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Let Ti ( mj , N) the cost to solve a significant problem using the mj method. The average cost: Tavg(N) = (1/n) * sum Ti (mj,N), i =1 to n The cost in the worst case: Tworst (N) = max Ti (mj,N), i =1 to n The cost in the best case: Tbest (N) = min Ti (mj, N), i = 1 to n Obviously Tavg (N) Tworst (N). Similarly, Tavg (N) Tbest (N). Is it possible that Tworst = O ( N^2 log N ) and Tworst = (1) , Tavg = O(N^2) , Tavg = (log N) , Tbest = O ( N log N) and Tbest = ( N)? Give a formal proof it\'s IMPOSSIBLE , or give Tworst , Tavg Tbest and FUNCTIONS that meet the conditions. Thank you Solution A function T(N) is O(F(N)) if for some constant c and for all values of N greater than some value n0: T(N) <= c * F(N) The idea is that T(N) is the exact complexity of a method or algorithm as a function of the problem size N and that F(N) is an upper-bound on that complexity (i.e., the actual time/space or whatever for a problem of size N will be no worse than F(N)). In practice, we want the smallest F(N) -- the least upper bound on the actual complexity. For example, consider T(N) = 3 * N2 + 5. We can show that T(N) is O(N2) by choosing c = 4 and n0 = 2. This is because for all values of N greater than 2: 3 * N2 + 5 <= 4 * N2 T(N) is not O(N) because whatever constant c and value n0 you choose, I can always find a value of N greater than n0 so that 3 * N2 + 5 is greater than c * N. Im not familiar with this concept so i cant give you the exact answer, i hope you understand and im sorry. .

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stochastic processes assignment help

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Algorithm Design and Complexity - Course 3

The document provides an overview of recursive algorithms and complexity analysis. It discusses recursive algorithms, divide and conquer design technique, and several examples of recursive algorithms including Towers of Hanoi, Merge Sort, and Quick Sort. For recursive algorithms, it explains how to analyze their running time using recurrence relations. It then covers four methods for solving recurrence relations: iteration, recursion trees, substitution method, and master theorem. The substitution method and master theorem are described as the most rigorous mathematical approaches.

Asymptotic notations

Asymptotic notations such as O, Ω, θ, o, and ω are used to represent the complexity of algorithms. O notation provides an asymptotic upper bound, Ω provides a lower bound, and θ provides a tight bound. Apriori analysis determines complexity by analyzing the algorithm itself rather than running it, using asymptotic notations which remain the same even if actual times change on different systems.

lecture 3

The document discusses an algorithms course and merge sort. It provides an overview of homework assignments and asymptotic notation. It then analyzes the runtime of merge sort, showing that it runs in Θ(n log n) time. Finally, it covers techniques for solving recurrences like substitution and iteration methods.

T2311 - Ch 4_Part1.pptx

Here are the key steps:
1. Guess the solution: T(n) = O(n log n)
2. Set the induction goal: T(n) ≤ c n log n for some c > 0 and n ≥ n0
3. Apply the induction hypothesis: T(n/2) ≤ c (n/2) log(n/2)
4. Substitute into the recurrence: T(n) = 2T(n/2) + n ≤ 2c(n/2)log(n/2) + n = cn log n
5. Simplify and show it meets the induction goal.
Therefore, by mathematical induction, the solution T(n) =

Find the compact trigonometric Fourier series for the periodic signal.pdf

Find the compact trigonometric Fourier series for the periodic signal x(t) and sketch the
amplitude and phase spectrum for first 4 frequency components. By inspection of the spectra,
sketch the exponential Fourier spectra. By inspection of spectra in part b), write the exponential
Fourier series for x(t)
Solution
ECE 3640 Lecture 4 – Fourier series: expansions of periodic functions. Objective: To build upon
the ideas from the previous lecture to learn about Fourier series, which are series representations
of periodic functions. Periodic signals and representations From the last lecture we learned how
functions can be represented as a series of other functions: f(t) = Xn k=1 ckik(t). We discussed
how certain classes of things can be built using certain kinds of basis functions. In this lecture we
will consider specifically functions that are periodic, and basic functions which are
trigonometric. Then the series is said to be a Fourier series. A signal f(t) is said to be periodic
with period T0 if f(t) = f(t + T0) for all t. Diagram on board. Note that this must be an everlasting
signal. Also note that, if we know one period of the signal we can find the rest of it by periodic
extension. The integral over a single period of the function is denoted by Z T0 f(t)dt. When
integrating over one period of a periodic function, it does not matter when we start. Usually it is
convenient to start at the beginning of a period. The building block functions that can be used to
build up periodic functions are themselves periodic: we will use the set of sinusoids. If the period
of f(t) is T0, let 0 = 2/T0. The frequency 0 is said to be the fundamental frequency; the
fundamental frequency is related to the period of the function. Furthermore, let F0 = 1/T0. We
will represent the function f(t) using the set of sinusoids i0(t) = cos(0t) = 1 i1(t) = cos(0t + 1)
i2(t) = cos(20t + 2) . . . Then, f(t) = C0 + X n=1 Cn cos(n0t + n) The frequency n0 is said to be
the nth harmonic of 0. Note that for each basis function associated with f(t) there are actually two
parameters: the amplitude Cn and the phase n. It will often turn out to be more useful to
represent the function using both sines and cosines. Note that we can write Cn cos(n0t + n) = Cn
cos(n) cos(n0t) Cn sin(n)sin(n0t). ECE 3640: Lecture 4 – Fourier series: expansions of periodic
functions. 2 Now let an = Cn cos n bn = Cn sin n Then Cn cos(n0t + n) = an cos(n0t) + bn
sin(n0t) Then the series representation can be f(t) = C0 + X n=1 Cn cos(n0t + n) = a0 + X n=1 an
cos(n0t) + bn sin(n0t) The first of these is the compact trigonometric Fourier series. The second
is the trigonometric Fourier series.. To go from one to the other use C0 = a0 Cn = p a 2 n + b 2 n
n = tan1 (bn/an). To complete the representation we must be able to compute the coefficients.
But this is the same sort of thing we did before. If we can show that the set of functions
{cos(n0t),sin(n0t)} is in fact an orthogonal set, then we can use the same.

Copy of y16 02-2119divide-and-conquer

The document discusses recursive algorithms and divide-and-conquer approaches. It provides examples of recursively defining problems like calculating factorials and solving the Tower of Hanoi puzzle. It also discusses analyzing the time complexity of recursive algorithms by modeling the running time as a recursive function and solving the recursion. The document suggests three methods for solving recurrences: substitution, recursion trees, and the master method.

CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, NORTHRIDGEMECHANICAL ENGINEERIN.docx

CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, NORTHRIDGE
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
MARCH 30 2015
ME 309
HOMEWORK #3
Ahmed Mohammed
Problem statement
1. Write a general computer code to solve system of up to five couples first order initial value problems using Heun and Newton iteration trapezoidal methods. These are combined in the same algor4thim in such way that Heun’s method is automatically employed to provide the initial guess at each time step for the Newton iteration required by fully implicit Heun’s method, and no iterations are needed. The complete pseudo-language algorithm is attached.
Test this code by solving the following problem.
Use step size h= 0.1, 0.05 and 0.025. Solve the problem first with explicit Hun’s method, and then with implicit Newton iteration integration for each value of h. employ a convergence tolerance E= 0.000001 for the Newton iteration of the trapezoidal method. The exact solution to this problem is,
Make a table of results of convergence tests (based on the exact solution) at t=1, 2, 3, 4 & 6. This table should include the exact value, the computed solution, the error and the error ratios from successive step size for each of the required values of t. discuss how these results compare with theory. Also discuss what factors should influence the choice of convergence tolerance E for the Newton iterations, and whether the specified value given above is appropriate.
2. Solve the following problem using only the newton iteration trapezoidal method.
Employ step size h=0.1, 0.05, 0.01 and iteration convergence tolerance E= 0.000001. Consider the h=0.01 solution to be the “exact” in order to carry out convergence testes between the h= 0.1 and h=0.05 solutions at t=0.5, 1, 1.5, 2. Make a table, similar to the table in problem number 1.
Mathematical Description
HEUN’S METHOD
Heun’s Method, explained in a short manner, uses the line tangent to the function at the beginning of an interval. Now if a small step is applied to it, the error with the function result will be small. Heun’s method can be explained in more detailed in the following way:
2.-
To obtain solution point (t1,y1) we can use the fundamental theorem of calculus and integrate y’(t) over [t0,t1] to get
3.- Solving for y(t1) we find,
4.- We can use a numerical integration to approximate definite integral. If we use trapezoidal rule with step size h = t1 – t0, then we get
5.- We still need to find, y(t1) but an estimation for this value will work. After this we get the following, which is the Heun’s method.
6.- When this process is repeated it generates a sequence of points that approximate the solution curve y =y(t). At each step, Euler’s method is used as a prediction then the trapezoidal rule helps to make the correction to obtain the final value. [1]
Newton’s Method
It is way to approximate the roots of an equation by taking out the curve in the equation and then replace with a tangent line. Then, it find ...

RECURRENCE EQUATIONS & ANALYZING THEM

The document discusses different methods for solving recurrence equations:
1. Substitution method involves guessing a solution and using induction to prove it is correct.
2. Iterative method expands the recurrence into a summation and evaluates it.
3. Master method handles recurrences of the form T(n)=aT(n/b)+f(n). It provides 3 cases to bound the solution.
4. Recursion tree method models the recurrence as a tree to track problem sizes and costs at each level. Summing costs across levels provides the total solution.

linear transformation and rank nullity theorem

In these notes, I will present everything we know so far about linear transformations.
This material comes from sections in the book, and supplemental that
I talk about in class.

NONLINEAR DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS WITH SMALL PARAMETERS OF MULTIPLE SCALES

In this article we study a general model of nonlinear difference equations including small parameters of multiple scales. For two kinds of perturbations, we describe algorithmic methods giving asymptotic solutions to boundary value problems.
The problem of existence and uniqueness of the solution is also addressed.

Daa chapter 2

The document discusses the divide and conquer algorithm design technique. It begins by defining divide and conquer as breaking a problem down into smaller subproblems, solving the subproblems, and then combining the solutions to solve the original problem. It then provides examples of applying divide and conquer to problems like matrix multiplication and finding the maximum subarray. The document also discusses analyzing divide and conquer recurrences using methods like recursion trees and the master theorem.

Asymptotic notation

This document discusses mathematical notations and asymptotic analysis used to analyze algorithms, including big O, Omega, and Theta notation. It defines common mathematical functions like floor, ceiling, modulo, and factorial. It also covers permutations, exponents, and logarithms. The document explains that big O notation provides an upper bound on running time, Omega provides a lower bound, and Theta provides a tight bound. Finally, it categorizes common algorithm time complexities as constant, linear, logarithmic, polynomial, and exponential time.

Weekends with Competitive Programming

1. Algorithm analysis helps determine which algorithm is most efficient in terms of time and space consumed by analyzing the rate of growth of the time and space complexity functions as the input size increases.
2. Big-O notation provides an asymptotic upper bound on the growth rate of an algorithm, while Omega and Theta notations provide asymptotic lower and tight bounds respectively.
3. Recurrence relations can be used to analyze the time complexity of recursive algorithms, where the running time T(n) is expressed as a function of smaller inputs.

Master theorm practive problems with solutions

The document discusses the Master Theorem for solving recurrence relations of the form T(n) = aT(n/b) + f(n). There are 3 cases of the theorem based on the asymptotic behavior of f(n). It also provides regularity conditions. A set of 22 practice problems on applying the Master Theorem to different recurrences is given along with solutions identifying which case applies or that it does not apply.

2_Asymptotic notations.pptx

This document discusses asymptotic notations and rates of growth for algorithms. It introduces the concepts of big-O, Ω, and Θ notations, which provide asymptotic upper bounds, lower bounds, and tight bounds, respectively, for functions describing algorithm running times. These notations allow analysis of algorithms' efficiency as input size increases, ignoring lower-order terms and constant factors. Examples demonstrate how to determine if functions belong to O, Ω, or Θ classes defined by common growth rates like n, n^2, n log n.

Olimpiade matematika di kanada 2017

The document contains the solutions to 5 problems from the 2017 Canadian Mathematical Olympiad. The first problem involves using an inequality to prove that the sum of fractions involving three non-negative real numbers is greater than 2. The second problem relates the number of divisors of a positive integer to a function and proves if the input is prime, the output is also prime. The third problem counts the number of balanced subsets of numbers and proves the count is odd.

Quicksort analysis

Quicksort has a worst case time complexity of O(n^2) when the pivot is always the minimum or maximum element, dividing the array into arrays of size 1 and n-1 on each iteration. The best case of O(n log n) occurs when the pivot evenly divides the array into two halves. On average, quicksort runs in O(n log n) time. Practical implementations avoid the worst case by randomly selecting the pivot or choosing the median element as the pivot on each iteration.

Recurrence relationclass 5

The document discusses recurrence relations and the Master Theorem for solving recurrences that arise from divide-and-conquer algorithms. It introduces recurrence relations and examples. It then explains the substitution method, iteration method, and Master Theorem for solving recurrences. The Master Theorem provides a "cookbook" for determining the running time of a divide-and-conquer algorithm where the problem of size n is divided into a subproblems of size n/b and the cost is f(n). It presents the three cases of the Master Theorem and works through examples of its application.

Master

The document discusses the Master Theorem for solving recurrence relations of the form T(n) = aT(n/b) + f(n). There are 3 cases depending on how f(n) compares to nlogba. 22 practice problems are given to apply the Master Theorem. For each, it is determined whether the Master Theorem can be used to solve the recurrence and express T(n), or if it does not apply.

stochastic processes assignment help

stochastic processes assignment help

Algorithm Design and Complexity - Course 3

Algorithm Design and Complexity - Course 3

Asymptotic notations

Asymptotic notations

lecture 3

lecture 3

T2311 - Ch 4_Part1.pptx

T2311 - Ch 4_Part1.pptx

Find the compact trigonometric Fourier series for the periodic signal.pdf

Find the compact trigonometric Fourier series for the periodic signal.pdf

Copy of y16 02-2119divide-and-conquer

Copy of y16 02-2119divide-and-conquer

CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, NORTHRIDGEMECHANICAL ENGINEERIN.docx

CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, NORTHRIDGEMECHANICAL ENGINEERIN.docx

RECURRENCE EQUATIONS & ANALYZING THEM

RECURRENCE EQUATIONS & ANALYZING THEM

linear transformation and rank nullity theorem

linear transformation and rank nullity theorem

NONLINEAR DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS WITH SMALL PARAMETERS OF MULTIPLE SCALES

NONLINEAR DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS WITH SMALL PARAMETERS OF MULTIPLE SCALES

Daa chapter 2

Daa chapter 2

Asymptotic notation

Asymptotic notation

Weekends with Competitive Programming

Weekends with Competitive Programming

Master theorm practive problems with solutions

Master theorm practive problems with solutions

2_Asymptotic notations.pptx

2_Asymptotic notations.pptx

Olimpiade matematika di kanada 2017

Olimpiade matematika di kanada 2017

Quicksort analysis

Quicksort analysis

Recurrence relationclass 5

Recurrence relationclass 5

Master

Master

Lightning strike is deadly- and it happens due to the fact that Questi.docx

Lightning strike is deadly, and it happens due to the fact that
Question 24 options:
Solution
Lightning happens due to transfer of charges which is gathered on cloud.
So correct answer is option (d)
.

Light travelling through the air (n - 1) strikes the surface of a diam.docx

Light travelling through the air (n = 1) strikes the surface of a diamond (n = 2.42) at a large angle of incidence. Which of the following describes the light ray as it enters the diamond?
a) the light bends toward the normal to the surface, and slows down
b) the light bends toward the normal to the surface, and speeds up
c) the light bends away from the normal to the surface, and slows down
d) the light bends away from the normal to the surface, and speeds up
e) the light ray does not enter the diamond, but totally reflects and stays in the air
Solution
When light is enter into rare medium to denser medium than light rays bends towards the normal.
Light slows as it travels through a substance and every substance has an index of refraction which defined as the ratio of the speed of light in vacuum to the speed of light in that substance. The index of refraction for diamond is 2.4 which means that light is 2.4 times slower in diamond .
Hence Option A is correct.
Hope it will help you. Please rate the answer.
.

Lets say your company doesn-'t want to upgrade from Windows Server 200.docx

Letâ€™s say your company doesn\'t want to upgrade from Windows Server 2008. Just focusing on the Event Viewer and the monitoring tools available in Windows Server 2012, explain to your company that how much better it is with Windows Server 2012.
Solution
With Windows Server 2012 R2 we can scale to run your most important workloads with robust recovery options. Weâ€™ll achieve value quickly with a wide range of cost-effective, high-performance storage options and simplified delivery of multi-tenant IT services. We can build, deploy, operate, and monitor applications on premises and in the cloud. Empower users with secure access to corporate resources on the devices they choose.
Enterprise-class
Improve performance and scale capacity more efficiently to run your largest workloads while enabling robust recovery options to protect against outages.
Simple and cost-effective
Deliver multi-tenant-aware storage and networking multi-tenancy capabilities for storage and networking on low-cost, industry-standard hardware.
Application focused
With enhanced support for open frameworks, we can build, deploy, and scale applications and websites with more flexibility by unlocking application portability between on-premises environments and public and service provider clouds.
User-centric
Deploy a virtual desktop infrastructure and lower storage costs significantly using a broad range of storage options and VHD deduplication.
.

Let-'s shift our focus a little and talk about Telehealth- Using to re.docx

Let\'s shift our focus a little and talk about Telehealth. Using to resources and APA citations: What is it and what are some different career opportunities for nurses using telehealth (e.g., nurse-run call centers for insurance companies). How is privacy maintained?
Solution
Telehealth Technologies -- Offering a wide array of new opportunities for nurses worldwide
The good news about telehealth is that not only can it be of great value to patients in remote locations, it can also help nurses in their everyday practice and provide them with an expanded set of career choices. Telehealth makes it possible to share medical skills, information, and know how; it can also provide nurses -- be they novices, experts, or somewhere in-between -- the opportunity to play an important role in the development, deployment, and utilization of telemedicine and telehealth applications in patient care.
Telehealth technologies allow clinicians to conduct remote physical assessment and consults, as well as capture and store patient information (with a store-and-forward software application) for further evaluation and sharing with a consulting physician or nurse practitioner.
Telehealth/Telemedicine/e-Health - What\'s Important to Know
There are six areas that are important to master in clinical telemedicine.
Resources
Nurses can educate themselves on these areas in several ways, including:
.

Let L(x1- x2- x3- x4- x5- x6- x7) - 2x3 + 3x4 + 8x6 + x7- Is L a linea.docx

Let L(x1; x2; x3; x4; x5; x6; x7) = 2x3 + 3x4 + 8x6 + x7: Is L a linear map?
If it is, find as many independent vectors in Ker(L) as you can.
Solution
L(x1; x2; x3; x4; x5; x6; x7) = 2x3 + 3x4 + 8x6 + x7
Since L satisfies scalar multipication and addition properties, it is a LINEAR map
rank of transformation matrix = 4
=>dimension of kernal = 7-4 = 3
=>maximum number of independent vectors in kernel = 3
=>these vectors are : (1 0 0 0 0 0 0), ( 0 1 0 0 0 0 0) , (0 0 0 0 1 0 0 )
.

Look at the energy curve for butane and oxygen combining to form CO2.docx

Solution
Answer
The reverse reaction cannot occur
Explanation
Reverse reaction is nonspontaneous: True statement because potential energy of CO2 + H2O is lower than Potential energy of Butane +O2
Butane and Oxygen have greater potential energy than CO2 + H2O : True statement
Ther forward spontaneous reaction occurs once the activation energy provided : true statement
The reverse reaction cannot occur : not correct because reverse reaction can be achieved in different path way.
.

List regional priority credits available for Long Island- Do you think.docx

List regional priority credits available for Long Island. Do you think regional difference should be included in sustainable development - if yes, why - if not, why not?
Solution
The following are some of the regional priorties for long islands
1.SGRID3
2.Broad hollow bioscience facility
3.winthrop University Hospital
4.stony brook center for biomedicine
5.business investments
6.ronkonkoma hub
7.wyandanch rising
8.wincoram Commons
9.nassau hub
10.hempstead village
11.meadows at yaphank
12.brookhaven rail terminal
13.sheltair
14.commercial fishing infrastructure improvements
15.STEM(science , technology, engineering, m mathematics education)
Yes because the aim of sustainable development is to define viable schemes combining the economic, social, environment aspects of human activity. these three areas must therefore be taken into consideration by communities companies and individuals
Sustainable development implies the fulfillment of several conditions: preserving the overall Balance, respect for the environment, preventing the exertion of natural resources. reduced production of waste and the rationalitation of production and energy consumption must also be implemented. this development is differece regional difference
.

List the most common arguments and describe the effect of that argumen.docx

List the most common arguments and describe the effect of that argument of the utilities below: 7-zip Gzip Rar Tar Zip
Solution
1) 7-zip : The 7-zip is an open source. it makes easy to obtain and use.
it has main features like high compression ration in 7z format.
-Self extraction capabalities for 7z format.Extra features include password protection as well as adjustable compression levels, compatibility with multiple archive formats.It aslo provides command line and Graphical user interface.
Most common arguments and effects :
Command Line (non-switch)
2) g-zip :it is a compression utility designed to be a replacement for compress.Basically it find matching strings throughout the file and replaces them to reduce the file size.
Most common arguments and effects :
Command-Line :
3) Rar :it is used to compress the media content that has to be shared over the internet.Files can be divided into multriple segments for compression. Further abilities include error recovery. and it supports file spanning.
Most common arguments and effects :
Archive compression Ratio
4) Tar : A TAR file is an archive file that contains one or more files inside. This is often done to ease distribution of a large set of files over the Internet.Â Â Its initial purpose was to backup data to sequential I/O devices.
Cpmmand Line arguments :
5) Zip : it is a popular format widely used in internet. Like other archives Zip files are data containers,they store one or several files in compressed format.
.

Listed below are current asset items for Lester Company at December 31.docx

Listed below are current asset items for Lester Company at December 31, 2013.
Prepare the current assets section of the balance sheet. (List Current Assets in order of liquidity.)
Solution
answer..
.

List some ways in which the privacy threats posed by cyber technology.docx

List some ways in which the privacy threats posed by cyber technology differ from those posed by earlier technologies.
Solution
For the privacy threats posed by cyber technology there are
such as the private sector carries significant responsibility for cyber security.It more like of the information
generated
Threats are moving to the mobile sphere
Recently the International Cyber Security Protection Alliance (ICSPA) released a cyber-crime study that
highlighted mobile communications
Second more important thing is Privacy protection and cyber security should be thought of as interconnected: as more and more personal
information is processed or stored online,
The privacy protection increasingly relies on effective cyber security.
This is implementation by organizations to secure personal data both when it is in transit and at rest
The main reason is the Complexity of the connected environment.Through this environment only the secuirity breaks most of the time se
Data risk is also comes under cyber secuirity risk
For stop this secuirity violation cyber secuirity policy needs to improve by there cloud , server connection, network
.

List three factors that contribute to the severity of acid rock draina.docx

List three factors that contribute to the severity of acid rock drainage at Earth\'s surface, such as from legacy coal mining.
Solution
Acid rock drainage is formed by the natural oxidation of common sulphitde minerals when they are exposed to water & aIR
FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE SEVERITY OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE (ARD)AT EARTH SURFACE ARE
Temperature: Pyrite oxidation occurs most quickly at a temperature around 30Â°C.
Microorganisms present: Some microorganisms are able to accelerate ARD production.
Amount of oxygen present: Sulphide minerals oxidize more quickly where there is more oxygen available. As a result, ARD formation rates are higher where the sulphides are exposed to air than where they are buried under soil or water
.Amount of water available: Cycles of wetting and drying accelerate ARD formation by dissolving and removing oxidation products, leaving a fresh mineral surface for oxidation. In addition, greater volumes of ARD are often produced in wetter areas where there is more water available for reaction.
Type of minerals present: Not all sulphide minerals are oxidized at the same rate, and neutralization by other minerals present may occur, which would slow the production of ARD.
.

List the GL entries (debit and credit) for the following items - list.docx

List the GL entries (debit and credit) for the following items - list debit/credit by date for each date listed.
On January 2, 2015, an agency decides to order $2,000 of office supplies. The agency has made firm orders for specific vendors. The amounts total $2,000. There are no advances. What is the GL entry when the agency signs the order (but has not yet received the supplies),
On February 2, 2015, the agency receives the goods â€“ the goods are considered expenses, and are not considered personal or real property (or inventory). What is the GL entry?
On February 17, 2015, the vendor receives payment for the goods. How did the vendor (likely) receive payment? Who actually paid the vendor, in most cases? What is the GL entry?
Solution
Answer:
2 jan 2015 Office supplies A/C Dr. $2000
To Account Payables A/CÂ Â Â $2000
2 Feb 2015Â Â Office supplies Expense A/C dr.$2000
To office supplies A/CÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â $2000
17 Feb 2015Â Â Â Â Â Accounts Payable A/C Dr. $2000
To cash A/CÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â $ 2000
Vendor receive the payment in cash. Agency actually paid the vendor.
.

list examples of the internet entities( switches- web servers- mail se.docx

list examples of the internet entities( switches, web servers, mail server, users and system) need to communicate securely?
Solution
ARPANET was designed to support the interconnection of networks ( inter-networking ).
Routers connect the various individual networks and links together that make up the Internet.
switch is a computer networking device that connects devices together on a computer network,
firewall is a combination of hardware and software that isolates an organizationâ€™s internal network from the Internet at large, allowing
some packets to pass and block- ing others.
A web server is an information technology that processes requests via HTTP, the basic network protocol used to distribute information on the World Wide Web.
users navigate from one web page to another via hyperlinks embedded in the documents. These documents may also contain any combination of computer data,
1) User end system (customer) and web server (online store) in business transactions
2) User end system (laptop) and a password protected router (Wi-Fi internet) during log on
3) Two web servers (email service) in sending an email
.

List and define the factors that are important to successful implement.docx

List and define the factors that are important to successful implementation efforts.
List and define the factors that are important to successful implementation efforts.
Solution
Q)List and define the factors that are important to successful implementation efforts.
Ans)
Several factors are important to the successful implementation of a system:
including
1. management support,
2. The involvement of users, and
3. User expectations.
Additionally,
4. commitment to the project,
5. commitment to change, and
6. extent of project definition and planning are important.
Commitment to the project refers to managing the project so that the problem being solved is well understood and the target system actually solves the problem.
Commitment to change means being willing to change behaviors and procedures. The premise of project definition and
planning is that more extensive planning is more effective than less extensive planning.
.

List some places that may be using Network Address Translation (NAT) a.docx

List some places that may be using Network Address Translation (NAT) and how do they use it.
Solution
In this way Network Address Translation (NAT) is mainly working through LAN and WirelessLAN to be mapped in a single public IP address. Communicate with multiple devices on network structure is designed for easiest manner. In NAT is network designed for inside and outside network.
NATs are widely used in Wi-Fi zones and UWLAN, WAN technologies and it translate private address and legal address into single layer.
Metropolitan cities are using in this technology because single port but multiple access
Space communication also using NAT, easily packet transmission into two or more communication channels in different categories.
Military service is used in various aspects, message (packet) transfer in one IP address through entire communication channel.
Civil democratic living areas are mobilized in easy to connects and configure their network channels in own arrangements.
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List Five differences in the Format of Foreign vs Domestic Companies Income Statement.
List Five differences in the Format of Foreign vs Domestic Companies Balance Sheet.
Solution
Differences between IFRS and U.S. GAAP Issue IFRS U.S. GAAP Documents included in the financial statements Balance sheet Income statement Changes in equity Cash flow statement Footnotes Balance sheet Income statement Statement of comprehensive income Changes in equity Cash flow statement Footnotes Balance sheet Requires separation of current and noncurrent assets and liabilities Recommends separation of current and noncurrent assets and liabilities Deferred taxes Shown as separate line items on the balance sheet Included with assets and liabilities Minority interests (usually ownership positions by significant but not majority investors) Included in equity as a separate line item Included in liabilities as a separate line item Extraordinary items (events that don
.

List and define the types of System Software- How does System Software.docx

List and define the types of System Software. How does System Software differ from Applications Software?
Solution
Answer for Question:
System Software Definition:
System software is a type of computer program that is designed to run a computer\'s hardware and application programs.
If we think of the computer system as a layered model, the system software is the interface between the hardware and user applications.
Differences Between Application and System Software:
Application Software:
1. Application software is computer software designed to help the user to perform specific tasks.
2. It is specific purpose software.
3. Classification:
Package Program,
Customized Program
4. Application Software performs in a environment which created by System/Operating System
System Software:
1. System software is computer software designed to operate the computer hardware and to provide a platform for running application software.
2. System Software Create his own environment to run itself and run other application.
3. It is general-purpose software.
4. Classification:
Time Sharing,
Resource Sharing,
Client Server
Batch Processing Operating System
Real time Operating System
Multi-processing Operating System
Multi-programming Operating System
Distributed Operating System
.

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List and define the types of System Software. How does System Software differ from Applications Software?
Solution
System software are set of instructions which are used to run computer hardware and applications. It is
like a bridge between hardware and user applications.
System software are of threee types.
1) OPERATING SYSTEM
It is designed to run process and act as a bridge between applications and user.
Different Types are:
* General purpose operating system
* batch processing operating system
* single use operating system
* multi use operating system
* multi programming/multi tasking operating system
* multi thread operating system
* Real time operating system
* Embedded operating system
2) Language translator : which helps to translate high level language to assembly language.
Types are:
* Compiler
* Interpreter
* Assembler
3) Utility software: helps to organize, configure and opttimise the applications in a computer.
Examples are: anti-virus software, back-up software
These all are to give boost to application softwares... using these softwares.. applications run smoothly.
.

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List 6 reasons “WHY” we treat wastewater focused on the different types of contaminants in municipal wastewater.
Solution
Due the fact that waste water is generated with different types contaminents which are composed of salts,ammonia,pathogenic material,pesticides,chemicals such as nitrates,posphorus etc.....................
Most conventional waste water plants are through rivers,lakes and streams all these plants have (National POllutant Discharges Elimination System) NPDES
Different types of pollutants are present in waste water are
1) BOD (Bio Chemical Oxygen Demand)
2) Ph value
3) Total suspended values
4) coliform bacteria
5) metals
6) Total dissolved solids
7) pesticides
8) Pharacetimals
The Different reasons why we treat waste water treatment focused on contaminents are
1) Clean water is critical to plants and animals that live in water and drink water This is important for fishing industries,animal lifes and plants
2) All the water that is diposed into lakes and rivers used in villages for drinking so we should treat the water for removing pollutants
3) Sewage or waste water can be recycled and used for any purpose of usage of water
4) As if we dont properly treat waste water it carries so many harmful bacteria and viruses which may cause danger to health as we play and stay with water for long time (example : oceans,rivers )
5) The chemicals and toxic acids present in water may cause various side effects to species (any species)
6) If water is not teated all the water is sent into oceans and rivers which pollute them and cause effect to aquatic and wild life
7) If the waste water is sent into lakes or ponds all the ground water in that area is polluted
So we should treate waste water depending on the contaminents present in water
.

Linux distributions are becoming more and more user friendly- There is.docx

Linux distributions are becoming more and more user friendly. There is a relatively new distribution called Ubuntu that is extremely easy to install and is very functional.
What additional Linux distributions are currently available, and what are their advantages and/or disadvantages?
Solution
The various linux distributions available are given below:
1) Finnix, its used for system administration and also comes in market with various architectures
2) Raspbian, its a a type of desktop bases distribution, its also known as a very less power computer
3) 64 Studio, its for the production of audio and video on x86 environment.
4) Corel Linux, its also one of the linux distribution.
5) Dream Linux, its one of the old linux distribution
Advantages of Linux Distributions:
1) One of the advantages is that, most of the distributions of the linux are free to use and it also can be installed without license in any numbers of Computers.
2) They are more secure than windows systems, with less virus attacks
3) Opne sources and you can free to do the modifications on it.
4) Various software available to use on these distributions.
5) Robust and fast in execution.
Disadvantages of Linux Distributions:
1) To understand linux distribution, you have to be patience, as its not easy as windows, to get familiar with it.
2) Not have a very strong GUI as windows.
3) Linux distributions also having various compatibility issues with other systems.
4) In terms of various applications, linux distributions are still lagging behind the windows
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Description:
Welcome to the comprehensive guide on Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) concepts, tailored for final year B.Sc. Computer Science students affiliated with Alagappa University. This document covers fundamental principles and advanced topics in RDBMS, offering a structured approach to understanding databases in the context of modern computing. PDF content is prepared from the text book Learn Oracle 8I by JOSE A RAMALHO.
Key Topics Covered:
Main Topic : USERS, Roles and Privileges
In Oracle databases, users are individuals or applications that interact with the database. Each user is assigned specific roles, which are collections of privileges that define their access levels and capabilities. Privileges are permissions granted to users or roles, allowing actions like creating tables, executing procedures, or querying data. Properly managing users, roles, and privileges is essential for maintaining security and ensuring that users have appropriate access to database resources, thus supporting effective data management and integrity within the Oracle environment.
Sub-Topic :
Definition of User, User Creation Commands, Grant Command, Deleting a user, Privileges, System privileges and object privileges, Grant Object Privileges, Viewing a users, Revoke Object Privileges, Creation of Role, Granting privileges and roles to role, View the roles of a user , Deleting a role
Target Audience:
Final year B.Sc. Computer Science students at Alagappa University seeking a solid foundation in RDBMS principles for academic and practical applications.
URL for previous slides
chapter 8,9 and 10 : https://www.slideshare.net/slideshow/lecture_notes_unit4_chapter_8_9_10_rdbms-for-the-students-affiliated-by-alagappa-university/270123800
Chapter 11 Sequence: https://www.slideshare.net/slideshow/sequnces-lecture_notes_unit4_chapter11_sequence/270134792
Chapter 12 View : https://www.slideshare.net/slideshow/rdbms-lecture-notes-unit4-chapter12-view/270199683
About the Author:
Dr. S. Murugan is Associate Professor at Alagappa Government Arts College, Karaikudi. With 23 years of teaching experience in the field of Computer Science, Dr. S. Murugan has a passion for simplifying complex concepts in database management.
Disclaimer:
This document is intended for educational purposes only. The content presented here reflects the author’s understanding in the field of RDBMS as of 2024.

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Codeavour 5.0 International empowered students from 800 schools worldwide to tackle pressing global challenges, from bustling cities to remote villages. With participation exceeding 5,000 students, this year's competition fostered creativity and critical thinking among the next generation of changemakers. Projects ranged from AI-driven healthcare innovations to sustainable agriculture solutions, each addressing local and global issues with technological prowess.
The journey began with a collective vision to harness technology for social good, as students collaborated across continents, guided by mentors and educators dedicated to nurturing their potential. Witnessing the impact firsthand, teams hailing from diverse backgrounds united to code for a better future, demonstrating the power of innovation in driving positive change.
As Codeavour continues to expand its global footprint, it not only celebrates technological innovation but also cultivates a spirit of collaboration and compassion. These young minds are not just coding; they are reshaping our world with creativity and resilience, laying the groundwork for a sustainable and inclusive future. Together, they inspire us to believe in the limitless possibilities of innovation and the profound impact of young voices united by a common goal.
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- 1. Let Ti ( mj , N) the cost to solve a significant problem using the mj method. The average cost: Tavg(N) = (1/n) * sum Ti (mj,N), i =1 to n The cost in the worst case: Tworst (N) = max Ti (mj,N), i =1 to n The cost in the best case: Tbest (N) = min Ti (mj, N), i = 1 to n Obviously Tavg (N) Tworst (N). Similarly, Tavg (N) Tbest (N). Is it possible that Tworst = O ( N^2 log N ) and Tworst = (1) , Tavg = O(N^2) , Tavg = (log N) , Tbest = O ( N log N) and Tbest = ( N)? Give a formal proof it's IMPOSSIBLE , or give Tworst , Tavg Tbest and FUNCTIONS that meet the conditions. Thank you Solution A function T(N) is O(F(N)) if for some constant c and for all values of N greater than some value n0: T(N) <= c * F(N) The idea is that T(N) is the exact complexity of a method or algorithm as a function of the problem size N and that F(N) is an upper-bound on that complexity (i.e., the actual time/space or whatever for a problem of size N will be no worse than F(N)). In practice, we want the smallest F(N) -- the least upper bound on the actual complexity. For example, consider T(N) = 3 * N2 + 5. We can show that T(N) is O(N2) by choosing c = 4 and n0 = 2. This is because for all values of N greater than 2: 3 * N2 + 5 <= 4 * N2 T(N) is not O(N) because whatever constant c and value n0 you choose, I can always find a value of N greater than n0 so that 3 * N2 + 5 is greater than c * N. Im not familiar with this concept so i cant give you the exact answer, i hope you understand and im sorry.