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HOW TO PLAN AND EXECUTEHOW TO PLAN AND EXECUTE
LITERARY RESEARCH INLITERARY RESEARCH IN
AYURVEDAAYURVEDA
Dr. J.S.R.A. Prasad
Associate Professor
Dept. of Sanskrit Studies
School of Humanities
University of Hyderabad
jsraprasad@gmail.com
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
“A scientific thing is just anything that you don't
understand, as soon as you understand it, it is
not scientific anymore” – Charles kettering
“Progress in science is impossible without a
paradox” - Niels Bohr
“Philosophies of one age have become
absurdities of the next, and the foolishness of
yesterday has become the wisdom of tomorrow”
- William Osler
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Myths about Ayurveda
- is inherently religious
- is all about kashayas and churnas
- has no proper solutions for current problems
- Philosophy and medicine are different
- colleges won't attract cream of the crop
- knowledge can be acquired based on
translations
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
-----
The grammarian is a hunter who wants to kill the
beasts, which appear in the form of
ungrammatical words. Where could these
beasts go to save themselves, unless they find
the mouth-caves of actors... doctors... etc.?
"
The word '' has two meanings..
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Literary Research in Ayurveda
Literary
Research
1. Text aided1. Text aided 2. Computer aided2. Computer aided
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Importance of Sanskrit in
Ayurvedic Research
Definitions
- (Ashtanga Samgraha)
- (Tai.Up. 2.3.1)

So, Ayus =

= the science of /life

- /()
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Declensional forms
Compound words
-----
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Validity of words
Interpretation
(C.S.1.7.61)
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
()
-()
()
()
Shades of Negation
Styles of Interpretation
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Inquiring further...
दधदधदध

what substance is that? Dravyam!
()

Which dadhi? Cow/Buffalo

Pharmaco-dynamics of curd?
- Rasa : Amla
- Guna : Guru
- Veerya : Ushna
- Vipaaka : Amla
- Prabhava: Vaatashamaka, kapha-pitta-
kara
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
 Definition of rasapañcaka
Rasa – (characteristic of rasa is taste)
Gu a –ṇ (characteristic of gu a is universal)ṇ
Vīrya – (characteristic of vīrya is to produce an
action)
Vipāka – (characteristic of vipāka is produce
digestion and assimilation)
Karma/Prabhāva – ('action' is the definition of
karma)
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
C.S. 1.27.227
curd is prohibited in autumn, summer and spring
and it is also unwholesome in hemothermia and
disorders of Kapha
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
दधदधदधदधदधदध
Rasa –
Gu a –ṇ ,
Vīrya –
Vipāka –
Karma/Prabhāva – , ,
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
दधदधदधदधदधदधदधदध Honey is of four kinds, viz.,
bee-honey, wasp-honey,
insect-honey and large-
bee-honey. Bee honey is
the best of them and
wasp-honey is specially
heavy.
Bee-honey is of the color of
oil and large-bee honey is
said to be of the color of
ghee, Insect-honey is
tawny and wasp-honey is
stated to be white.
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
दधदधदधदधदध दधदधदधदधदधदध
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
यययययययययययययय यययय यययय ययययययय ययययय य
यययययययययययययययययययय ययययययययययययययययययययय
How to Interpret religious words?
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
(Su.Sam. 1.4.7)
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Current Scenario

“Ongoing research is proceeding in such a way
that it is of more value to modern medicine than
Ayurveda. It doesn′t strengthen Ayurveda and
Ayurvedic practice. Ayurvedic research
outcomes have not trickled down to
professionals use; neither do they benefit
Ayurveda students or Practitioners” - Prof. R.H.
Singh (2010)
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
World view of Ayurveda vs
Biomedicine
Ayurveda
Micro cosmic organism
to Macro cosmic
organism
()
Biomedicine
Macro cosmic organism
to Micro cosmic
organism
“it was believed that this principle could hardly operate in the absence of perceived similarity between the
substances in the external and internal to man. The man and cosmos here look to be in an energy-based
dynamic relation where the flow is directed from higher to lower levels” - Dr. Sanjeev Rastogi et. al. 2012
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
a) mobile
1. living beings with placenta
and membranes (including
humans, animals, wild animals
etc.)
2. birds, snakes, fish, crocodiles,
tortoises
3. microbes, ants, bed bugs
4. vegetable kingdom
Process of Evolution
b) non-mobile
1. trees which bear fruit without
flowers
2. trees with fruits and flowers
3. grass varieties and veins
4. food grains.
Two categories of living beings have been narrated based on five
elemental theory in Ayurveda:
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
The Goal of Ayurveda
The equilibrium of all
dhAtus (13) is the goal
of Ayurveda -
"
What is body?
- body is the substratum
of tridoshas, sapta-
dhAtus and trimalas
The vAyu, pitta and kapha
are s and the rajas and
tamas are the s.
The Bio-energies, Vata, Pitta
and Kapha represent input-
output, throughput and
storage respectively as in
any dynamic system – Alex
Hankey, 2004
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
“The earth is the essence of all beings. Water is the essence of the
earth. Herbs are the essence of the water and man is the essence
of the herbs.” (Ch. Upanishad 1.1.2)
“These Five Mahabhutas are cosmic elements which create, nurture
and sustain all forms of life, and after death or decay they absorb
what was created earlier; thus they play an important role in
preserving and sustaining the environment” (O.P. Dwivedi; 2001)
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Tridoshas
Correlation in the functioning of tridosha and soma
(visarga), surya (AdAna) and anila (vikshepa):
The mind, soul and the body are like a tripod, on which
entire creation exists. And purusha is the substratum.
(C.S. Su. 1/46)
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
= Life

What is life?
Jivitam. (jIvayati –
prANAn dhArayati)

Ayurvai prANaH
(upanishad);

AyuscetanAnuvrttiH
(C.S.);

yaH prANaH sa
– modern science does
not know this.
Life It is not just the
process of respiration
and heart beat. It is
much more than that
with regard to the
existence of soul.
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Literary Research in Ayurveda
Literary
Research
1. Text aided1. Text aided 2. Computer aided2. Computer aided
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
1. Text aided1. Text aided
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Use of Pramā asṇ
Means of Valid
Knowledge
Sense
organ/Subject
What to Infer?
(touch) -
(eyes) , (), , , ,
(ears) , ,
(tongue) ()
-
-
(nose)
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
(metabolic fire)
(strength)
(sound etc.)
(mind)
(knowledge)
(attachment)
(passion)
(anger)
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Ayurvedic Philosophy of
Evolution
The growth of the embryo in mother's womb
is akin to the process of evolution.
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Contd...
svabhAvam, kAla, Isvara, yadrcchA, niyati and
pariNAma are the logical factors for embryo
genesis, as per Sushruta.
24 tattvas are the primordial factors in the above
process. avyakta (maya) - mahat (immature
mind) - ahankara (stimulation) – instigated by
karma prerita vAyu
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Contd...
Garbhasya catvAri caturvidhAni bhUtAni mAtA pitr
sambhavAni |
AhArjAnyAtmakrtAni caiva sarvasya sarvANi bhavanti dehe ||
C.S. 4.2.26

AhArajAni

mAtApitrsambhavAni

AtmakrtAni -

tanmAtras (these are the genes)- breaks up
by karmaprerita vAyu and they reunite, this
is what described as '', and '' in the
definition of Ayus.
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Contd...
Body is a conglomeration of atomic molecules-
", , , , " (S.S. Sh. 5/3)
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Ambiguity in Terminology
Sometimes it is difficult to convey the
impregnated meaning of Sanskrit/Ayurveda
terminology into a foreign language like
English. But, it is not the weakness of Sanskrit.
Hence let's consider the following wise words
of Sushruta -
(S.S.)
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Organic Chemistry Vis-a-Vis s
Entire creation can be classified into two
divisions: 'Organic' and 'Inorganic.' s can be
explained in the modern terminology such
as:

carbon ()

hydrogen ()

oxygen ()

nitrogen ()

ozone ()
living body is known as 'panchIkrta bhUta
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Resources for Interdisciplinary
Research
- Scientific basis of ancient Indian rituals,
traditions and customs
- Philosophy Vis-a-vis Medical science
- Genetics in Ayurveda – 'Ayurgenomics'
- Grammatical analysis of Ayurvedic
texts/commentaries
- Ayurvedic references in Sanskrit Literature
- Karma-vipaka and Vis-a-vis Medical Astrology
- Yoga & Ayurveda
- Medical Humanities
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Understanding Context

Thorough understanding of a text/concept – don't
depend upon translations – verify it on your own

Get contextual reference for all quotations from
samhitās/Sanskrit texts

Verify twice when you copy any quote/reference
from the web

Aims & Objectives
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Some examples in Literary ResearchSome examples in Literary Research
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Suradhyaksha – Arthashastra
Original sentence:
Disjuncted phrase: --
-------
Problem: is it six case singular number between -
or a dwandwa compound?
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Framework

Methodology
The present study is a theoretical research based on
review of literature of the major classical texts…

Gaps in research
emphasizes on 'what is lacking in XYZ's research' or
'what XYZ could not attempt' and so on and so
forth

Summary
At end of each chapter – as demonstrated by Caraka in
his magnum opus
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Tantrayukti Method
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Translations...and Problmes
Vāta - Vāyu&Akāśa
Pitta - Agni&Āpas
Kapha - Āpas&P thvīṛ
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Importance of Etymology

etymology is the complement of grammar ()

etymology is essential for the proper understanding of the
Vedic words ()
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Some Nomenclature

Vāta = (=)

Pitta = ()

Kapha = /(=)

Śle man =ṣ (=)

Medas = /(=)

Majjā = (=)

Ojas = (=)

Dhamanī = (-)

Peśī = (=)
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Contd...

Rasa = /(=)

Mā sa =ṃ (=)

Ojas = (=)

Śirā = /(=)

Dhamanī = (-)

Peśī = (=)

Srotas = (=)

Gu ūcī =ḍ -(=)
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
|
||||
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Basic Sanskrit Skills
Problems with:

and characters
Agnimāndhya agnimāndya;
methas medas

Deergha/hrasva
Prabhuta/āvila mutrata prabhūta/avilamūtratā;
madhurābhāva, āmlābhāva

Sandhi
Dhātvāgni pāka (Dhātu+agni-pāka) Dhātvagni-pāka
Srotas avarodha srotāvarodha sroto'varodha
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016

Gender

Vibhakti-Vacana-Purusha

Etymology/Derivation

Synonyms
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
IAST
शशशशशशशश शशशशशशश शशशशशशशशशशश शशशशशश शशशशशशशशशशशशश श
शशशशशशश शशशशशशशशशशशशशशशशशश शशशशशशशशशशशशशशशशशशश शश
śāstra jyotiṃ ḥ prakāśārthaṃ darśanaṃ buddhirātmanaḥ
tābhyāṃ bhiṣak suyuktābhyāṃ cikitsannāparādhyati
sastram jyotih prakasartham darsanam buddhiratmanah
tabhyam bhishak suyuktabhyam cikitsannaparadhyati
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Ayurvedic Research
Literary Research
Experimental Research
Pre Cilinical Research
Clinical Research
Post Clinical Studies
Invention of new
drug/therapy
Types in literary
research
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
https://www.istb.univie.ac.at/caraka/
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Critical Edition of Charaka Sutrasthana Bhaishajya Chatushka
Ayurvedic texts form the base or foundation of knowledge of Ayurveda for
Academic, Research, Practice, Manufacturing of Medicines etc. all purposes. We the
Indians are very lucky in having a rich heritage of knowledge in the form of
texts. This has been inherited from thousands of years, from generation to
generation. The mode of transmission of knowledge was initially by mouth to
mouth and later on was through manuscripts. While copying it is likely that some
errors creep up in manuscripts. Since the texts are base of all applications in
Ayurveda, these need to be rectified.
Oral tradition we have lost, but the available manuscript can be used to edit the texts.
To resolve this issue we will use manuscripts from all over India. Manuscripts from
various families of manuscripts will be used to edit the present text.
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
2. Computer aided2. Computer aided
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Ayusoft
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Anandakanda Knowledge Base
To develop the digital lexical resource
for Ānandakanda, methodically the
printed book has thoroughly been
skimmed to categorize terms
pertaining to plants, animal products
and minerals. This classification is
based on Cakara Sa hitāṃ .
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Topic index – This module contains all topics which were discussed in Ānandakanda.
For instance, 'Rasotpatti', 'gandhaka Śuddhi', 'Yantras', 'Ko hīṣṭ s', 'Mū āṣ s' and so on.
Totoal 567 topics have been identified. The following screen shot provides topical
information on 'gandhaka druti'.
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Ullāsa search – This module provides information on the total 36 Ullāsas spread in two
Viśrāntis (Am tīkara aviśrānti, Kriyākara aviśrāntiṛ ṇ ṇ ). All 36 Ullāsas are termed as
A.K-1.1 through A.K.2.10. The numbering system followed is in two levels. The
first level refers to the Viśrānti and the second level refers to the Ullāsa. So, A.K-1.1
means first Ullāsa in first Viśrānti in Ānandakanda. All the 36 Ullāsas are
searchable through an option with respective headings. This is evident from the
image 2 given below.
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Word search – This module has a provision to search from the index of 663 terms that
are classified into three groups pertaining to plants, animal products and minerals.
The terminology, category wise, has been alphabetically arranged. One can select the
required category to get information on a word while selecting the desired encoding
scheme. Two notations are used here – 'wx' and 'unicode-devanagari'. As the user
start to enter characters in the text field, the software offers an on-fly suggestion.
After making a hard enter the s/w produces the output with information on (gender),
(endletter), (derivation), (etymology)
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Rasaśāstra Ontology – This the a module that provides ontological structure of the
terminology in an expanding tree form. The basic building block is ' '. For a term like , the
hierarchical link is as follows – > > > > . To each constituent of Rasaśāstra ontology, it
is possible to go back and forth to retrieve the desired information. Needless to say,
Rasapañcaka is also available with the queried term. Image 4 demonstrates the ontology
described.
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Rasapañcaka search – This module provides information on the phramaco-dynamics of
drugs i.e., , , , along with Latin names and families. For instance, if the desired word is ,
the output is produced as in the following image
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Analysis
82%
3%
15%
Plants
Animal Products
Minerals
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Li gamṅ Var āntamṇ Ni pattihṣ Vyutpattih Paryāyāh
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
663 663 663
539
587
Latin Names
Family Names
Rasa
Gu aṇ
Vīrya
Vipāka
Karma
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
483
353
527 521 526
514
535
Word Search Rasapancaka
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
Sage Advise
“It is a living system, even today millions of
people in India are being treated according to
this system. A system which has stood the test
of centuries, and which still hold its own
against its rival systems of the day, can not be
lightly brushed aside unscientific” - Kaviraja
Kunjalal Bhishagratna (1916).
3 day Workshop on Research
Methods, Manuscript Writing
08/09/2016
THANK YOU!

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Literary Research in Ayurveda

  • 1. HOW TO PLAN AND EXECUTEHOW TO PLAN AND EXECUTE LITERARY RESEARCH INLITERARY RESEARCH IN AYURVEDAAYURVEDA Dr. J.S.R.A. Prasad Associate Professor Dept. of Sanskrit Studies School of Humanities University of Hyderabad jsraprasad@gmail.com
  • 2. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 “A scientific thing is just anything that you don't understand, as soon as you understand it, it is not scientific anymore” – Charles kettering “Progress in science is impossible without a paradox” - Niels Bohr “Philosophies of one age have become absurdities of the next, and the foolishness of yesterday has become the wisdom of tomorrow” - William Osler
  • 3. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Myths about Ayurveda - is inherently religious - is all about kashayas and churnas - has no proper solutions for current problems - Philosophy and medicine are different - colleges won't attract cream of the crop - knowledge can be acquired based on translations
  • 4. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 ----- The grammarian is a hunter who wants to kill the beasts, which appear in the form of ungrammatical words. Where could these beasts go to save themselves, unless they find the mouth-caves of actors... doctors... etc.? " The word '' has two meanings..
  • 5. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Literary Research in Ayurveda Literary Research 1. Text aided1. Text aided 2. Computer aided2. Computer aided
  • 6. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Importance of Sanskrit in Ayurvedic Research Definitions - (Ashtanga Samgraha) - (Tai.Up. 2.3.1)  So, Ayus =  = the science of /life  - /()
  • 7. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Declensional forms Compound words -----
  • 8. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Validity of words Interpretation (C.S.1.7.61)
  • 9. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 () -() () () Shades of Negation Styles of Interpretation
  • 10. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Inquiring further... दधदधदध  what substance is that? Dravyam! ()  Which dadhi? Cow/Buffalo  Pharmaco-dynamics of curd? - Rasa : Amla - Guna : Guru - Veerya : Ushna - Vipaaka : Amla - Prabhava: Vaatashamaka, kapha-pitta- kara
  • 11. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016  Definition of rasapañcaka Rasa – (characteristic of rasa is taste) Gu a –ṇ (characteristic of gu a is universal)ṇ Vīrya – (characteristic of vīrya is to produce an action) Vipāka – (characteristic of vipāka is produce digestion and assimilation) Karma/Prabhāva – ('action' is the definition of karma)
  • 12. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 C.S. 1.27.227 curd is prohibited in autumn, summer and spring and it is also unwholesome in hemothermia and disorders of Kapha
  • 13. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 दधदधदधदधदधदध Rasa – Gu a –ṇ , Vīrya – Vipāka – Karma/Prabhāva – , ,
  • 14. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 दधदधदधदधदधदधदधदध Honey is of four kinds, viz., bee-honey, wasp-honey, insect-honey and large- bee-honey. Bee honey is the best of them and wasp-honey is specially heavy. Bee-honey is of the color of oil and large-bee honey is said to be of the color of ghee, Insect-honey is tawny and wasp-honey is stated to be white.
  • 15. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 दधदधदधदधदध दधदधदधदधदधदध
  • 16. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 यययययययययययययय यययय यययय ययययययय ययययय य यययययययययययययययययययय ययययययययययययययययययययय How to Interpret religious words?
  • 17. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 (Su.Sam. 1.4.7)
  • 18. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Current Scenario  “Ongoing research is proceeding in such a way that it is of more value to modern medicine than Ayurveda. It doesn′t strengthen Ayurveda and Ayurvedic practice. Ayurvedic research outcomes have not trickled down to professionals use; neither do they benefit Ayurveda students or Practitioners” - Prof. R.H. Singh (2010)
  • 19. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 World view of Ayurveda vs Biomedicine Ayurveda Micro cosmic organism to Macro cosmic organism () Biomedicine Macro cosmic organism to Micro cosmic organism “it was believed that this principle could hardly operate in the absence of perceived similarity between the substances in the external and internal to man. The man and cosmos here look to be in an energy-based dynamic relation where the flow is directed from higher to lower levels” - Dr. Sanjeev Rastogi et. al. 2012
  • 20. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 a) mobile 1. living beings with placenta and membranes (including humans, animals, wild animals etc.) 2. birds, snakes, fish, crocodiles, tortoises 3. microbes, ants, bed bugs 4. vegetable kingdom Process of Evolution b) non-mobile 1. trees which bear fruit without flowers 2. trees with fruits and flowers 3. grass varieties and veins 4. food grains. Two categories of living beings have been narrated based on five elemental theory in Ayurveda:
  • 21. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 The Goal of Ayurveda The equilibrium of all dhAtus (13) is the goal of Ayurveda - " What is body? - body is the substratum of tridoshas, sapta- dhAtus and trimalas The vAyu, pitta and kapha are s and the rajas and tamas are the s. The Bio-energies, Vata, Pitta and Kapha represent input- output, throughput and storage respectively as in any dynamic system – Alex Hankey, 2004
  • 22. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 “The earth is the essence of all beings. Water is the essence of the earth. Herbs are the essence of the water and man is the essence of the herbs.” (Ch. Upanishad 1.1.2) “These Five Mahabhutas are cosmic elements which create, nurture and sustain all forms of life, and after death or decay they absorb what was created earlier; thus they play an important role in preserving and sustaining the environment” (O.P. Dwivedi; 2001)
  • 23. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Tridoshas Correlation in the functioning of tridosha and soma (visarga), surya (AdAna) and anila (vikshepa): The mind, soul and the body are like a tripod, on which entire creation exists. And purusha is the substratum. (C.S. Su. 1/46)
  • 24. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 = Life  What is life? Jivitam. (jIvayati – prANAn dhArayati)  Ayurvai prANaH (upanishad);  AyuscetanAnuvrttiH (C.S.);  yaH prANaH sa – modern science does not know this. Life It is not just the process of respiration and heart beat. It is much more than that with regard to the existence of soul.
  • 25. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Literary Research in Ayurveda Literary Research 1. Text aided1. Text aided 2. Computer aided2. Computer aided
  • 26. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 1. Text aided1. Text aided
  • 27. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Use of Pramā asṇ Means of Valid Knowledge Sense organ/Subject What to Infer? (touch) - (eyes) , (), , , , (ears) , , (tongue) () - - (nose)
  • 28. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 (metabolic fire) (strength) (sound etc.) (mind) (knowledge) (attachment) (passion) (anger)
  • 29. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016
  • 30. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Ayurvedic Philosophy of Evolution The growth of the embryo in mother's womb is akin to the process of evolution.
  • 31. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Contd... svabhAvam, kAla, Isvara, yadrcchA, niyati and pariNAma are the logical factors for embryo genesis, as per Sushruta. 24 tattvas are the primordial factors in the above process. avyakta (maya) - mahat (immature mind) - ahankara (stimulation) – instigated by karma prerita vAyu
  • 32. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Contd... Garbhasya catvAri caturvidhAni bhUtAni mAtA pitr sambhavAni | AhArjAnyAtmakrtAni caiva sarvasya sarvANi bhavanti dehe || C.S. 4.2.26  AhArajAni  mAtApitrsambhavAni  AtmakrtAni -  tanmAtras (these are the genes)- breaks up by karmaprerita vAyu and they reunite, this is what described as '', and '' in the definition of Ayus.
  • 33. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Contd... Body is a conglomeration of atomic molecules- ", , , , " (S.S. Sh. 5/3)
  • 34. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Ambiguity in Terminology Sometimes it is difficult to convey the impregnated meaning of Sanskrit/Ayurveda terminology into a foreign language like English. But, it is not the weakness of Sanskrit. Hence let's consider the following wise words of Sushruta - (S.S.)
  • 35. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Organic Chemistry Vis-a-Vis s Entire creation can be classified into two divisions: 'Organic' and 'Inorganic.' s can be explained in the modern terminology such as:  carbon ()  hydrogen ()  oxygen ()  nitrogen ()  ozone () living body is known as 'panchIkrta bhUta
  • 36. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Resources for Interdisciplinary Research - Scientific basis of ancient Indian rituals, traditions and customs - Philosophy Vis-a-vis Medical science - Genetics in Ayurveda – 'Ayurgenomics' - Grammatical analysis of Ayurvedic texts/commentaries - Ayurvedic references in Sanskrit Literature - Karma-vipaka and Vis-a-vis Medical Astrology - Yoga & Ayurveda - Medical Humanities
  • 37. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Understanding Context  Thorough understanding of a text/concept – don't depend upon translations – verify it on your own  Get contextual reference for all quotations from samhitās/Sanskrit texts  Verify twice when you copy any quote/reference from the web  Aims & Objectives
  • 38. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Some examples in Literary ResearchSome examples in Literary Research
  • 39. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Suradhyaksha – Arthashastra Original sentence: Disjuncted phrase: -- ------- Problem: is it six case singular number between - or a dwandwa compound?
  • 40. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Framework  Methodology The present study is a theoretical research based on review of literature of the major classical texts…  Gaps in research emphasizes on 'what is lacking in XYZ's research' or 'what XYZ could not attempt' and so on and so forth  Summary At end of each chapter – as demonstrated by Caraka in his magnum opus
  • 41. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Tantrayukti Method
  • 42. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Translations...and Problmes Vāta - Vāyu&Akāśa Pitta - Agni&Āpas Kapha - Āpas&P thvīṛ
  • 43. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Importance of Etymology  etymology is the complement of grammar ()  etymology is essential for the proper understanding of the Vedic words ()
  • 44. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Some Nomenclature  Vāta = (=)  Pitta = ()  Kapha = /(=)  Śle man =ṣ (=)  Medas = /(=)  Majjā = (=)  Ojas = (=)  Dhamanī = (-)  Peśī = (=)
  • 45. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Contd...  Rasa = /(=)  Mā sa =ṃ (=)  Ojas = (=)  Śirā = /(=)  Dhamanī = (-)  Peśī = (=)  Srotas = (=)  Gu ūcī =ḍ -(=)
  • 46. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 | ||||
  • 47. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Basic Sanskrit Skills Problems with:  and characters Agnimāndhya agnimāndya; methas medas  Deergha/hrasva Prabhuta/āvila mutrata prabhūta/avilamūtratā; madhurābhāva, āmlābhāva  Sandhi Dhātvāgni pāka (Dhātu+agni-pāka) Dhātvagni-pāka Srotas avarodha srotāvarodha sroto'varodha
  • 48. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016  Gender  Vibhakti-Vacana-Purusha  Etymology/Derivation  Synonyms
  • 49. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 IAST शशशशशशशश शशशशशशश शशशशशशशशशशश शशशशशश शशशशशशशशशशशशश श शशशशशशश शशशशशशशशशशशशशशशशशश शशशशशशशशशशशशशशशशशशश शश śāstra jyotiṃ ḥ prakāśārthaṃ darśanaṃ buddhirātmanaḥ tābhyāṃ bhiṣak suyuktābhyāṃ cikitsannāparādhyati sastram jyotih prakasartham darsanam buddhiratmanah tabhyam bhishak suyuktabhyam cikitsannaparadhyati
  • 50. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Ayurvedic Research Literary Research Experimental Research Pre Cilinical Research Clinical Research Post Clinical Studies Invention of new drug/therapy Types in literary research
  • 51. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 https://www.istb.univie.ac.at/caraka/
  • 52. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Critical Edition of Charaka Sutrasthana Bhaishajya Chatushka Ayurvedic texts form the base or foundation of knowledge of Ayurveda for Academic, Research, Practice, Manufacturing of Medicines etc. all purposes. We the Indians are very lucky in having a rich heritage of knowledge in the form of texts. This has been inherited from thousands of years, from generation to generation. The mode of transmission of knowledge was initially by mouth to mouth and later on was through manuscripts. While copying it is likely that some errors creep up in manuscripts. Since the texts are base of all applications in Ayurveda, these need to be rectified. Oral tradition we have lost, but the available manuscript can be used to edit the texts. To resolve this issue we will use manuscripts from all over India. Manuscripts from various families of manuscripts will be used to edit the present text.
  • 53. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 2. Computer aided2. Computer aided
  • 54. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Ayusoft
  • 55. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016
  • 56. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Anandakanda Knowledge Base To develop the digital lexical resource for Ānandakanda, methodically the printed book has thoroughly been skimmed to categorize terms pertaining to plants, animal products and minerals. This classification is based on Cakara Sa hitāṃ .
  • 57. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016
  • 58. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Topic index – This module contains all topics which were discussed in Ānandakanda. For instance, 'Rasotpatti', 'gandhaka Śuddhi', 'Yantras', 'Ko hīṣṭ s', 'Mū āṣ s' and so on. Totoal 567 topics have been identified. The following screen shot provides topical information on 'gandhaka druti'.
  • 59. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Ullāsa search – This module provides information on the total 36 Ullāsas spread in two Viśrāntis (Am tīkara aviśrānti, Kriyākara aviśrāntiṛ ṇ ṇ ). All 36 Ullāsas are termed as A.K-1.1 through A.K.2.10. The numbering system followed is in two levels. The first level refers to the Viśrānti and the second level refers to the Ullāsa. So, A.K-1.1 means first Ullāsa in first Viśrānti in Ānandakanda. All the 36 Ullāsas are searchable through an option with respective headings. This is evident from the image 2 given below.
  • 60. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Word search – This module has a provision to search from the index of 663 terms that are classified into three groups pertaining to plants, animal products and minerals. The terminology, category wise, has been alphabetically arranged. One can select the required category to get information on a word while selecting the desired encoding scheme. Two notations are used here – 'wx' and 'unicode-devanagari'. As the user start to enter characters in the text field, the software offers an on-fly suggestion. After making a hard enter the s/w produces the output with information on (gender), (endletter), (derivation), (etymology)
  • 61. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Rasaśāstra Ontology – This the a module that provides ontological structure of the terminology in an expanding tree form. The basic building block is ' '. For a term like , the hierarchical link is as follows – > > > > . To each constituent of Rasaśāstra ontology, it is possible to go back and forth to retrieve the desired information. Needless to say, Rasapañcaka is also available with the queried term. Image 4 demonstrates the ontology described.
  • 62. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Rasapañcaka search – This module provides information on the phramaco-dynamics of drugs i.e., , , , along with Latin names and families. For instance, if the desired word is , the output is produced as in the following image
  • 63. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Analysis 82% 3% 15% Plants Animal Products Minerals
  • 64. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Li gamṅ Var āntamṇ Ni pattihṣ Vyutpattih Paryāyāh 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 663 663 663 539 587 Latin Names Family Names Rasa Gu aṇ Vīrya Vipāka Karma 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 483 353 527 521 526 514 535 Word Search Rasapancaka
  • 65. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 Sage Advise “It is a living system, even today millions of people in India are being treated according to this system. A system which has stood the test of centuries, and which still hold its own against its rival systems of the day, can not be lightly brushed aside unscientific” - Kaviraja Kunjalal Bhishagratna (1916).
  • 66. 3 day Workshop on Research Methods, Manuscript Writing 08/09/2016 THANK YOU!