs in the case of low impedence system.
In case of a pole-to-ground fault in a low impedance grounded system or pole-
to- pole fault, the current increases to a high prospective steady-state value.
Need of the algorithm based protection
Time schematic in case of mechanical breaker
Time schematic in case of hybrid breaker
Backup Protection Principle
 The proposed local backup protection algorithm achieves a high operation
speed by detecting primary protection failure immediately after the instant at
which the primary protection is expected to initiate fault current interruption
 similar to loci, tf , tpd and top correspond to the fault inception, fault
detection and expected breaker opening instants. From the instant the
primary protection is expected to initiate fault current interruption, top, the
local backup relaying algorithm starts tracking uncleared faults.
 If the primary protection succeeds in interrupting the fault current, the
backup relaying algorithm detects a cleared fault and no backup protective
actions are carried out. If the primary protection fails, the backup relaying
algorithm detects an uncleared fault at tˆbd and trips the adjacent breakers to
interrupt the fault current.
 The adjacent breakers open at tˆbo and the backup protection clears the
fault at tˆbc.
Loci of Dc Fault Currents
and Voltages with
Primary and/or Backup
Protection in Service
 Points 1 and 2 correspond to fault inception and breaker trip instants, tf and top,
respectively.
 The solid line from point 1 to point 2 shows the variations in the current and
voltage measured at the primary relay during the [tf top] interval as the fault is
detected by the primary protection system and the primary breaker trip signal is
generated.
 The dashed line between points 2 and 5 shows the loci of dc voltages and currents
after the primary breaker trips and the faulty line is removed. As the fault isbeing
cleared, the voltage increases from Uo,p and the current decreases from Io,p to 0.
 The solid line from point 2 to point 4 shows the loci of dc voltages and currents
measured at the primary relay after primary protection failure.
 For an uncleared fault, the dc voltage decreases from Uo,p and the current increases
until a steady-state value, Is , is reached at point 4. from Io,p .
 If the backup protection does not operate fast enough, Io,b will exceed the current
interruption capability of dc breakers and the fault cannot be cleared.
 For existing dc breaker prototypes, the maximum interruptible current is typically
reached within a few milliseconds .
 The dotted line from point 3 to point 6, shows dc currents and voltages at the
primary relay as all transmission lines connected to the same bus as the faulty line
are disconnected to clear the fault.
 At point 6 (tbc), the backup protection clears the fault and the dc fault current
becomes zero.
Fault Classfication
1) Classification procedure and algorithm:
 In all classification methods, two types of data, i.e. training and test, are used.
The training data is used to prepare the classifier for the specific application,
by assigning a class number to each sample of the training data, and the test
data is used to examine the classifier’s performance.
 To properly train the classifier, the training data should encompass samples
from all relevant system operating scenarios. A number of features and a class
number are associated with each data sample. The features for both training
and test data are extracted from system measurements.
 The classifier used in this paper is the K nearest neighbor (KNN), as it provides
a simple yet effective classification method. A KNN classifier identifies the
class of the unseen sample as the class majority of the k nearest neighbors. A
nearest neighbor is defined as the sample from the training set that has the
minimal distance to the unseen sample. The distance metric used in this
paper is the Euclidean distance. The parameter k is a design parameter of the
classifier and can be optimized based on the training samples.
A) Breaker failure detection:
 The classifier associated with the breaker failure subsystem uses three
features from the current and voltage measurements at the primary
protection zone; the instantaneous voltage and current and a time tag.
 To eliminate the impact of the pre-fault operating conditions, the pre-fault
currents and voltages are subtracted from the instantaneous quantities. The
time tag shows when the sample is taken with respect to the fault detection
instant.
 To identify the wave front, the difference between each two subsequent
current samples is calculated. If the difference exceeds a threshold, a fault is
detected . The accuracy of the determined fault inception instant depends on
the sampling frequency of the measurements.
 The breaker failure classifier identifies whether the primary breaker operated
or the fault remains uncleared although it was detected by the primary relay.
This classifier assigns a class number to each unseen data sample
 •Classbf 0: no fault is detected in the primary protection zone
 •Classbf 1: fault is detected in the primary protection zone, but fault current is not
interrupted by the primary
 •Classbf 2: the primary breaker operated and fault will be cleared
 •Classbf 3: the primary breaker failed to remove the faulty line.
Classifier’s outputs
 Classes 1 and 3 indicate the alert and action states, respec-tively. In
the alert state, backup actions are delayed until a decision on
primary protection failure is made. In the action state, a trip signal
is sent to all adjacent breakers. Classes 0 and 2 indicate that no
action from the breaker failure backup protection is required.
B) Relay failure detection
The classifier associated with the relay failure subsystem is used to
detect uncleared faults in the reverse backup protection zone of the
relay. Such an uncleared fault is due to the failure of an adjacent relay
for which the fault is in the primary protection zone.
The inputs to the relay failure classifier are the instantaneous current
and voltage measurements and a time tag. The time tag determines the
relative instant of the data sample with respect to the fault detection
instant and takes similar values to that of the breaker failure classifier.
The output of each classifier can obtain six values :
 Classrf 0: no fault is detected,
 Classrf 1: fault is detected in the primary protection zone,
 Classrf 2: fault is detected in the reverse backup pro-tection zone,
 Classrf 3: fault in the primary protection zone is not cleared,
 Classrf 4: fault is cleared, and
 Classrf 5: fault in the reverse backup protection zone is not cleared.
 Classes 2 and 5 indicate the alert and action states, respectively.
Classes 0, 1, 3 and 4 do not require any protective action from the relay
failure backup protection, but are needed for proper operation of the
classification algorithm.
Classifier output for relay failure detection
Subsystems for breaker and relay failure
A)Breaker Failure subsystem –
 Relay logic: The breaker failure and relay failure subsys-tem generate a trip signal
if the class number is 3 or 5 and the timers TBF or TRF exceed a threshold, ∆tBF or
∆tRF, respectively. The breaker failure trip signal is sent to the breakers on all lines
adjacent to the faulted one. The relay failure trip signal is sent to the breakers on the
adjacent lines as well as the breaker on the faulted line.
 The thresholds ∆tBF and ∆tRF on timers TBF and TRF are used to ensure
operation of the backup protection after the primary protection by
controlling the time instants, tˆ {BF} and tˆ {RF}, at which the backup
protection starts to interrupt the fault current.
 To ensure operation of the breaker failure subsystem prior to the relay
failure subsystem, the thresholds ∆tBF and ∆tRF are set such that tˆ {RF} > tˆ
{BF}.
Test System
 The test system
considered in
the studies of
this paper is the
four-bus
meshed HVDC
grid of .
 In all the
stations, half-
bridge modular
multilevel
converters with
symmetric
configuration
are used.
 Hybrid dc breakers, which can interrupt the fault current in 1.7 ms after fault
detection, are inserted at the end of each dc transmission line and at the
converter’s dc terminals. The dc breakers are assumed to have bidirectional
current interruption capability.
 The sample set of each classifier consists of various fault instances generated
by applying faults at the two ends of all transmission lines and several points
between the two ends (25 km equally-spaced points).
 To evaluate the classification algorithm, 70% and 30% of the samples are used
as training and testing data, respectively.
 The proposed backup relaying algorithm is tested for all system relays and results for
R13 are provided in this paper. For the breaker failure backup protection system,
measurements at R13 are used.
 The relay failure backup protection system uses measurements at R12 and R14. The
sampling time for voltage and current measurements is 0.02 ms, corresponding to a
sampling frequency of 50 kHz.
 The faults considered in this study are pole-to-pole and pole-to-ground faults on the
dc side which occur at 0.025 s. These are detected by the primary protection system
after 0.3 ms, which lies within the detection time range of recently proposed
algorithms for primary protection .
Results
A) Breaker Failure
 Figure
demonstrates the
breaker failure
subsystem of R13
for two fault
scenarios on line
L13 (a solid fault 50
km from bus 3)
B) Relay failure
 Figure illustrate the
backup protection
provided by R12 for
failure of R13 and R14
for three scenarios: (i)
fault on line L13 at bus 3
(ii) fault on line L14 (100
km from bus 1) and fault
on line L12 at bus 1. Each
fault scenario studies
two cases where the
fault is either detected
or not detected by the
primary relay.
Comparison between Conventional and
Proposed Backup Protection
 The proposed backup protection system initiates backup actions 3 ms after the fault detection
instant.
 With the proposed backup relaying algorithm, the fault is cleared 5.65 ms faster than with the
conventional backup protection .
 The dc current of L14 reaches 8.475 kA and 10.46 kA, respectively, before the proposed or
conventional backup subsystem removes the faulty line. The 2 kA current difference between the
two backup methods affects the ratings of the breakers, current limiting equipment and converters.
 With the proposed backup relaying algorithm, the system requires dc breakers with lower fault
current interruption and energy dissipation capability as compared to conventional algorithms, which
results in lower costs.
 Furthermore, the short response time of the proposed backup relaying algorithm facilitates fast
restoration of the dc voltage after fault clearance.
Conclusion
 The proposed local backup relaying algorithm for HVDC grids reduces the fault
clearance time compared to algorithms based on ac backup protection
philosophy. The shorter fault clearance time results in reduced exposure of
system equipment to high dc voltages and currents, and therefore, lower
ratings for equipment such as dc breakers and converters.
 The proposed backup relaying algorithm consists of breaker and relay failure
subsystems and is a data-based scheme which uses the features extracted
from local measurements to detect uncleared faults due to primary
protection failure. It is applicable to a wide range of HVDC grids which use
selective protection and dc breakers, as the principle of the algorithm is based
on the voltage and current waveforms associated with dc breaker operation
rather than system characteristics.
 The study results show that both breaker and relay failure subsystems quickly
detect primary protection failure and generate the correct trip signals for
their associated breakers. The subsystems are insensitive to changes in the
grid operation state such as converter and line outages.
THANK YOU

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Local Backup Protection Algorithm For HVDC Grids

  • 1. 1 University Teaching Department Rajasthan Technical University A Seminar Presentation on the topic “LOCAL BACKUP PROTECTION FOR HVDC GRIDS” Presented To:- Mr. S C Mittal Associate Professor Presented By:- Yash Kumar Natani Roll No. 13/095 B.Tech Final Year
  • 2. Introduction • DC faults in HVDC grids lead to quickly increasing currents which should be interrupted sufficiently fast to prevent damages to power electronics components. This presentation presents a local backup relaying algorithm for HVDC grids, which leads to a short delay between primary and backup protective actions. The proposed algorithm, consisting of breaker and relay failure subsystems, uses classifiers which detect primary protection mal- functions based on the voltage and current waveforms associated with dc breaker operation. The algorithm initiates detection of un-cleared faults during primary protection operation, which results in accelerated actions by the backup protection after primary protection failure. The algorithm is applied to a four-terminal HVDC grid. The proposed algorithm accurately detects un- cleared faults, identifies the source of primary protection malfunction and expedites backup protective actions by operating during the fault current interruption interval of the primary protection.
  • 3. Types of protection for HVDC system 1. Primary Protection 2. Backup Protection
  • 4. Types of fault in HVDC system 1. POLE TO GROUND FAULT – • The occurrence of pole-to-ground faults on DC link is the most common fault in HVDC system. It was observed that with the occurrence of DC pole to ground faults leads to substantial over current in the DC grid system which may lead to damage of the converter valve.It occurs in the case of high impedence system. In case of pole- to-ground faults in a high impedance grounded system, the fault current in the faulted pole oscillates and returns to zero 2. POLE TO POLE FAULT – It occurs in the case of low impedence system. In case of a pole-to-ground fault in a low impedance grounded system or pole- to- pole fault, the current increases to a high prospective steady-state value.
  • 5. Need of the algorithm based protection Time schematic in case of mechanical breaker
  • 6. Time schematic in case of hybrid breaker
  • 7. Backup Protection Principle  The proposed local backup protection algorithm achieves a high operation speed by detecting primary protection failure immediately after the instant at which the primary protection is expected to initiate fault current interruption  similar to loci, tf , tpd and top correspond to the fault inception, fault detection and expected breaker opening instants. From the instant the primary protection is expected to initiate fault current interruption, top, the local backup relaying algorithm starts tracking uncleared faults.  If the primary protection succeeds in interrupting the fault current, the backup relaying algorithm detects a cleared fault and no backup protective actions are carried out. If the primary protection fails, the backup relaying algorithm detects an uncleared fault at tˆbd and trips the adjacent breakers to interrupt the fault current.  The adjacent breakers open at tˆbo and the backup protection clears the fault at tˆbc.
  • 8. Loci of Dc Fault Currents and Voltages with Primary and/or Backup Protection in Service
  • 9.  Points 1 and 2 correspond to fault inception and breaker trip instants, tf and top, respectively.  The solid line from point 1 to point 2 shows the variations in the current and voltage measured at the primary relay during the [tf top] interval as the fault is detected by the primary protection system and the primary breaker trip signal is generated.  The dashed line between points 2 and 5 shows the loci of dc voltages and currents after the primary breaker trips and the faulty line is removed. As the fault isbeing cleared, the voltage increases from Uo,p and the current decreases from Io,p to 0.  The solid line from point 2 to point 4 shows the loci of dc voltages and currents measured at the primary relay after primary protection failure.
  • 10.  For an uncleared fault, the dc voltage decreases from Uo,p and the current increases until a steady-state value, Is , is reached at point 4. from Io,p .  If the backup protection does not operate fast enough, Io,b will exceed the current interruption capability of dc breakers and the fault cannot be cleared.  For existing dc breaker prototypes, the maximum interruptible current is typically reached within a few milliseconds .  The dotted line from point 3 to point 6, shows dc currents and voltages at the primary relay as all transmission lines connected to the same bus as the faulty line are disconnected to clear the fault.  At point 6 (tbc), the backup protection clears the fault and the dc fault current becomes zero.
  • 11. Fault Classfication 1) Classification procedure and algorithm:  In all classification methods, two types of data, i.e. training and test, are used. The training data is used to prepare the classifier for the specific application, by assigning a class number to each sample of the training data, and the test data is used to examine the classifier’s performance.  To properly train the classifier, the training data should encompass samples from all relevant system operating scenarios. A number of features and a class number are associated with each data sample. The features for both training and test data are extracted from system measurements.  The classifier used in this paper is the K nearest neighbor (KNN), as it provides a simple yet effective classification method. A KNN classifier identifies the class of the unseen sample as the class majority of the k nearest neighbors. A nearest neighbor is defined as the sample from the training set that has the minimal distance to the unseen sample. The distance metric used in this paper is the Euclidean distance. The parameter k is a design parameter of the classifier and can be optimized based on the training samples.
  • 12. A) Breaker failure detection:  The classifier associated with the breaker failure subsystem uses three features from the current and voltage measurements at the primary protection zone; the instantaneous voltage and current and a time tag.  To eliminate the impact of the pre-fault operating conditions, the pre-fault currents and voltages are subtracted from the instantaneous quantities. The time tag shows when the sample is taken with respect to the fault detection instant.  To identify the wave front, the difference between each two subsequent current samples is calculated. If the difference exceeds a threshold, a fault is detected . The accuracy of the determined fault inception instant depends on the sampling frequency of the measurements.  The breaker failure classifier identifies whether the primary breaker operated or the fault remains uncleared although it was detected by the primary relay. This classifier assigns a class number to each unseen data sample
  • 13.  •Classbf 0: no fault is detected in the primary protection zone  •Classbf 1: fault is detected in the primary protection zone, but fault current is not interrupted by the primary  •Classbf 2: the primary breaker operated and fault will be cleared  •Classbf 3: the primary breaker failed to remove the faulty line. Classifier’s outputs
  • 14.  Classes 1 and 3 indicate the alert and action states, respec-tively. In the alert state, backup actions are delayed until a decision on primary protection failure is made. In the action state, a trip signal is sent to all adjacent breakers. Classes 0 and 2 indicate that no action from the breaker failure backup protection is required.
  • 15. B) Relay failure detection The classifier associated with the relay failure subsystem is used to detect uncleared faults in the reverse backup protection zone of the relay. Such an uncleared fault is due to the failure of an adjacent relay for which the fault is in the primary protection zone. The inputs to the relay failure classifier are the instantaneous current and voltage measurements and a time tag. The time tag determines the relative instant of the data sample with respect to the fault detection instant and takes similar values to that of the breaker failure classifier.
  • 16. The output of each classifier can obtain six values :  Classrf 0: no fault is detected,  Classrf 1: fault is detected in the primary protection zone,  Classrf 2: fault is detected in the reverse backup pro-tection zone,  Classrf 3: fault in the primary protection zone is not cleared,  Classrf 4: fault is cleared, and  Classrf 5: fault in the reverse backup protection zone is not cleared.  Classes 2 and 5 indicate the alert and action states, respectively. Classes 0, 1, 3 and 4 do not require any protective action from the relay failure backup protection, but are needed for proper operation of the classification algorithm.
  • 17. Classifier output for relay failure detection
  • 18. Subsystems for breaker and relay failure A)Breaker Failure subsystem –
  • 19.  Relay logic: The breaker failure and relay failure subsys-tem generate a trip signal if the class number is 3 or 5 and the timers TBF or TRF exceed a threshold, ∆tBF or ∆tRF, respectively. The breaker failure trip signal is sent to the breakers on all lines adjacent to the faulted one. The relay failure trip signal is sent to the breakers on the adjacent lines as well as the breaker on the faulted line.
  • 20.  The thresholds ∆tBF and ∆tRF on timers TBF and TRF are used to ensure operation of the backup protection after the primary protection by controlling the time instants, tˆ {BF} and tˆ {RF}, at which the backup protection starts to interrupt the fault current.  To ensure operation of the breaker failure subsystem prior to the relay failure subsystem, the thresholds ∆tBF and ∆tRF are set such that tˆ {RF} > tˆ {BF}.
  • 21. Test System  The test system considered in the studies of this paper is the four-bus meshed HVDC grid of .  In all the stations, half- bridge modular multilevel converters with symmetric configuration are used.
  • 22.  Hybrid dc breakers, which can interrupt the fault current in 1.7 ms after fault detection, are inserted at the end of each dc transmission line and at the converter’s dc terminals. The dc breakers are assumed to have bidirectional current interruption capability.  The sample set of each classifier consists of various fault instances generated by applying faults at the two ends of all transmission lines and several points between the two ends (25 km equally-spaced points).  To evaluate the classification algorithm, 70% and 30% of the samples are used as training and testing data, respectively.
  • 23.  The proposed backup relaying algorithm is tested for all system relays and results for R13 are provided in this paper. For the breaker failure backup protection system, measurements at R13 are used.  The relay failure backup protection system uses measurements at R12 and R14. The sampling time for voltage and current measurements is 0.02 ms, corresponding to a sampling frequency of 50 kHz.  The faults considered in this study are pole-to-pole and pole-to-ground faults on the dc side which occur at 0.025 s. These are detected by the primary protection system after 0.3 ms, which lies within the detection time range of recently proposed algorithms for primary protection .
  • 24. Results A) Breaker Failure  Figure demonstrates the breaker failure subsystem of R13 for two fault scenarios on line L13 (a solid fault 50 km from bus 3)
  • 25. B) Relay failure  Figure illustrate the backup protection provided by R12 for failure of R13 and R14 for three scenarios: (i) fault on line L13 at bus 3 (ii) fault on line L14 (100 km from bus 1) and fault on line L12 at bus 1. Each fault scenario studies two cases where the fault is either detected or not detected by the primary relay.
  • 26. Comparison between Conventional and Proposed Backup Protection
  • 27.  The proposed backup protection system initiates backup actions 3 ms after the fault detection instant.  With the proposed backup relaying algorithm, the fault is cleared 5.65 ms faster than with the conventional backup protection .  The dc current of L14 reaches 8.475 kA and 10.46 kA, respectively, before the proposed or conventional backup subsystem removes the faulty line. The 2 kA current difference between the two backup methods affects the ratings of the breakers, current limiting equipment and converters.  With the proposed backup relaying algorithm, the system requires dc breakers with lower fault current interruption and energy dissipation capability as compared to conventional algorithms, which results in lower costs.  Furthermore, the short response time of the proposed backup relaying algorithm facilitates fast restoration of the dc voltage after fault clearance.
  • 28. Conclusion  The proposed local backup relaying algorithm for HVDC grids reduces the fault clearance time compared to algorithms based on ac backup protection philosophy. The shorter fault clearance time results in reduced exposure of system equipment to high dc voltages and currents, and therefore, lower ratings for equipment such as dc breakers and converters.  The proposed backup relaying algorithm consists of breaker and relay failure subsystems and is a data-based scheme which uses the features extracted from local measurements to detect uncleared faults due to primary protection failure. It is applicable to a wide range of HVDC grids which use selective protection and dc breakers, as the principle of the algorithm is based on the voltage and current waveforms associated with dc breaker operation rather than system characteristics.  The study results show that both breaker and relay failure subsystems quickly detect primary protection failure and generate the correct trip signals for their associated breakers. The subsystems are insensitive to changes in the grid operation state such as converter and line outages.