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Writing a Linux driver
for an unknown device
Ľubomír Rintel <lkundrak@v3.sk>
LinuxAlt 2013, Brno
BTC: 1GrpeEj18B6X7QFbh794bFGnZLRhVMqwL8
Linux 2.4?
Linux 2.2?
Linux 2.0?
Great hardware support!
Our device
●

Unknown to Linux

●

No documentation

●

No Google hits for chip

●

Desperate users in
Ubuntu forums
No Linux support at all!
The Plan
●

Make it work in Windows

●

Capture what happens

●

Find image data

●

Mimic the behavior in userspace

●

Transform into a kernel module
USB
USB Architecture
●

Network of Host, Hubs and Devices
USB Addresses
●

Bus & Device number

Host
Device 1:1
Hub

Device 2:1
Hub
Device 2:2
Flash Drive

Device 3:1
Mouse
USB Addresses
$ lsusb
Bus 001
Bus 002
Bus 002
Bus 003
$ lsusb
...

Device
Device
Device
Device
-v

001:
001:
002:
001:

ID
ID
ID
ID

1d6b:0002
1337:abcd
1337:0123
dead:b4b3

Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
Trololol USB 1.1 Hub
Trololol Flash Drive
Random Mouse
USB Device
●

Self-describing

●

Endpoints
●

CONTROL

●

INTERRUPT

●

BULK

●

ISOCHRONOUS

●

Endpoints grouped into Interfaces

●

Interfaces grouped into Configurations
Our device
Device
Alternate setting 0
Endpoints:

Alternate setting 1
Endpoints:

0x81 Isochronous IN
0x82 Bulk
IN

0x81 Isochronous IN
0x82 Bulk
IN

0x83 Bulk
0x84 Interrupt

0x83 Bulk
0x84 Interrupt

IN
IN

IN
IN
The Plan
●

Make it work in Windows

●

Capture what happens

●

Find image data

●

Mimic the behavior in userspace

●

Transform into a kernel module
Do try this
at home!
Windows & VirtualBox
Wireshark & usbmon
What did we see
●

Number of CONTROL requests

●

ISOCHRONOUS packets once capture starts
RGB

R R R R R R R R
G G G G G G G G
B B B B B B B B
YUV2
Y Y Y Y U1 U1 U1 U1
Y Y Y Y V1 V1 V1 V1
Y Y Y Y U2 U2 U2 U2
Y Y Y Y V2 V2 V2 V2
LibUSB
●

We could replay the traffic

●

In userspace – no kernel hacking needed

●

C, Python & Perl bindings

●

Now we need to find start & end of the picture
Test image
0xff00ff00

0xaaaaaaaa

0x00ff00ff
0x00000000
0x80808080
Frame format
88 01 00 00
88 01 00 01

...

88 01 02 cf
88 02 80 00

...

88 02 82 cf
88 03 00 00

...

xx xx xx xx

• 240

00 00 00 00

• 15

Frame number
●
Even/odd
●
Chunk number 0 – 0x2cf = 719
●

740 x 480 YUV2 Interlaced (NTSC)
To kernel!
To kernel!
●

Booooring!

●

A module

●

USB framework
●

●

Video4Linux2
●

●

Linux Device Drivers: http://lwn.net/Kernel/LDD3/

LWN Series: http://lwn.net/Articles/203924/

Videobuf2
●

LWN Article: http://lwn.net/Articles/447435/
Video4Linux2

Videobuf2

Userspace

USB

Our code

Hardware

Architecture
Video4Linux2
●

Provide a device with known API
●

●

read(), write()

●

ioctl()

●

●

open(), close()

mmap()

Negotiate format with userspace
Videobuf2
●

Manages buffers of frames

●

Connects to Video4Linux2
●

read(), write(), mmap()

●

some ioctl()s
–

Start/stop capture

–

Exchange buffers with userspace
USB framework
●

●

Setup the device
Allocate buffers for exchange of data with
device

●

Handle start/stop

●

Isochronous callbacks
●

Copy data from USB buffers to Videobuf2 buffers
Video4Linux2

Videobuf2

Userspace

USB

Our code

Hardware

Architecture
Works!
Community
Free Software
●

Mainline Linux 3.11
●

●

drivers/media/usb/usbtv

Contributions
●

Review

●

Bug fixes

●

Features!
Questions?
See you!

http://base48.cz
#base48@irc.freenode.net

Did you find this useful? My Bitcoin address is:
1GrpeEj18B6X7QFbh794bFGnZLRhVMqwL8

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