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Lessons from an
ontology nerd
by: Abby The IA
Lessons from an Ontology Nerd
3
Information
Architecture (IA)
is a practice of
making sense
Critical
Components
Of IA*
Ontology:
Do you know what you
mean when you say
what you say?

Ontology

Taxonomy
Choreography

Taxonomy:
Have you provided logical
structures that bring meaning
to what you present?
Choreography:
How is meaning affected across
various channels, over time and
through usage?
*HT	
  @DanKlyn
Ontology

This is a fish.
6
Meaning is subjective
Meaning is socio political
Meaning is psychographic
Meaning gets lost in translation
Meaning is not talked about enough
7
...meaning gets
further complicated at the
intersection of humans &
technology.

8
Good user experience is built on
a foundation of shared meaning

9
5 Lessons in

Ontology
10
Lesson #1

Pay attention
to Taxonomic
Approach

11
There are only 5 ways to
organize anything

*HT	
  Richard	
  Saul	
  Wurman	
  -­‐	
  Informa:on	
  Anxiety	
  2

12
There are only 5 ways to
organize anything
1. Location: Rome is a city in Italy

*HT	
  Richard	
  Saul	
  Wurman	
  -­‐	
  Informa:on	
  Anxiety	
  2

12
There are only 5 ways to
organize anything
1. Location: Rome is a city in Italy
2. Alphabetical: Rome starts with “R”

*HT	
  Richard	
  Saul	
  Wurman	
  -­‐	
  Informa:on	
  Anxiety	
  2

12
There are only 5 ways to
organize anything
1. Location: Rome is a city in Italy
2. Alphabetical: Rome starts with “R”
3. Time: Rome started in 753 BC

*HT	
  Richard	
  Saul	
  Wurman	
  -­‐	
  Informa:on	
  Anxiety	
  2

12
There are only 5 ways to
organize anything
1. Location: Rome is a city in Italy
2. Alphabetical: Rome starts with “R”
3. Time: Rome started in 753 BC
4. Category: Rome is a Romantic city

*HT	
  Richard	
  Saul	
  Wurman	
  -­‐	
  Informa:on	
  Anxiety	
  2

12
There are only 5 ways to
organize anything
1. Location: Rome is a city in Italy
2. Alphabetical: Rome starts with “R”
3. Time: Rome started in 753 BC
4. Category: Rome is a Romantic city
5. Hierarchy: Rome is within Italy, which
is within Europe, which is within the
Eastern and Northern Hemisphere

*HT	
  Richard	
  Saul	
  Wurman	
  -­‐	
  Informa:on	
  Anxiety	
  2

12
20 ways to organize a box of vegetables
1.! By cost at the grocery in the USA (Location)
2.! By cost at the grocery in the UK (Location)
3.! By countries it is eaten in (Location)
4.! By first letter scientific names (Alphabetical)
5.! By first letter popular names (Alphabetical)
6.! By first letter cultural names (Alphabetical)
7.! By seasonality of harvest (Time)
8.! By length of season (Time)
9.! By cooking time (Time)
10.! By popularity today (Time)
11.! By popularity 100 years ago (Time)
12.! By color (Category)
13.! By taste (Category)
14.! By texture (Category)
15.! By size (Category)
16.! By growing difficulty (Hierarchy)
17.! By climate (Hierarchy)
18.! By type (Hierarchy)
19.! By soil type (Hierarchy)
20.! By best storing technique (Hierarchy)

13
Taxonomy is Rhetoric
The way you choose to organize
your vegetables says something
about what kind of store you are

14
“It takes knowledge to know that a
tomato is a fruit, and wisdom not
to put it in a fruit salad.”
– Miles Kington

15
Mental
Models
Matter
A mental model is an explanation
for the way someone makes sense
of something.
These models of perception shape
our behavior and how we relate to
information that we encounter.
16
Lesson #2

Avoid Poly-hierarchical

overload

17
The more tomato-like objects,
the less effective the taxonomy
More

Usefulness of Taxonomy
Less

“If everything is a
vegetable, nothing
is a vegetable.”

Instances of Polyhierarchy

More

18
Lesson #3

Cultural
meaning
matters
19
Which is a
wedding?
Which is a
funeral?
20
21
22
23
In America, when
we say flapjack,
we mean this....

24
One word, many meanings
25
Lexicography vs Ontology
• Lexicography is the practice of compiling
dictionaries. Lexicographers collect different
meanings for words
• Ontology represents the knowledge of terms
and concepts within a domain

26
Lesson #4

Reading Level
Matters

•
•
•
•

Words per sentence
Average grade level of words
Characters per word
Use of organizational devices
27
28
Really?

28
29
30
31
32
Lesson #5

Watch out for
Accidental Synonyms
User

Customer

Consumer

Member

33
Customers?
Consumers?
Users?
Customers?
Consumers?
Users?
.net

.COM

User

Customer
Retailer

Consumer

36
.net

.COM

User

Customer
Retailer

Consumer

Accidental synonym alert!

37
.net

.COM

User

Retailer

Consumer

Something
had to
change
38
Tools to
Wrangle Meaning

39
Card Sorting
Alien Dictionary

41
Synonym Rings

tranche de
Pizza

fetta di
Pizza

Pied de
Pizza

Slice of
Pizza

Piece of
Pizza

Pizza
Pie

Piede di
Pizza

Pizza

42
h,p://6thfloor.blogs.ny;mes.com/2011/05/20/words-­‐we-­‐dont-­‐say/
43
Controlled Vocabularies
• A controlled vocabulary is a list of approved terms and definitions for a
particular context and/or setting
• Frameworks like this can help teams to decide on things like:
•

Variant Spellings (i.e. American vs. British)

•

Scientific vs. Popular Term Use (i.e. Cockroaches vs. Periplaneta Americana)

•

Acceptable Synonyms (i.e. Automobile vs. Car)

•

Acceptable Acronyms (i.e. GE vs. General Electric)

•

Business vs. User Terms (i.e. What we say in meetings vs. what we say to customers)

•

Identification of homographs (i.e. the word “pool” can relate to “swimming pool” or “shooting”)

44
If you forget
everything
else....
Lessons from an ontology nerd

1.Carefully consider Taxonomic Approach
2.Avoid Poly-hierarchical Overload
3.Research Culture & Location
4.Play to Grade & Reading Level
5.Avoid Accidental Synonyms

46
Know what you
mean when you
say what you say

47
Thanks
(deck will be at: slideshare.com/abbycovert shortly)

@Abby_The_IA | AbbytheIA.com

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Lessons from an Ontology Nerd