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Dr. Nagabhushan Charantimath PhD
Assistant Professor, Dept of Zoology,
Vijayanagara Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Ballari, Karnataka, INDIA
TRIGLYCERIDES
• An esterof glycerol with three
fatty acids.
• Also known as
triacylglycerols
• One type of lipid categorised as
simple lipid.
Triglycerides
Structure of Triglycerides
O
O
• Glycerides are lipid esters
• A triglyceride places fatty acid chains at each alcohol group of
the glycerol
CH O C R2
CH2O C R3
Glycerol part Fatty acid
chains
CH2O C R1
O
Glycerol
•Glycerol Always looks the same
• 3 C’s with 3 OH’s and
everything else H’s.
Formation of Triglycerides
Example of triglycerides
▫ Triglyceride is derived from one molecule each of palmitic acid, oleic
acid, and stearic acid
 The three most abundant fatty acids in the biological world.
CH2OC(CH2) 1 4CH3
CH2OC(CH2) 1 6CH3
CH3( CH2)7 CH=CH(CH2 )7 COCH
O
O
O
oleate (18:1)
stearate (18:0)
p almitate (16:0)
Physical properties of triglycerides
• Physical properties depend on the fatty acid components.
▫ Melting point increases as the number of carbons in its
hydrocarbon chains increases and as the number of double bonds decreases.
▫ Oils: Triglycerides rich in unsaturated fatty acids are generally
liquid at room.
▫ Fats: Triglycerides rich in saturated fatty acids are generally
semisolids or solids at room temperature.
Physical properties of triglycerides
▫ Hydrocarbon chains of saturated fatty acids can lie parallel with strong
dispersion forces between their chains; they pack into well-ordered,
compact crystalline forms and melt above room temperature.
▫ Because of the cis configuration of double bonds in unsaturated fatty acids,
their hydrocarbon chains have a less ordered structure and dispersion forces
between them are weaker; these triglycerides have melting points
below room temperature.
Chemical Properties
Triglycerides have typical ester and alkene chemical properties as
they are composed of these two groups:-
▫ Saponification: replace H with salt from a strong base
▫ Hydrolysis: produces the fatty acids and glycerol, a reverse
of formation
▫ Hydrogenation: saturates the double bonds
Triglyceride Reactions
• Triglycerides undergo three basic reactions
• These reactions are identical to those in carboxylic acids
Triglyceride
Glycerol
Fatty Acids
Glycerol
Fatty Acid Salts
More saturated
triglyceride
H2O, H+
NaOH
H2, Ni
HYDROLYSIS
SAPONIFICATION
HYDROGENATION
Hydrolysis
Saponification
and Hydrogenation
BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF
MACROMOLECULES: LIPIDS
LIPIDS
Structure of BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES
Source of ENERGY (9 Kcal/g)
Involved in REGULATORY RESPONSES
EMULSIFICATION during digestion
TRANSPORTATION
INSULATION and Protection
STORAGE as ADIPOSE
Smell/ Taste/ Aroma /Texture to foods
Promotes SATIETY
BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF
MACROMOLECULES : PROTEINS
Structure of BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES
Source of ENERGY (4 Kcal/g)
STRUCUTRAL SUPPORT
BIO-CATALYSTS
TRANSPORTATION
DEFENCE as ANTIBODIES
HORMONES
BUILDING BLOCKS
Initiates CELLULAR DEATH
BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF
MACROMOLECULES : CARBS
DIETARY CALORIES (4 Kcal/g)
STORAGE form of ENERGY
As GLYCOLIPIDS / GLYCOPROTEINS (ABO antigens)
GLUCOSAMINOGLYCAN (GAG): Hyaluronic acid in
Sinovial fluid, Umbellical cord, embryonic tissue, wound
healing….
Heparin - anticoagulant
CHONDROITIN thins causing OSTEOARTHRITIS
Acknowledgement
Image and GIF image courtesy: Google
Open access and free online resources
Robert F Weaver (2012): Molecular biology Rfifth edition, Mc Graw-Hill companies Inc.
De Robertis E.D.P and De Robertis E.M.F: Cell and molecular Biology, eight edition, Indian edition.
Alberts B., Bray Dennis, Lewis Juliam, Raff Martin, Roberts K and Watson J.D: Molecular Biology of the
cell, Second edition, Garland publishing company ltd., New York, London.
Mind the LIPIDS

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Lipids as Biopolymer

  • 1. Dr. Nagabhushan Charantimath PhD Assistant Professor, Dept of Zoology, Vijayanagara Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Ballari, Karnataka, INDIA
  • 3. • An esterof glycerol with three fatty acids. • Also known as triacylglycerols • One type of lipid categorised as simple lipid. Triglycerides
  • 4. Structure of Triglycerides O O • Glycerides are lipid esters • A triglyceride places fatty acid chains at each alcohol group of the glycerol CH O C R2 CH2O C R3 Glycerol part Fatty acid chains CH2O C R1 O
  • 5. Glycerol •Glycerol Always looks the same • 3 C’s with 3 OH’s and everything else H’s.
  • 7.
  • 8. Example of triglycerides ▫ Triglyceride is derived from one molecule each of palmitic acid, oleic acid, and stearic acid  The three most abundant fatty acids in the biological world. CH2OC(CH2) 1 4CH3 CH2OC(CH2) 1 6CH3 CH3( CH2)7 CH=CH(CH2 )7 COCH O O O oleate (18:1) stearate (18:0) p almitate (16:0)
  • 9. Physical properties of triglycerides • Physical properties depend on the fatty acid components. ▫ Melting point increases as the number of carbons in its hydrocarbon chains increases and as the number of double bonds decreases. ▫ Oils: Triglycerides rich in unsaturated fatty acids are generally liquid at room. ▫ Fats: Triglycerides rich in saturated fatty acids are generally semisolids or solids at room temperature.
  • 10. Physical properties of triglycerides ▫ Hydrocarbon chains of saturated fatty acids can lie parallel with strong dispersion forces between their chains; they pack into well-ordered, compact crystalline forms and melt above room temperature. ▫ Because of the cis configuration of double bonds in unsaturated fatty acids, their hydrocarbon chains have a less ordered structure and dispersion forces between them are weaker; these triglycerides have melting points below room temperature.
  • 11. Chemical Properties Triglycerides have typical ester and alkene chemical properties as they are composed of these two groups:- ▫ Saponification: replace H with salt from a strong base ▫ Hydrolysis: produces the fatty acids and glycerol, a reverse of formation ▫ Hydrogenation: saturates the double bonds
  • 12. Triglyceride Reactions • Triglycerides undergo three basic reactions • These reactions are identical to those in carboxylic acids Triglyceride Glycerol Fatty Acids Glycerol Fatty Acid Salts More saturated triglyceride H2O, H+ NaOH H2, Ni HYDROLYSIS SAPONIFICATION HYDROGENATION
  • 16. BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF MACROMOLECULES: LIPIDS LIPIDS Structure of BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES Source of ENERGY (9 Kcal/g) Involved in REGULATORY RESPONSES EMULSIFICATION during digestion TRANSPORTATION INSULATION and Protection STORAGE as ADIPOSE Smell/ Taste/ Aroma /Texture to foods Promotes SATIETY
  • 17. BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF MACROMOLECULES : PROTEINS Structure of BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES Source of ENERGY (4 Kcal/g) STRUCUTRAL SUPPORT BIO-CATALYSTS TRANSPORTATION DEFENCE as ANTIBODIES HORMONES BUILDING BLOCKS Initiates CELLULAR DEATH
  • 18. BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF MACROMOLECULES : CARBS DIETARY CALORIES (4 Kcal/g) STORAGE form of ENERGY As GLYCOLIPIDS / GLYCOPROTEINS (ABO antigens) GLUCOSAMINOGLYCAN (GAG): Hyaluronic acid in Sinovial fluid, Umbellical cord, embryonic tissue, wound healing…. Heparin - anticoagulant CHONDROITIN thins causing OSTEOARTHRITIS
  • 19. Acknowledgement Image and GIF image courtesy: Google Open access and free online resources Robert F Weaver (2012): Molecular biology Rfifth edition, Mc Graw-Hill companies Inc. De Robertis E.D.P and De Robertis E.M.F: Cell and molecular Biology, eight edition, Indian edition. Alberts B., Bray Dennis, Lewis Juliam, Raff Martin, Roberts K and Watson J.D: Molecular Biology of the cell, Second edition, Garland publishing company ltd., New York, London.