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                            White Paper
                            3-D for Cinema
                               and Television
                                   TelevisiON
             Document created under the sponsorship of
              Document created under the sponsorship of
        Ficam, the CST, UP3D, the HD-Forum and the AFC
                                           and the AFC
               Editorial Coordination ::Marc Bourhis (Ficam) and Olivier Amato (Smartjog)
               Editorial Coordination Marc Bourhis (Ficam)
© 2012 Ficam
Partners for this white paper :

    The Ficam (Fédération des Industries du Cinéma, de l’Audiovisuel
    et du Multimédia), presided over by Thierry de Segonzac, is a
    professional organization bringing together 180 enterprises whose
    activity covers all the professions and technical know-how dealing
    with image and sound. Always proposing strong measures, the Ficam
    represents, promotes and defends the national and international
    interests of technical industries dealing with audiovisual creation.

                                                                                            THE 3D CONSORTIUM
    The Commission Supérieure Technique de l’Image et du Son (CST),
    presided over by Pierre-William Glenn is an association grouping
    professionals in cinema and the audiovisual and multimedia fields,                        launches
                                                                              3D rendez -vous
    as well as technicians and technical artists. The CST brings together
    today close to 700 members. Its goals are to defend the quality
    of the production and distribution of images and sound, defend
    creativity and technological and artistic innovation in cinema and
    the audiovisual fields, as well as to defend the independence and
    freedom of action and expression in our professional activities.

                                                                                    A UNIQUE MARKET PLACE
    UP3D (Union des professionnels de la 3Ds) is an association whose
    objectives are: to bring together and animate the 3-D professional
                                                                            ONE TO ONE MEETING - BUSINESS NETWORKING
    community, inform and communicate on the professions, know-
    how and equipment specific to the 3-D world, and to promote and          WORKSHOPS - BOARD DEMO PRESENTATION
    develop 3-D in Europe.



    Originally composed of 17 members, the HD Forum, presided over
                                                                                                 6 ZONES
    by Jean-Pierre Lacotte, now has 51 members, all professionals
    as stated in the statutes. The diversity of the questions to resolve
    around HD has led the HD Forum to create two commissions: the
                                                                              MIDDLE EAST - BRASIL - NORTH AMERICA
    “technical commission” and the “communication and marketing
    commission”, which are themselves divided into work groups that
                                                                                      RUSSIA - INDIA - CHINA
    regularly collaborate with the work of the Ficam and the CST.
                                                                            FOUNDED BY :

    The AFC (Association Française des Directeurs de la Photographie
    Cinématographique), co-presided over by Matthieu Poirot-Delpech,
    Michel Abramowicz and Remy Chevrin, brings together most of the          SPONSORED BY :
    directors of French cinematic photography at the highest artistic
    and technical level of French and foreign productions. The AFC
    promotes the existence of quality cinematic images, tests new
    techniques and affirms the competence of photography directors
    as creative collaborators of film directors, in the best tradition of
    French cultural and artistic discourse.
                                                                                           contact@3dconsortium.biz
Special thanks :
	       To Pascal Buron (associate president of Ficam in charge of
the Research and Innovation technical commission, and to Olivier
Amato (Smartjog) for all the coordination work they did on this
project as they have done on so many others.
	       A big thank you to Yves Pupulin (Bincole) for his contribution


                                                                          TOMORROW
to all the chapters of this white paper. Thank you also to Olivier
Cahen (Stéréo-Club Français) for having shared with us his
encyclopedic knowledge of 3-D and for his editorial contribution to


                                                                          starts here.
the visual comfort chapter, as well as to Philippe Gérard (3DLized),
who, through his commitment to research on 3-D visual comfort,
permitted us to be at the forefront of ideas on this question.
	       A big thank you, too, to Marc Léger (INA Sup) for the writing
of the chapter on the main principles of 3-D and the updating of the
chapter on codecs and modes of TV distribution.
Many thanks to the late Alain Derobe (stereographer and
photography director) who passed away on 11 March 2012, for having
accepted in due course the taking up again of his contribution
made to the CST concerning the adapting of 3-D to the size of the
broadcast screen, as well as to the members of the CST for their
contribution to the part on 3-D projection for cinema.
	       Thanks as well to Laurent Verduci (stereographer) for his
educational aids on 3-D which we used as a common theme and                                                                                                    ©2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All Rights Reserved



for his active participation in our work groups. Thanks also to Alain
                                                                         Today, it s easy to marvel at how ar we ve come.
Chaptal (Sonovision), Franck Montagné (Imagie), Michel Chabrol           Our phones talk to our TVs to record our avorite shows. Doctors in Estonia diagnose
(Eutelsat), Thierry Gruszka (NDS/CISCO), Eric Martin (Technicolor),      patients in Denmark. Social networks help companies improve customer service.
Charles de Cayeux (France Télévisions), Pascal Charpentier               And yet, up to now, more than 99% o our world is not connected to the Internet.

(UP3D) and Benoit Michel (stereoscopynews.com) for their active          But we re working on it.
                                                                         And tomorrow, we ll wake up pretty much everything else you can imagine.
participation.
                                                                         Trees will talk to networks will talk to scientists about climate change.
	       Finally, we wish to thank all those who attentively reread
                                                                         Stoplights will talk to cars will talk to road sensors about increasing tra ic e iciency.
the final document. Thanks also to David Steiner and Cédric-             Ambulances will talk to patient records will talk to doctors about saving lives.
Alexandre Saudinos (Parallell Cinéma) for their contribution on the      It s a phenomenon we call the Internet o Everything an unprecedented opportunity
techniques of preproduction and filming, as well as to Philippe Ros      or today s businesses.
(photo AFC director)..                                                   Tomorrow?
                                                                         We re going to wake the world up. And watch, with eyes wide, as it gets to work.
                                                                         #tomorrowstartshere
1

                        SOMMAIRE                                                                                                                                          0




                                                                                                                                                               0
                                                                                               FÉDÉRER ET PROMOUVOIR LES INDUSTRIES TECHNIQUES
                                                                                               DU CINÉMA, DE L’AUDIOVISUEL ET DU MULTIMÉDIA
                                                                                                                                                           1
    Why a White Paper on Stereoscopic 3-D* (3Ds)??	      PAGE 8                                                                                                1



                                                                                                                                                          ma




                                                                                                                                                    0
                                                                  Technical industries                                                                iné
    Fundamental Principles of Stereoscopy		             PAGE 10




                                                                                                                                              0
                                                                                                                                                    c
                                                                  of creation audiovisuel
    RIGS AND STEREOSCOPIC CAMERAS				                   PAGE 20                                                                           1



    LIVE MULTI-CAMERA 3DS CAPTURING				                 PAGE 24




                                                                                                                                          0
                                                                                                                                              00
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    3Ds POSTPRODUCTION: CORRECTIONS AND WORKFLOW		                                                                                        1
                                                        PAGE 25
                                                                                                                                     00
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    2-D/3Ds CONVERSION: THE NEED FOR KNOW-HOW		         PAGE 30
                                                                           1




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    VISUAL COMFORT WITH 3Ds					                        PAGE 32
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                                                                  1                 00
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    3Ds PROJECTION FOR FILMS					                       PAGE 34
                                                                               mult
                                                                                    imédi
    3-D TV DISPLAY						                                PAGE 36                           a




                                                                                                             0
    ADAPTING 3-D TO THE SIZE OF THE BROADCAST SCREEN	   PAGE 40


    3Ds GLOSSARY	   					                               PAGE 45
                                                                                                     0        With over 180 member companies,
    APPENDIX 1: DEFINITION OF 3Ds PROFESSIONS 			       PAGE 47
                                                                                                             the Ficam represents and promotes
                                                                                                              the technical industries of Cinema,
    APPENDIX 2: 3-D FILMING TECHNIQUES		                PAGE 49                                                      Audiovisual and Multimedia.

    APPENDIX 3: CODECS AND DISTRIBUTION MODES			        PAGE 54
                                                                                                                                                     www.ficam.fr

                                                                               FICAM (Fédération des Industries du Cinéma, de l’Audiovisuel et du Multimédia)
                                                                  11/17, rue de l'Amiral Hamelin-75783 Paris Cedex 16-Tel : + 33 (0)1 45 05 72 55-Fax : + 33 (0)1 45 05 72 50
8                                                                         9



                  Why a White Paper                                                 on Stereoscopic 3-D* (3Ds) ?


E
       ver since movie theaters have been equipped with digital 3-D pro-      production. In fact, stereoscopic 3-D, if it adds new possibilities on the
       jectors, a number of 3-D feature-length films have been shown          narrative level, also includes new obligations on the technical level tied
       with often disparate processing quality. The television market has     to the cerebral acceptance of cinema and television viewers. This is why,
also decided to respond rapidly to the desire of the public for 3-D films.    in this 3Ds white paper, our objective is not to constrain the creativity
The television manufacturers, quick to participate in this technological      of directors, who should remain free in their artistic content, but to set
craze, now make flat television screens on a grand scale equipped with        a framework for their being better able to get around in the additional
display systems “in 3-D”, allowing the viewer to watch 3Ds TV programs        production possibilities specific to stereoscopic 3-D.
in conditions of quite acceptable visual comfort. Moreover, some smart-       	        It is also important to specify that the study of stereoscopy,
phones have recently appeared in the mass market which are capable            already quite old, has allowed the visual comfort zones–inside which a
of generating autostereoscopic 3-D.                                           viewer will have no discomfort or, not to say headaches–to be empiri-
	        However, the market for mobile, TV and cinema broadcast              cally defined. Scientific studies are now taking place to refine these pa-
hardware is much in advance, chronologically speaking, of the produc-         rameters.
tion capacity of stereoscopic 3-D content by the audiovisual and cinema       We say also that the art of 3Ds is only at its beginnings. There will no
industry. Up to now, there does not exist enough natively produced 3Ds        doubt be the possibility for directors of films or television broadcasts to
content to furnish all the ad hoc broadcast media. The barrier is mainly      go beyond this technical framework, at least from time to time, in order
economic and technological, but it is also a result of a lack of informa-     to provoke quite new emotions in the viewer.
tion on the practical conditions in which it is possible today to create      	        Finally, it should be noted that the perception of the depth of an
film in 3-D for television and cinema.                                        object in a 3Ds scene is modified according to the size of the display of
	        Due to the current deficiency in 3Ds content, it should be noted     the images (movie theater screens or televisions). This white paper thus
that many 3-D films and programs broadcast in movie theaters, or on           describes the different display technologies and defines the technical
the first 3Ds television channels, use procedures that create 3-D from        contours of future 3Ds programs to be provided for television and the
                                                                              cinema.
2-D automated images. These do not sufficiently take into account the
                                                                              	        In fact, in order to summarize the main objective of this white
main principles of visual comfort for the viewer and put into question
                                                                              paper, we would say that it consists of sufficiently informing audiovi-
the notion of respect for the original work.
                                                                              sual and cinema professionals on the possibilities of 3Ds so that they
	        Given this enthusiasm for 3-D, it seemed necessary for diffe-
                                                                              can appropriate this new language as much as possible, and that public
rent professional organizations of the cinematographic and television
                                                                              disappointment can be avoided for this new artistic and technical field,
industries (Ficam, CST, UP3D, AFC, HD-Forum, etc.) to produce a white
                                                                              as might have been the case during the first wave of infatuation for 3-D
paper laying out the current state of stereoscopic 3-D. The goal of this      films in the 1950’s.
white paper is to point out the different technical and narrative issues
tied to the filming, postproduction, visual comfort, 2-D/3Ds conversion       This white paper on 3-D refers to the state of the art in May 2012. It is the
and display on a cinema and/or television screen.                             second version of the document that takes into account the remarks of
	        Stereoscopic 3-D is an artistic and technical mechanism requi-       French professionals and updates the generic ideas on the subject.
ring a mental reconstruction of images, which is chosen by the director
and limited by the physiological laws specific to most viewers.
	        As such, it is crucial to put in place, at every step in the manu-   * Rather than use the terms “relief” or “3-D”, quite imprecise for the
facturing chain, 3-D monitoring and quality procedures supervised by          former and source of confusion with computer generated images for the
qualified personnel and trained in this new mode of creation and post-        latter, we recommend using the term “3Ds” for stereoscopic 3-D.
10                                                                                                 11



  Fundamental Principles of
Stereoscopy
      How do we perceive 3-D ?



L
         et’s look at a close object: for example   Now, while continuing to look at the tip of our
         the index finger of our hand. Naturally,   finger, let us consider the objects situated
         the optic axes of our eyes convergent      behind our finger (Figure 2). On which side
towards the object being looked at. We thus         to they seem to be placed when we close one
become slightly cross-eyed. The more the ob-        eye and then the other? We notice that they
ject is close to us, the more we become cross-      are more to the left seen from the left eye and
eyed: the angle of convergence increases. The       more to the right seem from the right eye.
more the object moves away, the more the            It is what is called parallax. It is said that for
angle of convergence decreases. The angle           objects situated behind the plane of conver-
of convergence is a very important indication       gence, the parallax is positive. Let us observe
for our brain: knowing the distance between         again our finger and now consider the objects
                                                                                                           figure 1			                             figure 2			                               figure 3
the two eyes,                                                                     that are closer
it can deduce                                                                      (Figure 3). The
the distance of                                                                    phenomenon
the object, like                                                                   is inversed: the
a range-finder.                                                                    object is more to
The brain allows                                                                   the right seem
us to perceive                                                                     from the left
the depth of the                                                                   eye and more
scene by way                                                                       to the left seem
of the differen-                                                                   from the right
ces       between                                                                  eye. For objects
the angles of                                                                      situated in front
convergence of                                                                     of the plane of
the different ob-                                                               convergence, the
jects being observed. Now let us examine the        parallax is negative. In sum, the parallax is
images formed by our two eyes: as the optic         zero for all the objects situated in the plane
axes of our eyes converge towards our finger,       of convergence, positive for all the objects si-
the image of our finger is formed at the same       tuated behind the plane of convergence and
place on our two retinas (Figure 1). We call the    negative for all the objects situated in front of                                                   figure 4
same points of the objects in the left and right    the plane of convergence.
                                                                                                         are then practically parallel and the angle of       object can hardly be perceived. Happily, other
images “homologous points”. It is said in this      The more an object is distant, the more the
                                                                                                         convergence becomes too small to inform us           indications inform us of the depth: occultation,
case that the homologous points are fused           perception of its distance is imprecise. When
                                                                                                         sufficiently as to the distance of the object. Be-   relative size of the objects, perspective, the ef-
and that our finger is in the “plane of conver-     the distance of the object goes beyond several
                                                                                                         ginning from a 100 meters, the distance of an        fect of mist, etc.
gence” of our eyes.                                 dozen meters, the two optic axes of our eyes
12                                                                                          13



                                                                                                                                                  consequently the placing of the plane of
     How is 3-D reconstructed?                      3Ds applied to cinema                         Stereography : a new production language        convergence as well as the amplitude of
                                                                                                                                                  the “scenic box” (see Appendix 2).



W
                                                  and television                                  Creating for the cinema or for television is
                                                                                                                                                  It should be noted that the size of the 3Ds


                                                  T
             e now take two cameras in pla-                                                       not tied only to the techniques of produc-
                                                         he fundamental difference between        tion or broadcasting, but also to the emo-      monitoring screen during filming does not
             ce of our two eyes along with a             attempts in the past and the present                                                     necessarily correspond to that of the fi-
                                                                                                  tional connection that these images foster
             3-D screen system whose role                growth of 3Ds comes from the tech-                                                       nal broadcast. The stereographer should
                                                                                                  in the human brain. From this standpoint,
is to make each eye see only the image            nical mastery of 3-D in the entire chain of     3Ds requires that this connection be re-        clearly inform the production team of the
that is intended for it. In Figure 4, the left    the manufacturing and image broadcasting        considered so as to adapt the conditions        differences in the sense of depth according
and right homologous points are repre-            process. The use of computer tools during       of creating a cinematographic or televi-        to the dimensions of the film’s intended
sented respectively in red and cyan. If the       shooting and the possibilities of modifying     sion project to this question. 3Ds induces      screen and to justify his “not visual” but
homologous points are superimposed du-            images pixel by pixel up to broadcasting        a rupture with the practices of production      “provisional” adjustments.
ring projection, the view will converge on        are steps that from now on are indispensa-      and which modifies the interpretation of        The parameters of “depth” can be in-
                                                  ble and in constant evolution. They guaran-     the space as imagined by the director. One      creasingly modified in postproduction. Gi-
the screen and the object will be seen on
                                                  tee the quality of the 3Ds image necessary      should also note that, in studying certain      ven this fact, just as the color calibration
the plane of the screen. That is how one          for the visual comfort of the viewer.                                                           gives the tone of the scenes in a film, the
                                                                                                  filming parameters such as lighting and
sees films in 2-D.                                Digital tools take part in the mastery of                                                       “3Ds calibration” becomes an important
                                                                                                  framing, if there is a rupture between 2-D
If the parallax is positive, the view will        stereoscopic production. Being more             and 3Ds, it is situated more on the side of     step after the film has been edited. It al-
converge towards a point situated behind          knowledgeable from this experience, we          acceptance by the viewer’s brain than that      lows for the perception of reality in 3-D to
the screen: the viewer will thus have the         wish today to support the emergence of a        of artistic practice.                           be given a general tonality and to provide
impression that the object is situated            new cinematographic and television lan-         In 2-D as in 3Ds, the director remains the      3Ds continuity between shots according to
behind the screen (as if seen through a           guage tied to the usage of 3Ds.                 main judge of the use of 3-D in order to        the final intention of the director.
window). Finally, if the parallax is nega-        A purely technical conception of 3Ds is         serve his narrative, whether it is a question
                                                  a risky bet. It is preferable to rely on the    of a film, a telefilm or a televised program.   Think about 3Ds before filming
tive, the view will converge towards a point
                                                  savoir-faire, both technical and artistic, of   In the same way that he decides a produc-       If you want to have a quality 3-D effect, it
situated in front of the screen, and the          the stereographers and technical service        tion in 2-D, he formulates a particular re-     would be useful to verify beforehand the
object will thus seem to be in front of the       companies, which have both a solid theo-        quest to the stereographer who will see to      pertinence of the choice of 3Ds for this or
screen (as if popping out).                       retical knowledge and experience in 3Ds.        its completion. The working together of the     that film or television program from the
In sum:                                           The production of a sequence in 3Ds can-        director and the stereographer thus aims        beginning of the synopsis or scenario. In
• Objects situated on the plane of conver-        not be summed up in an automatic algo-          to establish “3-D behavior” (modulation of      this way, a story unfolding in an aerial or
gence during filming will be reconstructed        rithm for creating 3-D effects, however         the stereoscopic range), done through a         aquatic universe lends itself totally to a
on the plane of the screen (parallax zero).       sophisticated it may be, or do without the      graphic image or annotations on the script      popping-out effect, for the objects can be
• Objects situated behind the plane of            onsite experience of specialized professio-     or storyboard, which then serves as a guide     “unglued” from any support, like levita-
                                                  nals who know how to adapt to particular        for the team doing the shooting. 3-D that       ting in a fluid or a vacuum. Furthermore,
convergence during filming will be re-
                                                  filming conditions, very often full of unfo-    is too strong can lead to visual discomfort     longer shots and/or rather slow and fluid
constructed behind the screen: window             reseen events. The creation of a 3Ds scene      over time, while 3-D that is too weak risks     movements of the cameras also favor the
effect (positive parallax).                       requires a perfectly regulated production       frustrating the viewer. It is mainly within     perception of a more comfortable 3-D ef-
• Objects situated in front of the plane of       with the camera angles completely maste-        these limits that the director can choose       fect. They leave time for the public to dis-
convergence during filming will be recons-        red. If the production teams are not sup-       the depths he wants. The streographer           cover and enter into the depth of the ima-
tructed in front of the screen: popping-out       ported by competent people in this way,         translates these choices using the tools        ge. In the same way, wide compositions
effect (negative parallax).                       they risk having their possibilities limited    at his disposal, tools which he will super-     with framing using high-angle or low-an-
                                                  as to the creation of emotions in the viewer    vise in their practical use. Given this, he     gle shots favor 3-D effects and intensify
                                                  specifically tied to 3-D effects of depth or    is responsible for the adjustment of the        sensations of dizziness. Geometric forms,
                                                  of popping out, or even in certain cases, to    angulation and the inter-axial distance         buildings for example, are more quic-
                                                  provoke visual discomfort in the public.        between the center of the camera lenses         kly identified by our brain and contribute
                                                                                                  according to the chosen focal length, and       to the quick immersion into 3-D. As for
14                                                                                             15




                                                                                                            Creating a 3-D Scene                                                   streaming programs, among the first ex- ted cases:
                                                                                                                                                                                   periments taking place today using 3Ds in - The shot itself, as in a classic film. Ideal-
                                                                                                                                                                                   retransmission of sporting events, football ly, the storyboard creator should create a
                                                                              From the beginning of writing the scenario, 3-D can be taken into account and used as a              is looked on as the favorite due to the high storyboard that is optically correct.
                                                                              narrative tool. It is possible to imagine scenes whose dramatic intensity will be amplified if       number of viewers and a public potentially - A view “from the side”. Starting from the
                                                                              one plays with the depth, the popping-out effect and the effects of gigantic size and minia-         interested by the fact of viewing matches principle that the 3Ds window is projec-
                                                                              turization. The scriptwriters can think about 3-D effects in advance, sometimes integrating          in 3-D. Nevertheless, the current produc- ted onto the plane of the screen, this side
                                                                              their ideas directly into the scenario. These can be indicated in capital letters (in the Anglo-     tions of this sport on television, centered view will mark the location of the plane of
                                                                              Saxon world, they are sometimes preceded by the term “3DFX”). Nevertheless, the logical              on lateral panoramas and a depth of field the screen so as to distinguish the objects
                                                                              process of creating a film lends to entrusting the control of stereoscopic effects to the director   often difficult to master, is not necessarily that should be in front of the plane of the
                                                                              and/or stereographer. For example, in Océanosaures (Sea Rex), a 3-D IMAX© film written               the best adapted to retransmission in 3D, screen (popping out) and those that should
                                                                              and directed by the Frenchmen Pascal Vuong and Ronan Chapalain, the stereoscopic filming             unless the camera angles and the pano- be behind it (in depth).
                                                                              proposals appear right from the storyboard.                                                          ramas are comple-                                                         -	 In the most
                                                                                                                                                                                   tely rethought out                                                            complex cases, a
OcéanoSaures - Voyage au Temps des Dinosaures © 2010 - N3D LAND Productions




                                                                                                                                                                                   with respect to                                                               view from above,
                                                                                                                                    It should be noted in the case of this film    a 2-D retrans-                                                                with the location
                                                                                                                                    that Pascal Vuong created the storyboard       mission. A fur-                                                               of the plane of the
                                                                                                                                    himself and Ronan Chapalain supervised         ther constraint                                                               screen, could also
                                                                                                                                    the stereography, thus allowing each shot      comes from the                                                                be useful.
                                                                                                                                    to be conceived very early in all its depth    fact that the ac-                                                             Beyond        these
                                                                                                                                    and not as a 2-D image. In this storyboard     tion takes place                                                              general       rules,




                                                                                                                                                                                                        © Convergence3D.net
                                                                                                                                    extract, the colored markings added to the     most of the time                                                              it could also be
                                                                                                                                    initial drawing permit one to quickly loca-    far from the ca-                                                              advisable to use
                                                                                                                                    te the elements to be popping out and the      meras, thus re-                                                               previsualization
                                                                                                                                    position of individuals in relation to the     quiring the use                                                               software that si-
                                                                                                                                    plane of the screen. This stereoscopic pro-    of a long focal                                                                mulates what the
                                                                                                                                    duction information, added to the framing      length on the basis                                                            shot or perspec-
                                                                                                                                    and cropping choices, allows the director      of wide 3-D shots         Screen capture of 3Ds previsualization software      tive will be in or-
                                                                                                                                    and film crew to better prepare the shoo-      that could create a                                                            der to define the
                                                                                                                                    ting and postproduction of the images and      “maquette” effect.                                                             camera      angles
                                                                                                                                    prevent certain pitfalls of stereography en-   On the other hand, certain inside sports, and movements in 3Ds. Such software al-
                                                                                                                                    visaged too late in the process.               such as basketball, where one can be clo- lows computer-generated images to preci-
                                                                                                                                                                                   ser to the action, offers 3-D that reinforces sely reconstitute each filming location and
                                                                                                                                                                                   the viewer’s emotions.                            the camera position (whatever the type of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     rig). It allows the frame, the inter-axial dis-
                                                                                                                                                                                   Preproduction                                     tance, and the angles to be calculated and
                                                                                                                                                                                   Preparation is essential in order for fil- previsualized during filming and in post-
                                                                                                                                                                                   ming in 3Ds to be successful. Researching production. All the parameters, such as
                                                                                                                                                                                   particularly meticulous points (measuring the focal length, the diaphragm, the depth
                                                                                                                                                                                   distances, verification of distant objects, of field, the movements, etc., can also be
                                                                                                                                                                                   taking into account the size of the 3Ds rig) predetermined.
                                                                                                                                                                                   permits many problems to be avoided in
                                                                                                                                                                                   advance. Creating a 3Ds storyboard is ad- The importance of checking volumes
                                                                                                                                                                                   vised. Without help from software, this sto- During the work of identifying certain para-
                                                                                                                                                                                   ryboard could show, for each shot, at least meters and of preparing a film in 3Ds, it is
                                                                                                                                                                                   two or more views for the most complica- necessary for the director and the head of
16                                                                                         17




photography to check the frames by taking lengths, the establishing of the position of       one of the fundamental parameters. It is         when there is a blurred background with
into account the development and distri- the massive forms of the film set becomes           what happens within the shot or out of it        backlit foliage.
bution of volumes relating to depth. They even more decisive in determining the po-          that justifies the movement of the camera
rely on the stereographer who helps them sition of the actors and the viewpoint of           according to the director’s decision. In
in looking for homogeneity in the choice the camera in terms of the depth and the
                                                                                                                                              Using visual indications of depth for 3Ds
                                                                                             streaming programs, the frame is deter-
of angles and focal length in relation to edge of the frame. The sensation of 3-D,                                                            productions
                                                                                             mined much more by following the action,
3Ds. This step should allow the position even if it appears realistic or admissible                                                           Creating a shot in 3-D does not only mean
                                                                                             which in sports for example, is generally
of the objects to be determined within the for a single shot, might no longer be so                                                           adjusting the stereoscopy, but also to use
                                                                                             centered.
“scenic box” containing the volumes of the during the editing of several shots one af-                                                        information that is going to ease the un-
scene in three dimensions. This checking ter another. For example, during filming in                                                          derstanding of the depth of the image.
is of major im-                                                       2-D, it is normal to
                                                                                             A camera in movement                             It is thus necessary to know how to use
                                                                                             Moving shots reinforce the perception of         both stereoscopic and non-stereoscopic
portance.                                                             “cheat” in the po-
                                                                                             the succession of volumes within the sce-        information.
At this step, a                                                       sitioning of the
                                                                                             ne. This emphasis of volumes is obtained,        Painting and photography remind us that
warning is neces-                                                     actors (to make a
                                                                                             of course, by the movement of the actors         in 2-D numerous factors allow the brain
sary to point out                                                     shot or perspective
                                                                                             in relation to the objects in the frame. It is   to analyze and understand the depth of an
that, as opposed                                                      easier). This prac-
                                                                                             equally increased by the camera’s view-          image. This faculty is conserved, moreo-
to 2-D images,                                                        tice should arouse
                                                                                             point, which reinforces the presence of the      ver, when one eye is closed. The utiliza-
stereoscopic                                                          the greatest vigi-
                                                                                             actors. Perhaps this could be a new type of      tion of this non-stereoscopic information
viewing provides                                                      lance when using
                                                                                             space between cinema and theater?                makes the understanding of space, and
the viewer with                                                       3Ds.
the     perception                                                                                                                            the participation of the sensation of 3-D,
of the position                                                       Framing                Lighting in 3Ds                                  easier to experience. Among these fac-
in depth of each                                                                             If, in 2-D cinematography, light and its         tors, we can cite the following:
                                                                      The precision of
object, and thus                                                                             contrast are only limited by the projection      -An object up close masks an object far
                                                                      the cinematogra-
their sizes. The                                                                             standards and, in this context, the power        away. This effect, which can be obtained by
                                                                      phic frame is one
choice therefore                                                                             of the projector, it is quite otherwise in       the movement of the actors or the objects
                                                                      of the essential
of the 3Ds fil-                                                                              stereoscopy. Strong contrasts, in particu-       in the depth of the scene, is reinforced by
                                                                      parameters of 2-D
ming parameters                                                                              lar at the edges of the shot, through fo-        the movement of the camera’s viewpoint.
                                                                      filming. Yet, with
can lead to a si-                                                                            liage against the sunlight or between dif-       The dollies, the movements of the cra-
                                                                      stereoscopy, whe-
tuation in which                                                                             ferent parts of the subject, can lead to real    nes or steadicams, or the movements of
                                                                      re we are nearer
a person can be                                                                              cerebral discomfort for the viewer.              a shoulder-held camera, emphasize the
                                                                      to low and/or high
perceived as a                                                                               The lowering of contrast is often advised,       relative position of objects in relation to
                                                                       3-D effects, the
giant (magnifi-                                                                              without us knowing how to precisely              each other.
                                                                       frame shows a
cation) or like a Visualization of the benchmark visual comfort slight uncertainty           quantify it today. This being so, shots for      -The size of objects decreases with distan-
drawing on card-                    zone as regards 3Ds.                                     which the lighting and contrast levels are       ce. This can be used to “cheat” in certain
                                                                       in relation to the
board (flattening),                                                                          not controllable require sensors covering        shots, provided that a likeness is preser-
                                                                       two shots being
or like its opposite                                                                         a large range in order to obtain images          ved with the effects of reduction in size, if
                                                filmed, which only overlap completely on
(a maquette or stretching effect).                                                           capable of conserving 3-D in high and low        a realistic image is to be conserved.
                                                the plane of convergence or the plane of
Finally, it is useful to note that, as a ge- the screen. Furthermore, the notion of the      lighting. This also allows a better adjust-      -The gradation of textures: bricks, gras-
neral rule, 3-D is best appreciated when immersion of the viewer for certain ste-            ment of contrast during the calibration          ses, pavements, etc., become less defined
the scene is in movement, close to the ob- reoscopic productions is often emphasi-           of stereoscopic films and TV programs.           with distance.
ject and with a rather short focal length. zed even before the notion of framing, in         Likewise, it is advised to pay attention to      -The “atmospheric dispersion” (mist ef-
Nevertheless, it is difficult to produce a IMAX© for example. But for most cinema-           clipping of strong lighting, for such lighting   fect): it is due to the pollution of the mi-
whole film without close-up shots. For tographic productions, the frame remains              can produce a disparity of form between          lieu being passed through according to its
shots resorting to medium and long focal                                                     the two stereoscopic images, such as             thickness. It works for infinite distances
18                                                                                                     19



                     Managing the Popping-out Effect

   Popping out is one of the effects     is to be weak and slow if the        the capacity of the viewer to
   belonging to 3-D. It gives the        intensity is to be strong. The       “read” comfortably the effects
   feeling that the objects pop          same popping out can vary in         of popping out: at the beginning
   out of the screen towards the         intensity and be produced twice:     of a film, around three seconds
   viewer.                               first weak then strong, in order     are necessary for the brain to
   However, there are rules to           to reinforce the final effect. The   submit to the interval between
   follow so that this effect does not   total length of the effect cannot    convergence and accommodation
   cause any visual discomfort. The      be too long. For reasons of visual   that is imposed on it, whereas
   elements or parts of elements         comfort and of concern for a         after ten minutes of a film in 3-D
   that pop out must be contained        narrative balance, the frequency     stereoscopy, this accommodation
   within the field of the cameras.      of popping out throughout a          time is reduced to half a second.
   The speed of the appearance of        film or a TV program must be         It is thus strongly advised against
   popping out must not be too slow      an intelligent dose between the      abusing the effects of brutal
   or too fast. A sufficient time must   repetition of popping out and        popping out at the beginning
   be left for the viewer’s brain to     their differences in intensity.      of a film, for they can become
   get accustomed to this effect.        Finally, it has been noticed         painful and wrongly interpreted
   To preserve the visual comfort,       empirically that there is a          by viewers’ brains..                         Modulation example of the stereoscopic range for the length of a film
   it must be fast if the intensity      phenomenon of learning in
                                                                                                                    Stereoscopic range and modulation of stereosco-   is, moreover, variable according to the
                                                                                                                    pic ranges                                        individual.
as well as for a smoke-filled room.                          understanding depth. This is why certain               The stereoscopic range is a measure of            Some scientific studies are, however,
-The effect of perspective is very important                 head operators prefer using light that is              the quantity of 3-D in an image. It is the        still going on in France (3-D Acceptance
information: as we look, we search in per-                   more directional than in 2-D in order to               difference between the interval of the most       & Comfort) and in the United States
manence for a scene’s convergence lines                      emphasize the shadows. Regions without                 distant object and the interval of the closest    (BanksLab, University of California at
to understand its perspective by using                       detail of an image—for example a comple-               object in a shot.                                 Berkeley) to clear up the relation between
roads, railways and buildings.                               tely white sky or an interior scene with to-           The stereoscopic range can vary within a          stereoscopic range and visual comfort.
-3-D is above all comparative. The brain                     tally black zones—are less favorable to the            shot, between two shots and during the            Without 100% reliable reference points in
performs better in comparing, for exam-                      comprehension of 3-D than a cloudy sky or              length of a film. Within all these cases, one     this domain, we recommend, during the
ple, colors than in analyzing them. It’s the                 an interior in which half-light allows the             can speak of “modulation of stereoscopic          production of a teaser or a test, to examine,
same thing for stereoscopy. A distribution                   subtlety of the details to be seen.                    ranges”.                                          case by case, the contentious shots that
of volumes in the depth of a scene will fa-                  -One must also attend to the consistency of            The stereoscopic range (histogram of              deviate from the “acceptable” limits of
vor the impression of viewing in 3-D. It will                the screen depths and avoid the “collision”            disparities) is a quantifiable data for each      stereoscopy.
be more difficult if there is only one ele-                  of a title placed on the plane of the screen           image in percentage of its size or in pixels.     In general, it is customary to moderate the
ment in the foreground separated from                        with an object that is popping out. As for             The term “depth budget” is sometimes              exceeding of these limits in favor of the
another element placed at infinity without                   a “window violation”, it is characterized by           used to designate either a stereo range or        production.
any intermediary volume. For example: a                      the collision of the edge of the screen with           the modulation of stereo ranges, which can        It should be noted that there already exists
bee popping out on a background of infi-                     an object that is popping out.                         lead to confusion.                                technical recommendations defining the
nitely distant mountains will not favor the                                                                         The same stereo range gives a weak                acceptable limits of stereoscopic ranges
impression of viewing in 3-D.                                It is important to use all of this information to      impression of 3-D on a small screen,              for 3Ds TV broadcasting (ex: BSkyB
-Furthermore, it is sometimes preferable                                                                                                                              3-D). The establishment of technical
                                                             enrich the stereoscopic production parameters.         stronger on a movie screen and very
to have titles popping out on a textured                                                                            powerful on a giant screen such as                recommendations is currently under study
background rather than on a black one.                       In a general way, the least contradiction between
                                                                                                                    IMAX©. The acceptance by the viewer of            in France.
-Textures and shadows are stereoscopic                       monocular and binocular (that is, parallax) depth
                                                                                                                    a stereo range chosen for a given screen
objects, supplementary “information” for                     information cannot be allowed.
20                                                                                                21




Ensuring the continuity of the modulation of the   each other on more or less sophisticated
stereoscopic range during a whole film             mechanical or motorized rigs. The advantage
It is indispensable to think of a 3Ds film or      of this arrangement is that it is often more
TV program in its entire continuity. For ci-       rigid and avoids the aberrations linked to the
nema in 3Ds, like in 2-D, the order of se-         mirror set up.
quences and shots at different steps in the        Its inconvenience is that it imposes wide inter-
making of a film are often modified, and           axial distances which results in a “maquette”




                                                                                                                                                                                          Binocle
particularly when it is being edited.              effect tied to the apparent miniaturization of
The modulation of the stereoscopic range           the objects being filmed. It is not known how
may be modified by the inversion of shots          to avoid this effect today, but it comes into
during editing. For example, a close-up            play from the moment one goes beyond the                                             Two types of side-by-side rigs
with much popping out will correspond ba-          inter-axial distance of human vision. It can be
dly with a wide landscape shot having a lot        put up with, or even looked for, according to
of depth: this alternation tires the viewer.       how the director wants his production to be.       shots in a fiction film.                             advantage of having its vertical camera placed
It is thus necessary to take care in the or-       In any case, there is no other solution when       Mirror rigs are used with steadicams, shoul-         above the mirror, allowing the optical axis to
ganization of the shots to ensure smooth           one films from far away, with objects in the                                                            be brought very close to the ground for ma-
                                                                                                      der-held cameras and most classic machi-
transitions of depth for the public.               foreground situated far from the camera                                                                 king large vertical low-angle shots.
                                                                                                      nery. Mirror rigs are conceived or arranged in
                                                   and one wishes to have 3-D. This is the case,
                                                                                                      two ways when they can be turned around the
                                                   for example, for certain shots taken from a
                                                   helicopter.
                                                                                                      optical axis:                                        Integrated 3Ds camera
                                                                                                      -The first, called zenithal, favors the protection
    RIGS AND STEREOSCOPIC                                                                             of the mirror. The vertical camera is placed
                                                                                                                                                           Also appearing on the market are professio-
                                                                                                                                                           nal video cameras that record two views of
                                                   Semi-transparent mirror rigs
CAMERAS                                            The cameras are placed vertically at a 90° an-
                                                                                                      under the optical axis and directed upwards.         the same scene through two optical axes in-
                                                                                                      This arrangement allows for a simpler protec-        tegrated within the same camera body. This



A
                                                   gle to each other and find themselves in opti-     tion from lights interfering with the mirror.
        “rig” is an adjustable support on which                                                                                                            type of wholly integrated technology has
                                                   cal concurrence in a semi-aluminized mirror.
        movie cameras can be arranged and                                                             -The second, called “crane position”, has the        the advantage of limiting problems of dis-
                                                   This mirror, also called a “beam splitter”, al-
        set up. There are two types according      lows one camera to film through the mirror
to whether the cameras are placed side-by-         and the other to film by reflection on the re-
side or as a mirror (beam-splitter). It is the     flecting side of it.




                                                                                                                                                                                        Binocle
need to obtain or not a small or large inter-      For this process, the transmission through,
axial distance that determines the choice of a     and the reflection from, the mirror is equal
rig. If a large inter-axial distance is desired,   to 50% each so that the loss of a diaphragm,
usually for helicopter or distance shots, a si-    induced for the camera filming through the
de-by-side rig is used.                            mirror, is identical, or almost so, to the other
The sophistication of side-by-side or mirror       one. The mirror thus permits filming with an
rigs is not linked to the device but to the        inter-axial distance equal to 0 and thus be
definition made by the manufacturer. Certain       freed from the problems related to the space
manufacturers make rigs that are versatile         used by the cameras and lenses.
and are simply assembled differently to be         It is thus possible to reduce the inter-axial
installed either as a side-by-side or mirror       distance to 0 mm, which allows for the ca-
rig.                                               meras to be perfectly aligned. The mirror rig
                                                   mainly permits small inter-axial distances,
Side-by-side rigs                                  indispensable for filming close to the sub-
Two identical cameras are placed next to           ject, which is the case in a large majority of                                Simplified schema of a semi-transparent rig
22                                                                                                 23




                    METHODS FOR ALIGNING AND




                                                                                                                                                  DR
                   SYNCHRONIZING 3Ds CAMERAS

	          A stereoscopic shot requires paired equipment (cameras and lenses) and
the stereographer’s utmost attention to the adjustment of the rig during shooting.
Not being able to have perfect alignment once the shooting starts, it is necessary
to continue working thanks to real-time correction algorithms for television, and
in postproduction for cinema. It is a question of bringing to the viewer two images
perfectly aligned vertically pixel by pixel.
Factors provoking troublesome vertical disparities:
- Difference in height of the optical axes (whether they are parallel or cross verti-                               Two examples of integrated 3-D cameras
cally)
- Difference in the placement of one camera in relation to the other                    parity between the two stereoscopic points                     To this end, technical creation industries have
- Difference, even minimal, between the focal lengths of the cameras and the            of view to be superimposed, especially pro-                    seen, since the end of the 90’s, the rise of
focusing of the lenses                                                                  blems of alignment, differences in focusing,                   motion control rigs capable of being precisely
- Different optical aberrations between the lenses                                      of zooming, etc. However, the integrated                       paired electronically via a computer. More
- Trapezoid effect resultant in vergence on the object.                                 3Ds camera has the drawback of generally                       recently, 3Ds image analysis instruments
	          It’s a question of minimizing as much as possible these disparities when     offering only a single setting for the inter-                  have arrived with, notably, the possibility
filming. On a side-by-side rig, the optical axes are placed in parallel aiming at       axial distance and a limited adjustment of                     of making a precise real-time drawing
infinity, and a test card is used at 3 meters to verify that the altitudes have been    vergence. These restrictions result in heavy                   out of problems of disparity between two
respected. On a mirror rig, the same procedure is used in placing the inter-axial       constraints when filming a close-up scene in                   stereoscopic images and correcting them in
distances at 0. In both cases, test cards and a 3Ds monitor is used to precisely        3-D, and, more generally, does not allow for                   real time.
adjust the alignment, if possible to the size of a pixel.                               complete control of stereoscopic production                    All these factors make it so that today one
	          Likewise, that the colorimetry and luminosity of the cameras are identical   through adjustment of the two parameters                       sees hardware and software solutions appear
should be watched over closely. Certain tools on the 3Ds monitor allow this to be       inter-axial distance and vergence.                             from several components manufacturers
precisely monitored.                                                                                                                                   for processing 3Ds shots in real time,
Synchronization of the camera sensors at the pixel level is indispensable. The non-     Progress of 3Ds rigs and monitoring of disparities             which allows certain corrections—such as
respect of this rule on moving images leads to visual fatigue by the viewer.            Whatever the talent of the stereographer,                      vertical disparities, detection of rotation and
	          For the timecode, the cameras must be connected with one camera as TC        involuntary disparities between the two                        trapezoid deformation—to be automated.
“master” and the other as “slave”.                                                      viewpoints of the cameras remain. It is                        Certain software also permits automation
	          As to scanning, putting one camera in Genlock master and the other           indispensable to correct them when filming                     of the inter-axial distance and convergence.
in Genlock slave is not precise enough, except for certain miniature cameras or         live. For fiction, these defaults can also be                  Solutions of this kind, conceived in France or
cameras conceived for this purpose. It is preferable therefore to have recourse to an   corrected on the film site so that rushes can                  elsewhere, which allow these problems to
external synchronization camera body in Tri-level Sync, connected to the camera         be viewed comfortably. In postproduction,                      be corrected or parameters to be monitored
Genlock inputs.                                                                         if these defaults are very minor and do                        in real time, are already being used on film
	          Cameras without the Genlock input, such as digital photo cameras, are        not bother the editing process, certain                        sites, particularly in live sports productions.
problematic. Certain 3Ds monitors allow, however, scanning to be viewed and to          stereographers prefer to usefully make these                   3-D correctors are also being integrated
try “manual” or “on the fly” synchronization by triggering the cameras simulta-         corrections during the “3-D calibration”                       into visualization tools used in fiction or
neously. But this does not provide the indispensable guarantees need for a feature      stage. This consists in adjusting the 3-D                      for capturing in order to judge the effects
film project or for live television.                                                    values for a shot or between two shots. It                     obtained without mental strain for the team.
                                                                                        ensures the consistency of the 3-D effect for
                                                                                        the length of the film.
24                                                                                            25




   LIVE MULTI-CAMERA 3Ds                          A modification of workflow should be consi-        As a general rule, it should be noted that all      3Ds POSTPRODUCTION:
                                                  dered in the 3Ds production unit. In fact, each    the actors who intervene in the live stream
CAPTURING                                         stereoscopic source should undergo 3-D cor-        should have 3Ds visualization: slow motion       CORRECTIONS AND WORKFLOW
                                                  rection before being integrated into the grid      operators, synthesizer operators, special ef-


                                                                                                                                                      A
Live multi-camera 3Ds capturing implies ac-       or the mixer. This correction can be multiple      fects technicians, etc.                                  ccomplishing postproduction in 3Ds
tions in real time in order to preserve 3-D ho-   and specific to each rig. It encompasses the                                                                is not very different from traditional
mogeneity. The first action consists in analy-    flip image in the case of a mirror rig, geo-       The difficulty of live 3Ds multi-cameras today           postproduction, if only that it is neces-
zing new actors and organizing them into the      metric correction, compensation for opti-          is not only related to technical problems, but   sary to manage file volumes twice as large.
production team’s hierarchy. The director is      cal centering, etc. Whatever the nature and        also to the calling into question of the pro-    It is also necessary to ensure the continuity
the one who conceives the stereoscopy of a        number of corrections applied, they should         duction. It is quite clear that the acceptance   of depth in 3Ds scenes, by watching over the
project that puts the stereographer and all       be done in a very short time since this period     of 3-D is directly dependent on the quality of   sequence of their stereoscopic ranges and
the technicians to work.                          comes before mixing. Today, this processing        the stereoscopy, but it is also necessary to     by correcting the disparities between the left
A single stereographer guarantees the qua-        time varies from 40 to 120 ms.                     provide the necessary information for a good     and right images. When filming fiction, these
lity of 3-D capturing. He works in concert        The quality and number of 3Ds visualizations       narrative. Due to this fact, live broadcasting   defaults can also be corrected, of course,
with the director of photography. He is assis-    is a key element of a 3Ds production tool.         is a dangerous exercise in 3Ds. For example,     before reaching the postproduction stage.
ted by the convergence operators who are in       Two cases are possible for the production: to      if one wishes to bring information captured      However, if these defaults are very minor
charge of the stereoscopy of one or two axes.     propose a multiviewer which includes all the       by a 2-D camera into a 3Ds stream, one can       and do not interfere with editing, certain
He continuously regulates the inter-axial         sources as well as the program and preview         resort to a real-time 2-D/3-D transfer, or if    stereographers prefer to make these adjust-
distance and vergence according to the va-        in 3Ds. This requires a certain vigilance in or-   one wishes to provide a score or a time, one     ments during 3-D calibration, or, in any case,
riations of frame, focal length and focus.        der to exclude from the mosaic any camera          would proceed by inserting 3Ds elements          these 3-D adjustments are reviewed in terms
By analogy with photography, it is necessary      being adjusted. The second option consists         into a 3Ds image. These techniques are to-       of consistency over the length of the film.
to integrate this team into the live production   of keeping the sources in 2-D visualization        lerable for the viewer as long as they are
unit in order to make discussion easy and         and to put only the program and preview in         mastered.
                                                  3Ds.
                                                                                                                                                      Viewing is at the heart of the process of 3Ds editing
guarantee a consistent program.                                                                                                                       The postproduction of 3-D images requires
26                                                                                                   27




                      OPTIMIZING LIVE 3Ds COSTS IS POSSIBLE !                                            ting tools, this is rarely the case.




                                                                                                                                                                   copyright : Technicolor
                                                                                                         For this reason, during “offline” editing of
                                                                                                         3Ds films or programs, it is imperative to
  Concerning the additional costs related to 3Ds capturing, the figure of 25 to 30%more than             view 3Ds edited shots and to validate them
  2-D capturing is often put forward, but according to those in charge of AMP VISUAL TV these            regularly on a stereoscopic screen having
  figures are relative. The additional costs greatly depend on the length of the capturing itself,       a size near to the one that will be used for
  and AMP VISUAL TV hopes to have, in the end, enough production streams in 3Ds to be able               the final showing. In this way it is possible to
                                                                                                         identify at once the visual discomfort resul-
  to have economies of scale. What is most important today is to find methods for reducing the
                                                                                                         ting from the non-corrected stereoscopic
  installation and preparation times. If it is possible, for example, to have two cameras/lenses         disparities or the different 3-D values used
  used only for 3Ds capturing, it would then be possible to considerably reduce the preparation          in different shots.                                                                   Example of correcting geometric
  time before shooting. But for this to happen, it would be necessary to have a greater volume of        If possible, it is even desirable that the conti-                                               disparities
  production than there is today.                                                                        nuity of the shots be studied during the pre-
                                                                                                         paration phase of filming in order to make
                                                                                                         the 3-D space consistent before and after
a return to more rigorous methods of work            after editing, during or just before the stage      the transition by reducing to the maximum
than before, and to a more precise definition        of calibrating the 3-D of the film. It is done by   the differences in distance and convergence
of each person’s task, from preparation of           a stereograph technician having experience          of the cameras. Nevertheless, adjustments
filming to postproduction. These precau-             with the correction tools, under the direction      are often to be planned in postproduction
tions, taken before the various operations,          of the stereographer who has already wor-           through horizontal transfer of the left and                                         Flare: a source of visual discomfort
limit the alternation of inconsistent 3-D se-        ked on it during filming.                           right images.
quences.                                                                                                 The change in location of the space to whe-
However, even if a stereographer has per-            Continuity of shots during editing of 3Ds images    re the viewer is attracted, from one shot to
fectly adjusted the rigs and taken care to                                                                                                                      stereoscopic range at the end of the prece-
                                                     The rhythm of shots edited in stereoscopy           another, can also cause visual discomfort.
limit the “bad” connections between shots,                                                                                                                      ding plan consistent with the beginning of
                                                     is logically slower than that of editing of 2-D     Thus the necessity of an appropriate script
the editor, will in all likelihood, as in the case                                                                                                              the next one.
                                                     images, for when there is a change of shot, it      and a specific “3-D calibration”, making the
of 2-D, change the editing order that was            is necessary for the brain to have one second
planned at the beginning. Due to this fact,          to appreciate the new universe to be explo-
it will be necessary to again verify the conti-      red. Learning to watch 3-D by the viewer                                     Adapting convergence and editing:
nuity between shots during each viewing of           can, however, reduce the accommodation                                       3-D continuity between two shots
the 3Ds already-edited rushes.                       time necessary for each change of shot. But
Furthermore, following the planned post-             as of today this is only a supposition.                In 3Ds, convergence between two successive shots must be adjusted. Usually, the convergence shots
production method and the production bud-            In order to limit mental discomfort and re-
get, it might be useful to take some time to                                                                will be brought closer during cropping in postproduction if they are too different. Otherwise, the
                                                     duce adaptation time between each shot,
correct the involuntary disparities between          it is also possible to use the “3-D dissolve”          viewer may feel visual discomfort. The time this adjustment takes can also vary. Experiences that
images. This would mean to correct the-              method which smoothes the passage from                 took place during the production of Legend of the Guardians: The Owls of Ga’Hoole (2010) brought
se geometric and colorimetric disparities            one 3-D shot to another when the 3-D ef-               to light the fact that the softest transition in 3Ds is obtained when the vergence of entrances into a
between the left and right images such that          fects are obviously too different.
each of the homologous pixels is situated at
                                                                                                            shot is progressively adjusted according to the previous shot. In this film, the length of the vergence
                                                     Because of these constraints, it would be
the same altitude. It must be kept in mind           more practical in the absolute for stereos-
                                                                                                            adaptation time between shots varied from one sequence to another from 8 to 40 images. Further-
that these corrections, necessarily made for         copic editing to take place “online”, directly         more, rather than making the depth characteristics of each shot exactly correspond to the level of
a live capture, should become a postproduc-          from already-corrected stereoscopic ima-               the cropping point, it was noticed that for most of the sequences, it was possible to eliminate only
tion operation for fiction.                          ges. However, for reasons of visual fatigue            50% of the difference in depth between shots, and to leave a slight upsurge in 3Ds when cropping.
This operation could be made on the rushes           over time, but also for the sake of economy
before editing, but today it is generally done                                                              Of course, nothing prevents one from using a brutal 3Ds connection between shots to provoke a
                                                     and/or the non-availability of online 3Ds edi-
                                                                                                            particular sensation in the viewer.
English version White Paper 3-D in Cinema and Television v2
English version White Paper 3-D in Cinema and Television v2
English version White Paper 3-D in Cinema and Television v2
English version White Paper 3-D in Cinema and Television v2
English version White Paper 3-D in Cinema and Television v2
English version White Paper 3-D in Cinema and Television v2
English version White Paper 3-D in Cinema and Television v2
English version White Paper 3-D in Cinema and Television v2
English version White Paper 3-D in Cinema and Television v2
English version White Paper 3-D in Cinema and Television v2
English version White Paper 3-D in Cinema and Television v2
English version White Paper 3-D in Cinema and Television v2
English version White Paper 3-D in Cinema and Television v2
English version White Paper 3-D in Cinema and Television v2
English version White Paper 3-D in Cinema and Television v2
English version White Paper 3-D in Cinema and Television v2
English version White Paper 3-D in Cinema and Television v2

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English version White Paper 3-D in Cinema and Television v2

  • 1. V2 White Paper 3-D for Cinema and Television TelevisiON Document created under the sponsorship of Document created under the sponsorship of Ficam, the CST, UP3D, the HD-Forum and the AFC and the AFC Editorial Coordination ::Marc Bourhis (Ficam) and Olivier Amato (Smartjog) Editorial Coordination Marc Bourhis (Ficam) © 2012 Ficam
  • 2. Partners for this white paper : The Ficam (Fédération des Industries du Cinéma, de l’Audiovisuel et du Multimédia), presided over by Thierry de Segonzac, is a professional organization bringing together 180 enterprises whose activity covers all the professions and technical know-how dealing with image and sound. Always proposing strong measures, the Ficam represents, promotes and defends the national and international interests of technical industries dealing with audiovisual creation. THE 3D CONSORTIUM The Commission Supérieure Technique de l’Image et du Son (CST), presided over by Pierre-William Glenn is an association grouping professionals in cinema and the audiovisual and multimedia fields, launches 3D rendez -vous as well as technicians and technical artists. The CST brings together today close to 700 members. Its goals are to defend the quality of the production and distribution of images and sound, defend creativity and technological and artistic innovation in cinema and the audiovisual fields, as well as to defend the independence and freedom of action and expression in our professional activities. A UNIQUE MARKET PLACE UP3D (Union des professionnels de la 3Ds) is an association whose objectives are: to bring together and animate the 3-D professional ONE TO ONE MEETING - BUSINESS NETWORKING community, inform and communicate on the professions, know- how and equipment specific to the 3-D world, and to promote and WORKSHOPS - BOARD DEMO PRESENTATION develop 3-D in Europe. Originally composed of 17 members, the HD Forum, presided over 6 ZONES by Jean-Pierre Lacotte, now has 51 members, all professionals as stated in the statutes. The diversity of the questions to resolve around HD has led the HD Forum to create two commissions: the MIDDLE EAST - BRASIL - NORTH AMERICA “technical commission” and the “communication and marketing commission”, which are themselves divided into work groups that RUSSIA - INDIA - CHINA regularly collaborate with the work of the Ficam and the CST. FOUNDED BY : The AFC (Association Française des Directeurs de la Photographie Cinématographique), co-presided over by Matthieu Poirot-Delpech, Michel Abramowicz and Remy Chevrin, brings together most of the SPONSORED BY : directors of French cinematic photography at the highest artistic and technical level of French and foreign productions. The AFC promotes the existence of quality cinematic images, tests new techniques and affirms the competence of photography directors as creative collaborators of film directors, in the best tradition of French cultural and artistic discourse. contact@3dconsortium.biz
  • 3. Special thanks : To Pascal Buron (associate president of Ficam in charge of the Research and Innovation technical commission, and to Olivier Amato (Smartjog) for all the coordination work they did on this project as they have done on so many others. A big thank you to Yves Pupulin (Bincole) for his contribution TOMORROW to all the chapters of this white paper. Thank you also to Olivier Cahen (Stéréo-Club Français) for having shared with us his encyclopedic knowledge of 3-D and for his editorial contribution to starts here. the visual comfort chapter, as well as to Philippe Gérard (3DLized), who, through his commitment to research on 3-D visual comfort, permitted us to be at the forefront of ideas on this question. A big thank you, too, to Marc Léger (INA Sup) for the writing of the chapter on the main principles of 3-D and the updating of the chapter on codecs and modes of TV distribution. Many thanks to the late Alain Derobe (stereographer and photography director) who passed away on 11 March 2012, for having accepted in due course the taking up again of his contribution made to the CST concerning the adapting of 3-D to the size of the broadcast screen, as well as to the members of the CST for their contribution to the part on 3-D projection for cinema. Thanks as well to Laurent Verduci (stereographer) for his educational aids on 3-D which we used as a common theme and ©2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All Rights Reserved for his active participation in our work groups. Thanks also to Alain Today, it s easy to marvel at how ar we ve come. Chaptal (Sonovision), Franck Montagné (Imagie), Michel Chabrol Our phones talk to our TVs to record our avorite shows. Doctors in Estonia diagnose (Eutelsat), Thierry Gruszka (NDS/CISCO), Eric Martin (Technicolor), patients in Denmark. Social networks help companies improve customer service. Charles de Cayeux (France Télévisions), Pascal Charpentier And yet, up to now, more than 99% o our world is not connected to the Internet. (UP3D) and Benoit Michel (stereoscopynews.com) for their active But we re working on it. And tomorrow, we ll wake up pretty much everything else you can imagine. participation. Trees will talk to networks will talk to scientists about climate change. Finally, we wish to thank all those who attentively reread Stoplights will talk to cars will talk to road sensors about increasing tra ic e iciency. the final document. Thanks also to David Steiner and Cédric- Ambulances will talk to patient records will talk to doctors about saving lives. Alexandre Saudinos (Parallell Cinéma) for their contribution on the It s a phenomenon we call the Internet o Everything an unprecedented opportunity techniques of preproduction and filming, as well as to Philippe Ros or today s businesses. (photo AFC director).. Tomorrow? We re going to wake the world up. And watch, with eyes wide, as it gets to work. #tomorrowstartshere
  • 4. 1 SOMMAIRE 0 0 FÉDÉRER ET PROMOUVOIR LES INDUSTRIES TECHNIQUES DU CINÉMA, DE L’AUDIOVISUEL ET DU MULTIMÉDIA 1 Why a White Paper on Stereoscopic 3-D* (3Ds)?? PAGE 8 1 ma 0 Technical industries iné Fundamental Principles of Stereoscopy PAGE 10 0 c of creation audiovisuel RIGS AND STEREOSCOPIC CAMERAS PAGE 20 1 LIVE MULTI-CAMERA 3DS CAPTURING PAGE 24 0 00 1 3Ds POSTPRODUCTION: CORRECTIONS AND WORKFLOW 1 PAGE 25 00 1 1 1 2-D/3Ds CONVERSION: THE NEED FOR KNOW-HOW PAGE 30 1 0 0 0 VISUAL COMFORT WITH 3Ds PAGE 32 0 1 00 1 0 1 0 3Ds PROJECTION FOR FILMS PAGE 34 mult imédi 3-D TV DISPLAY PAGE 36 a 0 ADAPTING 3-D TO THE SIZE OF THE BROADCAST SCREEN PAGE 40 3Ds GLOSSARY PAGE 45 0 With over 180 member companies, APPENDIX 1: DEFINITION OF 3Ds PROFESSIONS PAGE 47 the Ficam represents and promotes the technical industries of Cinema, APPENDIX 2: 3-D FILMING TECHNIQUES PAGE 49 Audiovisual and Multimedia. APPENDIX 3: CODECS AND DISTRIBUTION MODES PAGE 54 www.ficam.fr FICAM (Fédération des Industries du Cinéma, de l’Audiovisuel et du Multimédia) 11/17, rue de l'Amiral Hamelin-75783 Paris Cedex 16-Tel : + 33 (0)1 45 05 72 55-Fax : + 33 (0)1 45 05 72 50
  • 5. 8 9 Why a White Paper on Stereoscopic 3-D* (3Ds) ? E ver since movie theaters have been equipped with digital 3-D pro- production. In fact, stereoscopic 3-D, if it adds new possibilities on the jectors, a number of 3-D feature-length films have been shown narrative level, also includes new obligations on the technical level tied with often disparate processing quality. The television market has to the cerebral acceptance of cinema and television viewers. This is why, also decided to respond rapidly to the desire of the public for 3-D films. in this 3Ds white paper, our objective is not to constrain the creativity The television manufacturers, quick to participate in this technological of directors, who should remain free in their artistic content, but to set craze, now make flat television screens on a grand scale equipped with a framework for their being better able to get around in the additional display systems “in 3-D”, allowing the viewer to watch 3Ds TV programs production possibilities specific to stereoscopic 3-D. in conditions of quite acceptable visual comfort. Moreover, some smart- It is also important to specify that the study of stereoscopy, phones have recently appeared in the mass market which are capable already quite old, has allowed the visual comfort zones–inside which a of generating autostereoscopic 3-D. viewer will have no discomfort or, not to say headaches–to be empiri- However, the market for mobile, TV and cinema broadcast cally defined. Scientific studies are now taking place to refine these pa- hardware is much in advance, chronologically speaking, of the produc- rameters. tion capacity of stereoscopic 3-D content by the audiovisual and cinema We say also that the art of 3Ds is only at its beginnings. There will no industry. Up to now, there does not exist enough natively produced 3Ds doubt be the possibility for directors of films or television broadcasts to content to furnish all the ad hoc broadcast media. The barrier is mainly go beyond this technical framework, at least from time to time, in order economic and technological, but it is also a result of a lack of informa- to provoke quite new emotions in the viewer. tion on the practical conditions in which it is possible today to create Finally, it should be noted that the perception of the depth of an film in 3-D for television and cinema. object in a 3Ds scene is modified according to the size of the display of Due to the current deficiency in 3Ds content, it should be noted the images (movie theater screens or televisions). This white paper thus that many 3-D films and programs broadcast in movie theaters, or on describes the different display technologies and defines the technical the first 3Ds television channels, use procedures that create 3-D from contours of future 3Ds programs to be provided for television and the cinema. 2-D automated images. These do not sufficiently take into account the In fact, in order to summarize the main objective of this white main principles of visual comfort for the viewer and put into question paper, we would say that it consists of sufficiently informing audiovi- the notion of respect for the original work. sual and cinema professionals on the possibilities of 3Ds so that they Given this enthusiasm for 3-D, it seemed necessary for diffe- can appropriate this new language as much as possible, and that public rent professional organizations of the cinematographic and television disappointment can be avoided for this new artistic and technical field, industries (Ficam, CST, UP3D, AFC, HD-Forum, etc.) to produce a white as might have been the case during the first wave of infatuation for 3-D paper laying out the current state of stereoscopic 3-D. The goal of this films in the 1950’s. white paper is to point out the different technical and narrative issues tied to the filming, postproduction, visual comfort, 2-D/3Ds conversion This white paper on 3-D refers to the state of the art in May 2012. It is the and display on a cinema and/or television screen. second version of the document that takes into account the remarks of Stereoscopic 3-D is an artistic and technical mechanism requi- French professionals and updates the generic ideas on the subject. ring a mental reconstruction of images, which is chosen by the director and limited by the physiological laws specific to most viewers. As such, it is crucial to put in place, at every step in the manu- * Rather than use the terms “relief” or “3-D”, quite imprecise for the facturing chain, 3-D monitoring and quality procedures supervised by former and source of confusion with computer generated images for the qualified personnel and trained in this new mode of creation and post- latter, we recommend using the term “3Ds” for stereoscopic 3-D.
  • 6. 10 11 Fundamental Principles of Stereoscopy How do we perceive 3-D ? L et’s look at a close object: for example Now, while continuing to look at the tip of our the index finger of our hand. Naturally, finger, let us consider the objects situated the optic axes of our eyes convergent behind our finger (Figure 2). On which side towards the object being looked at. We thus to they seem to be placed when we close one become slightly cross-eyed. The more the ob- eye and then the other? We notice that they ject is close to us, the more we become cross- are more to the left seen from the left eye and eyed: the angle of convergence increases. The more to the right seem from the right eye. more the object moves away, the more the It is what is called parallax. It is said that for angle of convergence decreases. The angle objects situated behind the plane of conver- of convergence is a very important indication gence, the parallax is positive. Let us observe for our brain: knowing the distance between again our finger and now consider the objects figure 1 figure 2 figure 3 the two eyes, that are closer it can deduce (Figure 3). The the distance of phenomenon the object, like is inversed: the a range-finder. object is more to The brain allows the right seem us to perceive from the left the depth of the eye and more scene by way to the left seem of the differen- from the right ces between eye. For objects the angles of situated in front convergence of of the plane of the different ob- convergence, the jects being observed. Now let us examine the parallax is negative. In sum, the parallax is images formed by our two eyes: as the optic zero for all the objects situated in the plane axes of our eyes converge towards our finger, of convergence, positive for all the objects si- the image of our finger is formed at the same tuated behind the plane of convergence and place on our two retinas (Figure 1). We call the negative for all the objects situated in front of figure 4 same points of the objects in the left and right the plane of convergence. are then practically parallel and the angle of object can hardly be perceived. Happily, other images “homologous points”. It is said in this The more an object is distant, the more the convergence becomes too small to inform us indications inform us of the depth: occultation, case that the homologous points are fused perception of its distance is imprecise. When sufficiently as to the distance of the object. Be- relative size of the objects, perspective, the ef- and that our finger is in the “plane of conver- the distance of the object goes beyond several ginning from a 100 meters, the distance of an fect of mist, etc. gence” of our eyes. dozen meters, the two optic axes of our eyes
  • 7. 12 13 consequently the placing of the plane of How is 3-D reconstructed? 3Ds applied to cinema Stereography : a new production language convergence as well as the amplitude of the “scenic box” (see Appendix 2). W and television Creating for the cinema or for television is It should be noted that the size of the 3Ds T e now take two cameras in pla- not tied only to the techniques of produc- he fundamental difference between tion or broadcasting, but also to the emo- monitoring screen during filming does not ce of our two eyes along with a attempts in the past and the present necessarily correspond to that of the fi- tional connection that these images foster 3-D screen system whose role growth of 3Ds comes from the tech- nal broadcast. The stereographer should in the human brain. From this standpoint, is to make each eye see only the image nical mastery of 3-D in the entire chain of 3Ds requires that this connection be re- clearly inform the production team of the that is intended for it. In Figure 4, the left the manufacturing and image broadcasting considered so as to adapt the conditions differences in the sense of depth according and right homologous points are repre- process. The use of computer tools during of creating a cinematographic or televi- to the dimensions of the film’s intended sented respectively in red and cyan. If the shooting and the possibilities of modifying sion project to this question. 3Ds induces screen and to justify his “not visual” but homologous points are superimposed du- images pixel by pixel up to broadcasting a rupture with the practices of production “provisional” adjustments. ring projection, the view will converge on are steps that from now on are indispensa- and which modifies the interpretation of The parameters of “depth” can be in- ble and in constant evolution. They guaran- the space as imagined by the director. One creasingly modified in postproduction. Gi- the screen and the object will be seen on tee the quality of the 3Ds image necessary should also note that, in studying certain ven this fact, just as the color calibration the plane of the screen. That is how one for the visual comfort of the viewer. gives the tone of the scenes in a film, the filming parameters such as lighting and sees films in 2-D. Digital tools take part in the mastery of “3Ds calibration” becomes an important framing, if there is a rupture between 2-D If the parallax is positive, the view will stereoscopic production. Being more and 3Ds, it is situated more on the side of step after the film has been edited. It al- converge towards a point situated behind knowledgeable from this experience, we acceptance by the viewer’s brain than that lows for the perception of reality in 3-D to the screen: the viewer will thus have the wish today to support the emergence of a of artistic practice. be given a general tonality and to provide impression that the object is situated new cinematographic and television lan- In 2-D as in 3Ds, the director remains the 3Ds continuity between shots according to behind the screen (as if seen through a guage tied to the usage of 3Ds. main judge of the use of 3-D in order to the final intention of the director. window). Finally, if the parallax is nega- A purely technical conception of 3Ds is serve his narrative, whether it is a question a risky bet. It is preferable to rely on the of a film, a telefilm or a televised program. Think about 3Ds before filming tive, the view will converge towards a point savoir-faire, both technical and artistic, of In the same way that he decides a produc- If you want to have a quality 3-D effect, it situated in front of the screen, and the the stereographers and technical service tion in 2-D, he formulates a particular re- would be useful to verify beforehand the object will thus seem to be in front of the companies, which have both a solid theo- quest to the stereographer who will see to pertinence of the choice of 3Ds for this or screen (as if popping out). retical knowledge and experience in 3Ds. its completion. The working together of the that film or television program from the In sum: The production of a sequence in 3Ds can- director and the stereographer thus aims beginning of the synopsis or scenario. In • Objects situated on the plane of conver- not be summed up in an automatic algo- to establish “3-D behavior” (modulation of this way, a story unfolding in an aerial or gence during filming will be reconstructed rithm for creating 3-D effects, however the stereoscopic range), done through a aquatic universe lends itself totally to a on the plane of the screen (parallax zero). sophisticated it may be, or do without the graphic image or annotations on the script popping-out effect, for the objects can be • Objects situated behind the plane of onsite experience of specialized professio- or storyboard, which then serves as a guide “unglued” from any support, like levita- nals who know how to adapt to particular for the team doing the shooting. 3-D that ting in a fluid or a vacuum. Furthermore, convergence during filming will be re- filming conditions, very often full of unfo- is too strong can lead to visual discomfort longer shots and/or rather slow and fluid constructed behind the screen: window reseen events. The creation of a 3Ds scene over time, while 3-D that is too weak risks movements of the cameras also favor the effect (positive parallax). requires a perfectly regulated production frustrating the viewer. It is mainly within perception of a more comfortable 3-D ef- • Objects situated in front of the plane of with the camera angles completely maste- these limits that the director can choose fect. They leave time for the public to dis- convergence during filming will be recons- red. If the production teams are not sup- the depths he wants. The streographer cover and enter into the depth of the ima- tructed in front of the screen: popping-out ported by competent people in this way, translates these choices using the tools ge. In the same way, wide compositions effect (negative parallax). they risk having their possibilities limited at his disposal, tools which he will super- with framing using high-angle or low-an- as to the creation of emotions in the viewer vise in their practical use. Given this, he gle shots favor 3-D effects and intensify specifically tied to 3-D effects of depth or is responsible for the adjustment of the sensations of dizziness. Geometric forms, of popping out, or even in certain cases, to angulation and the inter-axial distance buildings for example, are more quic- provoke visual discomfort in the public. between the center of the camera lenses kly identified by our brain and contribute according to the chosen focal length, and to the quick immersion into 3-D. As for
  • 8. 14 15 Creating a 3-D Scene streaming programs, among the first ex- ted cases: periments taking place today using 3Ds in - The shot itself, as in a classic film. Ideal- retransmission of sporting events, football ly, the storyboard creator should create a From the beginning of writing the scenario, 3-D can be taken into account and used as a is looked on as the favorite due to the high storyboard that is optically correct. narrative tool. It is possible to imagine scenes whose dramatic intensity will be amplified if number of viewers and a public potentially - A view “from the side”. Starting from the one plays with the depth, the popping-out effect and the effects of gigantic size and minia- interested by the fact of viewing matches principle that the 3Ds window is projec- turization. The scriptwriters can think about 3-D effects in advance, sometimes integrating in 3-D. Nevertheless, the current produc- ted onto the plane of the screen, this side their ideas directly into the scenario. These can be indicated in capital letters (in the Anglo- tions of this sport on television, centered view will mark the location of the plane of Saxon world, they are sometimes preceded by the term “3DFX”). Nevertheless, the logical on lateral panoramas and a depth of field the screen so as to distinguish the objects process of creating a film lends to entrusting the control of stereoscopic effects to the director often difficult to master, is not necessarily that should be in front of the plane of the and/or stereographer. For example, in Océanosaures (Sea Rex), a 3-D IMAX© film written the best adapted to retransmission in 3D, screen (popping out) and those that should and directed by the Frenchmen Pascal Vuong and Ronan Chapalain, the stereoscopic filming unless the camera angles and the pano- be behind it (in depth). proposals appear right from the storyboard. ramas are comple- - In the most tely rethought out complex cases, a OcéanoSaures - Voyage au Temps des Dinosaures © 2010 - N3D LAND Productions with respect to view from above, It should be noted in the case of this film a 2-D retrans- with the location that Pascal Vuong created the storyboard mission. A fur- of the plane of the himself and Ronan Chapalain supervised ther constraint screen, could also the stereography, thus allowing each shot comes from the be useful. to be conceived very early in all its depth fact that the ac- Beyond these and not as a 2-D image. In this storyboard tion takes place general rules, © Convergence3D.net extract, the colored markings added to the most of the time it could also be initial drawing permit one to quickly loca- far from the ca- advisable to use te the elements to be popping out and the meras, thus re- previsualization position of individuals in relation to the quiring the use software that si- plane of the screen. This stereoscopic pro- of a long focal mulates what the duction information, added to the framing length on the basis shot or perspec- and cropping choices, allows the director of wide 3-D shots Screen capture of 3Ds previsualization software tive will be in or- and film crew to better prepare the shoo- that could create a der to define the ting and postproduction of the images and “maquette” effect. camera angles prevent certain pitfalls of stereography en- On the other hand, certain inside sports, and movements in 3Ds. Such software al- visaged too late in the process. such as basketball, where one can be clo- lows computer-generated images to preci- ser to the action, offers 3-D that reinforces sely reconstitute each filming location and the viewer’s emotions. the camera position (whatever the type of rig). It allows the frame, the inter-axial dis- Preproduction tance, and the angles to be calculated and Preparation is essential in order for fil- previsualized during filming and in post- ming in 3Ds to be successful. Researching production. All the parameters, such as particularly meticulous points (measuring the focal length, the diaphragm, the depth distances, verification of distant objects, of field, the movements, etc., can also be taking into account the size of the 3Ds rig) predetermined. permits many problems to be avoided in advance. Creating a 3Ds storyboard is ad- The importance of checking volumes vised. Without help from software, this sto- During the work of identifying certain para- ryboard could show, for each shot, at least meters and of preparing a film in 3Ds, it is two or more views for the most complica- necessary for the director and the head of
  • 9. 16 17 photography to check the frames by taking lengths, the establishing of the position of one of the fundamental parameters. It is when there is a blurred background with into account the development and distri- the massive forms of the film set becomes what happens within the shot or out of it backlit foliage. bution of volumes relating to depth. They even more decisive in determining the po- that justifies the movement of the camera rely on the stereographer who helps them sition of the actors and the viewpoint of according to the director’s decision. In in looking for homogeneity in the choice the camera in terms of the depth and the Using visual indications of depth for 3Ds streaming programs, the frame is deter- of angles and focal length in relation to edge of the frame. The sensation of 3-D, productions mined much more by following the action, 3Ds. This step should allow the position even if it appears realistic or admissible Creating a shot in 3-D does not only mean which in sports for example, is generally of the objects to be determined within the for a single shot, might no longer be so adjusting the stereoscopy, but also to use centered. “scenic box” containing the volumes of the during the editing of several shots one af- information that is going to ease the un- scene in three dimensions. This checking ter another. For example, during filming in derstanding of the depth of the image. is of major im- 2-D, it is normal to A camera in movement It is thus necessary to know how to use Moving shots reinforce the perception of both stereoscopic and non-stereoscopic portance. “cheat” in the po- the succession of volumes within the sce- information. At this step, a sitioning of the ne. This emphasis of volumes is obtained, Painting and photography remind us that warning is neces- actors (to make a of course, by the movement of the actors in 2-D numerous factors allow the brain sary to point out shot or perspective in relation to the objects in the frame. It is to analyze and understand the depth of an that, as opposed easier). This prac- equally increased by the camera’s view- image. This faculty is conserved, moreo- to 2-D images, tice should arouse point, which reinforces the presence of the ver, when one eye is closed. The utiliza- stereoscopic the greatest vigi- actors. Perhaps this could be a new type of tion of this non-stereoscopic information viewing provides lance when using space between cinema and theater? makes the understanding of space, and the viewer with 3Ds. the perception the participation of the sensation of 3-D, of the position Framing Lighting in 3Ds easier to experience. Among these fac- in depth of each If, in 2-D cinematography, light and its tors, we can cite the following: The precision of object, and thus contrast are only limited by the projection -An object up close masks an object far the cinematogra- their sizes. The standards and, in this context, the power away. This effect, which can be obtained by phic frame is one choice therefore of the projector, it is quite otherwise in the movement of the actors or the objects of the essential of the 3Ds fil- stereoscopy. Strong contrasts, in particu- in the depth of the scene, is reinforced by parameters of 2-D ming parameters lar at the edges of the shot, through fo- the movement of the camera’s viewpoint. filming. Yet, with can lead to a si- liage against the sunlight or between dif- The dollies, the movements of the cra- stereoscopy, whe- tuation in which ferent parts of the subject, can lead to real nes or steadicams, or the movements of re we are nearer a person can be cerebral discomfort for the viewer. a shoulder-held camera, emphasize the to low and/or high perceived as a The lowering of contrast is often advised, relative position of objects in relation to 3-D effects, the giant (magnifi- without us knowing how to precisely each other. frame shows a cation) or like a Visualization of the benchmark visual comfort slight uncertainty quantify it today. This being so, shots for -The size of objects decreases with distan- drawing on card- zone as regards 3Ds. which the lighting and contrast levels are ce. This can be used to “cheat” in certain in relation to the board (flattening), not controllable require sensors covering shots, provided that a likeness is preser- two shots being or like its opposite a large range in order to obtain images ved with the effects of reduction in size, if filmed, which only overlap completely on (a maquette or stretching effect). capable of conserving 3-D in high and low a realistic image is to be conserved. the plane of convergence or the plane of Finally, it is useful to note that, as a ge- the screen. Furthermore, the notion of the lighting. This also allows a better adjust- -The gradation of textures: bricks, gras- neral rule, 3-D is best appreciated when immersion of the viewer for certain ste- ment of contrast during the calibration ses, pavements, etc., become less defined the scene is in movement, close to the ob- reoscopic productions is often emphasi- of stereoscopic films and TV programs. with distance. ject and with a rather short focal length. zed even before the notion of framing, in Likewise, it is advised to pay attention to -The “atmospheric dispersion” (mist ef- Nevertheless, it is difficult to produce a IMAX© for example. But for most cinema- clipping of strong lighting, for such lighting fect): it is due to the pollution of the mi- whole film without close-up shots. For tographic productions, the frame remains can produce a disparity of form between lieu being passed through according to its shots resorting to medium and long focal the two stereoscopic images, such as thickness. It works for infinite distances
  • 10. 18 19 Managing the Popping-out Effect Popping out is one of the effects is to be weak and slow if the the capacity of the viewer to belonging to 3-D. It gives the intensity is to be strong. The “read” comfortably the effects feeling that the objects pop same popping out can vary in of popping out: at the beginning out of the screen towards the intensity and be produced twice: of a film, around three seconds viewer. first weak then strong, in order are necessary for the brain to However, there are rules to to reinforce the final effect. The submit to the interval between follow so that this effect does not total length of the effect cannot convergence and accommodation cause any visual discomfort. The be too long. For reasons of visual that is imposed on it, whereas elements or parts of elements comfort and of concern for a after ten minutes of a film in 3-D that pop out must be contained narrative balance, the frequency stereoscopy, this accommodation within the field of the cameras. of popping out throughout a time is reduced to half a second. The speed of the appearance of film or a TV program must be It is thus strongly advised against popping out must not be too slow an intelligent dose between the abusing the effects of brutal or too fast. A sufficient time must repetition of popping out and popping out at the beginning be left for the viewer’s brain to their differences in intensity. of a film, for they can become get accustomed to this effect. Finally, it has been noticed painful and wrongly interpreted To preserve the visual comfort, empirically that there is a by viewers’ brains.. Modulation example of the stereoscopic range for the length of a film it must be fast if the intensity phenomenon of learning in Stereoscopic range and modulation of stereosco- is, moreover, variable according to the pic ranges individual. as well as for a smoke-filled room. understanding depth. This is why certain The stereoscopic range is a measure of Some scientific studies are, however, -The effect of perspective is very important head operators prefer using light that is the quantity of 3-D in an image. It is the still going on in France (3-D Acceptance information: as we look, we search in per- more directional than in 2-D in order to difference between the interval of the most & Comfort) and in the United States manence for a scene’s convergence lines emphasize the shadows. Regions without distant object and the interval of the closest (BanksLab, University of California at to understand its perspective by using detail of an image—for example a comple- object in a shot. Berkeley) to clear up the relation between roads, railways and buildings. tely white sky or an interior scene with to- The stereoscopic range can vary within a stereoscopic range and visual comfort. -3-D is above all comparative. The brain tally black zones—are less favorable to the shot, between two shots and during the Without 100% reliable reference points in performs better in comparing, for exam- comprehension of 3-D than a cloudy sky or length of a film. Within all these cases, one this domain, we recommend, during the ple, colors than in analyzing them. It’s the an interior in which half-light allows the can speak of “modulation of stereoscopic production of a teaser or a test, to examine, same thing for stereoscopy. A distribution subtlety of the details to be seen. ranges”. case by case, the contentious shots that of volumes in the depth of a scene will fa- -One must also attend to the consistency of The stereoscopic range (histogram of deviate from the “acceptable” limits of vor the impression of viewing in 3-D. It will the screen depths and avoid the “collision” disparities) is a quantifiable data for each stereoscopy. be more difficult if there is only one ele- of a title placed on the plane of the screen image in percentage of its size or in pixels. In general, it is customary to moderate the ment in the foreground separated from with an object that is popping out. As for The term “depth budget” is sometimes exceeding of these limits in favor of the another element placed at infinity without a “window violation”, it is characterized by used to designate either a stereo range or production. any intermediary volume. For example: a the collision of the edge of the screen with the modulation of stereo ranges, which can It should be noted that there already exists bee popping out on a background of infi- an object that is popping out. lead to confusion. technical recommendations defining the nitely distant mountains will not favor the The same stereo range gives a weak acceptable limits of stereoscopic ranges impression of viewing in 3-D. It is important to use all of this information to impression of 3-D on a small screen, for 3Ds TV broadcasting (ex: BSkyB -Furthermore, it is sometimes preferable 3-D). The establishment of technical enrich the stereoscopic production parameters. stronger on a movie screen and very to have titles popping out on a textured powerful on a giant screen such as recommendations is currently under study background rather than on a black one. In a general way, the least contradiction between IMAX©. The acceptance by the viewer of in France. -Textures and shadows are stereoscopic monocular and binocular (that is, parallax) depth a stereo range chosen for a given screen objects, supplementary “information” for information cannot be allowed.
  • 11. 20 21 Ensuring the continuity of the modulation of the each other on more or less sophisticated stereoscopic range during a whole film mechanical or motorized rigs. The advantage It is indispensable to think of a 3Ds film or of this arrangement is that it is often more TV program in its entire continuity. For ci- rigid and avoids the aberrations linked to the nema in 3Ds, like in 2-D, the order of se- mirror set up. quences and shots at different steps in the Its inconvenience is that it imposes wide inter- making of a film are often modified, and axial distances which results in a “maquette” Binocle particularly when it is being edited. effect tied to the apparent miniaturization of The modulation of the stereoscopic range the objects being filmed. It is not known how may be modified by the inversion of shots to avoid this effect today, but it comes into during editing. For example, a close-up play from the moment one goes beyond the Two types of side-by-side rigs with much popping out will correspond ba- inter-axial distance of human vision. It can be dly with a wide landscape shot having a lot put up with, or even looked for, according to of depth: this alternation tires the viewer. how the director wants his production to be. shots in a fiction film. advantage of having its vertical camera placed It is thus necessary to take care in the or- In any case, there is no other solution when Mirror rigs are used with steadicams, shoul- above the mirror, allowing the optical axis to ganization of the shots to ensure smooth one films from far away, with objects in the be brought very close to the ground for ma- der-held cameras and most classic machi- transitions of depth for the public. foreground situated far from the camera king large vertical low-angle shots. nery. Mirror rigs are conceived or arranged in and one wishes to have 3-D. This is the case, two ways when they can be turned around the for example, for certain shots taken from a helicopter. optical axis: Integrated 3Ds camera -The first, called zenithal, favors the protection RIGS AND STEREOSCOPIC of the mirror. The vertical camera is placed Also appearing on the market are professio- nal video cameras that record two views of Semi-transparent mirror rigs CAMERAS The cameras are placed vertically at a 90° an- under the optical axis and directed upwards. the same scene through two optical axes in- This arrangement allows for a simpler protec- tegrated within the same camera body. This A gle to each other and find themselves in opti- tion from lights interfering with the mirror. “rig” is an adjustable support on which type of wholly integrated technology has cal concurrence in a semi-aluminized mirror. movie cameras can be arranged and -The second, called “crane position”, has the the advantage of limiting problems of dis- This mirror, also called a “beam splitter”, al- set up. There are two types according lows one camera to film through the mirror to whether the cameras are placed side-by- and the other to film by reflection on the re- side or as a mirror (beam-splitter). It is the flecting side of it. Binocle need to obtain or not a small or large inter- For this process, the transmission through, axial distance that determines the choice of a and the reflection from, the mirror is equal rig. If a large inter-axial distance is desired, to 50% each so that the loss of a diaphragm, usually for helicopter or distance shots, a si- induced for the camera filming through the de-by-side rig is used. mirror, is identical, or almost so, to the other The sophistication of side-by-side or mirror one. The mirror thus permits filming with an rigs is not linked to the device but to the inter-axial distance equal to 0 and thus be definition made by the manufacturer. Certain freed from the problems related to the space manufacturers make rigs that are versatile used by the cameras and lenses. and are simply assembled differently to be It is thus possible to reduce the inter-axial installed either as a side-by-side or mirror distance to 0 mm, which allows for the ca- rig. meras to be perfectly aligned. The mirror rig mainly permits small inter-axial distances, Side-by-side rigs indispensable for filming close to the sub- Two identical cameras are placed next to ject, which is the case in a large majority of Simplified schema of a semi-transparent rig
  • 12. 22 23 METHODS FOR ALIGNING AND DR SYNCHRONIZING 3Ds CAMERAS A stereoscopic shot requires paired equipment (cameras and lenses) and the stereographer’s utmost attention to the adjustment of the rig during shooting. Not being able to have perfect alignment once the shooting starts, it is necessary to continue working thanks to real-time correction algorithms for television, and in postproduction for cinema. It is a question of bringing to the viewer two images perfectly aligned vertically pixel by pixel. Factors provoking troublesome vertical disparities: - Difference in height of the optical axes (whether they are parallel or cross verti- Two examples of integrated 3-D cameras cally) - Difference in the placement of one camera in relation to the other parity between the two stereoscopic points To this end, technical creation industries have - Difference, even minimal, between the focal lengths of the cameras and the of view to be superimposed, especially pro- seen, since the end of the 90’s, the rise of focusing of the lenses blems of alignment, differences in focusing, motion control rigs capable of being precisely - Different optical aberrations between the lenses of zooming, etc. However, the integrated paired electronically via a computer. More - Trapezoid effect resultant in vergence on the object. 3Ds camera has the drawback of generally recently, 3Ds image analysis instruments It’s a question of minimizing as much as possible these disparities when offering only a single setting for the inter- have arrived with, notably, the possibility filming. On a side-by-side rig, the optical axes are placed in parallel aiming at axial distance and a limited adjustment of of making a precise real-time drawing infinity, and a test card is used at 3 meters to verify that the altitudes have been vergence. These restrictions result in heavy out of problems of disparity between two respected. On a mirror rig, the same procedure is used in placing the inter-axial constraints when filming a close-up scene in stereoscopic images and correcting them in distances at 0. In both cases, test cards and a 3Ds monitor is used to precisely 3-D, and, more generally, does not allow for real time. adjust the alignment, if possible to the size of a pixel. complete control of stereoscopic production All these factors make it so that today one Likewise, that the colorimetry and luminosity of the cameras are identical through adjustment of the two parameters sees hardware and software solutions appear should be watched over closely. Certain tools on the 3Ds monitor allow this to be inter-axial distance and vergence. from several components manufacturers precisely monitored. for processing 3Ds shots in real time, Synchronization of the camera sensors at the pixel level is indispensable. The non- Progress of 3Ds rigs and monitoring of disparities which allows certain corrections—such as respect of this rule on moving images leads to visual fatigue by the viewer. Whatever the talent of the stereographer, vertical disparities, detection of rotation and For the timecode, the cameras must be connected with one camera as TC involuntary disparities between the two trapezoid deformation—to be automated. “master” and the other as “slave”. viewpoints of the cameras remain. It is Certain software also permits automation As to scanning, putting one camera in Genlock master and the other indispensable to correct them when filming of the inter-axial distance and convergence. in Genlock slave is not precise enough, except for certain miniature cameras or live. For fiction, these defaults can also be Solutions of this kind, conceived in France or cameras conceived for this purpose. It is preferable therefore to have recourse to an corrected on the film site so that rushes can elsewhere, which allow these problems to external synchronization camera body in Tri-level Sync, connected to the camera be viewed comfortably. In postproduction, be corrected or parameters to be monitored Genlock inputs. if these defaults are very minor and do in real time, are already being used on film Cameras without the Genlock input, such as digital photo cameras, are not bother the editing process, certain sites, particularly in live sports productions. problematic. Certain 3Ds monitors allow, however, scanning to be viewed and to stereographers prefer to usefully make these 3-D correctors are also being integrated try “manual” or “on the fly” synchronization by triggering the cameras simulta- corrections during the “3-D calibration” into visualization tools used in fiction or neously. But this does not provide the indispensable guarantees need for a feature stage. This consists in adjusting the 3-D for capturing in order to judge the effects film project or for live television. values for a shot or between two shots. It obtained without mental strain for the team. ensures the consistency of the 3-D effect for the length of the film.
  • 13. 24 25 LIVE MULTI-CAMERA 3Ds A modification of workflow should be consi- As a general rule, it should be noted that all 3Ds POSTPRODUCTION: dered in the 3Ds production unit. In fact, each the actors who intervene in the live stream CAPTURING stereoscopic source should undergo 3-D cor- should have 3Ds visualization: slow motion CORRECTIONS AND WORKFLOW rection before being integrated into the grid operators, synthesizer operators, special ef- A Live multi-camera 3Ds capturing implies ac- or the mixer. This correction can be multiple fects technicians, etc. ccomplishing postproduction in 3Ds tions in real time in order to preserve 3-D ho- and specific to each rig. It encompasses the is not very different from traditional mogeneity. The first action consists in analy- flip image in the case of a mirror rig, geo- The difficulty of live 3Ds multi-cameras today postproduction, if only that it is neces- zing new actors and organizing them into the metric correction, compensation for opti- is not only related to technical problems, but sary to manage file volumes twice as large. production team’s hierarchy. The director is cal centering, etc. Whatever the nature and also to the calling into question of the pro- It is also necessary to ensure the continuity the one who conceives the stereoscopy of a number of corrections applied, they should duction. It is quite clear that the acceptance of depth in 3Ds scenes, by watching over the project that puts the stereographer and all be done in a very short time since this period of 3-D is directly dependent on the quality of sequence of their stereoscopic ranges and the technicians to work. comes before mixing. Today, this processing the stereoscopy, but it is also necessary to by correcting the disparities between the left A single stereographer guarantees the qua- time varies from 40 to 120 ms. provide the necessary information for a good and right images. When filming fiction, these lity of 3-D capturing. He works in concert The quality and number of 3Ds visualizations narrative. Due to this fact, live broadcasting defaults can also be corrected, of course, with the director of photography. He is assis- is a key element of a 3Ds production tool. is a dangerous exercise in 3Ds. For example, before reaching the postproduction stage. ted by the convergence operators who are in Two cases are possible for the production: to if one wishes to bring information captured However, if these defaults are very minor charge of the stereoscopy of one or two axes. propose a multiviewer which includes all the by a 2-D camera into a 3Ds stream, one can and do not interfere with editing, certain He continuously regulates the inter-axial sources as well as the program and preview resort to a real-time 2-D/3-D transfer, or if stereographers prefer to make these adjust- distance and vergence according to the va- in 3Ds. This requires a certain vigilance in or- one wishes to provide a score or a time, one ments during 3-D calibration, or, in any case, riations of frame, focal length and focus. der to exclude from the mosaic any camera would proceed by inserting 3Ds elements these 3-D adjustments are reviewed in terms By analogy with photography, it is necessary being adjusted. The second option consists into a 3Ds image. These techniques are to- of consistency over the length of the film. to integrate this team into the live production of keeping the sources in 2-D visualization lerable for the viewer as long as they are unit in order to make discussion easy and and to put only the program and preview in mastered. 3Ds. Viewing is at the heart of the process of 3Ds editing guarantee a consistent program. The postproduction of 3-D images requires
  • 14. 26 27 OPTIMIZING LIVE 3Ds COSTS IS POSSIBLE ! ting tools, this is rarely the case. copyright : Technicolor For this reason, during “offline” editing of 3Ds films or programs, it is imperative to Concerning the additional costs related to 3Ds capturing, the figure of 25 to 30%more than view 3Ds edited shots and to validate them 2-D capturing is often put forward, but according to those in charge of AMP VISUAL TV these regularly on a stereoscopic screen having figures are relative. The additional costs greatly depend on the length of the capturing itself, a size near to the one that will be used for and AMP VISUAL TV hopes to have, in the end, enough production streams in 3Ds to be able the final showing. In this way it is possible to identify at once the visual discomfort resul- to have economies of scale. What is most important today is to find methods for reducing the ting from the non-corrected stereoscopic installation and preparation times. If it is possible, for example, to have two cameras/lenses disparities or the different 3-D values used used only for 3Ds capturing, it would then be possible to considerably reduce the preparation in different shots. Example of correcting geometric time before shooting. But for this to happen, it would be necessary to have a greater volume of If possible, it is even desirable that the conti- disparities production than there is today. nuity of the shots be studied during the pre- paration phase of filming in order to make the 3-D space consistent before and after a return to more rigorous methods of work after editing, during or just before the stage the transition by reducing to the maximum than before, and to a more precise definition of calibrating the 3-D of the film. It is done by the differences in distance and convergence of each person’s task, from preparation of a stereograph technician having experience of the cameras. Nevertheless, adjustments filming to postproduction. These precau- with the correction tools, under the direction are often to be planned in postproduction tions, taken before the various operations, of the stereographer who has already wor- through horizontal transfer of the left and Flare: a source of visual discomfort limit the alternation of inconsistent 3-D se- ked on it during filming. right images. quences. The change in location of the space to whe- However, even if a stereographer has per- Continuity of shots during editing of 3Ds images re the viewer is attracted, from one shot to fectly adjusted the rigs and taken care to stereoscopic range at the end of the prece- The rhythm of shots edited in stereoscopy another, can also cause visual discomfort. limit the “bad” connections between shots, ding plan consistent with the beginning of is logically slower than that of editing of 2-D Thus the necessity of an appropriate script the editor, will in all likelihood, as in the case the next one. images, for when there is a change of shot, it and a specific “3-D calibration”, making the of 2-D, change the editing order that was is necessary for the brain to have one second planned at the beginning. Due to this fact, to appreciate the new universe to be explo- it will be necessary to again verify the conti- red. Learning to watch 3-D by the viewer Adapting convergence and editing: nuity between shots during each viewing of can, however, reduce the accommodation 3-D continuity between two shots the 3Ds already-edited rushes. time necessary for each change of shot. But Furthermore, following the planned post- as of today this is only a supposition. In 3Ds, convergence between two successive shots must be adjusted. Usually, the convergence shots production method and the production bud- In order to limit mental discomfort and re- get, it might be useful to take some time to will be brought closer during cropping in postproduction if they are too different. Otherwise, the duce adaptation time between each shot, correct the involuntary disparities between it is also possible to use the “3-D dissolve” viewer may feel visual discomfort. The time this adjustment takes can also vary. Experiences that images. This would mean to correct the- method which smoothes the passage from took place during the production of Legend of the Guardians: The Owls of Ga’Hoole (2010) brought se geometric and colorimetric disparities one 3-D shot to another when the 3-D ef- to light the fact that the softest transition in 3Ds is obtained when the vergence of entrances into a between the left and right images such that fects are obviously too different. each of the homologous pixels is situated at shot is progressively adjusted according to the previous shot. In this film, the length of the vergence Because of these constraints, it would be the same altitude. It must be kept in mind more practical in the absolute for stereos- adaptation time between shots varied from one sequence to another from 8 to 40 images. Further- that these corrections, necessarily made for copic editing to take place “online”, directly more, rather than making the depth characteristics of each shot exactly correspond to the level of a live capture, should become a postproduc- from already-corrected stereoscopic ima- the cropping point, it was noticed that for most of the sequences, it was possible to eliminate only tion operation for fiction. ges. However, for reasons of visual fatigue 50% of the difference in depth between shots, and to leave a slight upsurge in 3Ds when cropping. This operation could be made on the rushes over time, but also for the sake of economy before editing, but today it is generally done Of course, nothing prevents one from using a brutal 3Ds connection between shots to provoke a and/or the non-availability of online 3Ds edi- particular sensation in the viewer.