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LESS IS MORE 
AASHNA ARORA ARUNIMA GANGULI NIKITA BANSAL TANVI GUPTA I I I-A
GENERAL MEANING 
LESS COMPLICATED IS BETTER UNDERSTOOD AND MORE 
APPRECIATED THAN WHAT IS MORE COMPLICATED. 
SIMPLICITY IS PREFERABLE TO COMPLEXITY. 
ARCHITECTURAL MEANING 
BUILDING SHOULD BE STRIPPED OF ANY EXTRAS AND 
CONSTRUCTED ON ESSENTIALS OF CLARITY, UTILITY AND EFFECT. 
•TO BASE THE ARCHITECTURAL 
EXPRESSION ON ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS 
OF A STRUCTURE. 
•LIKE FOR VAN DER ROHE THE 
ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS WERE THE 
CLADDING AND STEEL FRAME WHICH 
HE CALLED THE SKIN AND BONES OF A 
STRUCTURE. 
•ELIMINATE VISUAL CLUTTER. 
•THIS WAS DONE BY SUPPRESSING THE 
SECONDARY ELEMENTS LIKE …..OF A 
BUILDINGS AND THERBY HEIGHTEN 
THE VISUAL IMPACT OF A SPACE OR 
VIEW. 
FAMOUS ARCHITECT MIES VAN DER ROHE USED THIS PHRASE 
TO DESCRIBE HOW HE THOUGHT BUILDINGS SHOULD BE CONSTRUCTED. 
INSPIRATIONS- THE PRUSSIAN ARCHITECT KARL FRIEDRICH SCHINKEL, USE 
OF POST AND LINTEL CONSTRUCTION,DUTCH DE STIJL PHILOSPHY OF 
SIMPLICITY IN 
ARCHITECTURE AND RUSSIAN CONSTRUCTIVISM TO BENEFIT SOCITY. 
AIMS-ESTABILISHMENT OF A NEW ARCHITECTURAL STYLE FOR MODERN 
TIMES AND ARCHITECTURE WITH A MINIMAL FRAMEWORK OF 
STRUCTURAL ORDER BALANCED AGAINST THE IMPLIED FREEDOM OF FREE 
FLOWING OPEN SPACES 
SOURCES 
•SIMPLE VOLUMES 
• BALANCE BETWEEN EMPTY AND 
FILLED SPACE. 
SHIMADA HOUSE DESIGNED 
BY A.L.X TOKYO 
GARDEN AND SEA WEEK-END HOUSE 
DESIGNED BY TAKAO SHIOTSUKA 
DANCING LIVING HOUSE DESIGNED 
BY A.L.X ARCHITECT 
DINING AREA WITH MINIMUM 
DESIGN ELEMENTS 
A LOFT IN NEW YORK DESIGNED BY 
ARCHITECT CLAUDIO SILVESTRIN. ABSTRACT 
OR MINIMALIST. LIGHT, GEOMETRICAL 
FORMS AND NATURAL MATERIAL ARE KEY 
POINTS IN HIS STYLE . 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludwig_Mies_van_der_Rohe 
http://new-design-times.com/article/articleC47.php?ID=47
BARCELONA PAVILION:1928-29 
PURE AND OPEN 
SKIN AND BONES" 
ARCHITECTURE 
ELEMENTS OF DESIGN 
BY MIES VANDER ROHE 
CLARITY AND 
SIMPLICITY 
U SHAPED ENCLOSURE SERVE AS WATER BASIN AND CONNECTS 
INSIDE AND OUTSIDE. ONE OF THE ENCLOSURE HAS WORLD 
FAMOUS STATUE 
http://architecture.about.com/od/architectsaz/p/vanderrohe.htm 
FUNCTION 
INDUSTRIAL STEEL 
AND PLATE GLASS 
FREE-FLOWING 
OPEN SPACE 
http://www.jasonmkelly.com/2013/09/30/mies-van-der-rohe-barcelona-pavilion/ 
•DESIGNED FOR INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION IN 1929. 
•WAS DESTROYED IN 1930 AND REBUILT IN 1986. 
•“VOICE TO THE SPIRIT OF A NEW ERA.” 
•MEANT TO REPRESENT A NEW, MODERN, AND INTERNATIONAL GERMANY. 
•CLARITY, SIMPLICITY AND HONESTY.” 
•CONCEPT-FREE PALN AND FLOATING ROOF 
A SEQUENCE OF MARBLE AND GLASS 
WALLS,SUPPLEMENTED BY CHROMED 
COLUMNS, 
SUPPORT A FLAT ROOF, WHICH SEEMS 
TO 
FLOAT ABOVE THE SPACE. 
SIMPLICITY OF CONSTRUCTION, CLARITY 
OF TECTONIC MEANS, AND PURITY 
OF MATERIALS HAVE ABOUT THEM T 
HE GLOW OF PRISTINE BEAUTY 
ONLY A GLASS SKIN AND GLASS WALLS CAN 
REVEAL THE SIMPLE STRUCTURAL FORM OF 
THE SKELETAL FAME AND ENSURE ITS 
ARCHITECTONIC POSSIBILITIES 
REFLECTIVE COLUMNS APPEAR TO BE 
STRUGGLING TO HOLD THE "FLOATING" 
ROOF PLANE DOWN, NOT 
TO BE BEARING ITS WEIGHT 
WALL SURFACES DISPLACED 
AGAINST EACH OTHER, RUNNING 
PAST EACH OTHERS CONTINOUS 
TURNABOUTS FOR VISITORS 
SIMPLE RECTANGULAR 
FLOOR PLAN WITH TRAVERTINE 
PLINTH 
SOURCES 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barcelona_Pavilion#Concept
1950:FARNSWORTH HOUSE, PLANO, ILLINOIS 
A WEEKEND RETREAT OUTSIDE CHICAGO FOR AN INDEPENDENT 
PROFESSIONAL WOMAN - DR. EDITH FARNSWORTH. BUILT BETWEEN 
1946 AND 1951. 
AREA- 1,500-square-foot (140 m2) 
A CENTRAL WOOD CORE CONTAINS SANITARY 
FACILITIES AND CREATES A SEPARATION 
BETWEEN THE KITCHEN,TWO BEDROOMS AND 
THE LIVING ROOM. 
THE PLATFORM IS NOT THE FOCAL POINT; 
IT IS THE EMPTINESS AND BEAMS WORK 
LIKE SCREEN TO SURROUND SPACE OF 
HOUSE. 
STEEL, LAMINATED GLASS PLATES 
AND ROMAN TRAVERTIINE ON 
FLOOR 
AND DECK 
THE DOMESTIC PLUMBING ELEMENTS 
AND ALSO THE RAINWATER RUN-OFF 
SPILL INTO A CENTRAL CIRCLUAR 
CHEST 
THE SEPARATION OF THE HOUSE FROM THE 
LAND ON WHICH IT SITS BY PILLARS HAS BEEN 
ASSOCIATED WITH AN IDEA OF PURITY, VERY 
TRADITIONAL JAPANESE ARCHITECTURE 
GLAZING OF THE WALLS OF THE HOUSE 
ALLOWS ONE TO PERCEIVE THE LANDSCAPE 
IN WHICH IT IS INSERTED, BUIILDING AS PART 
OF NATURE 
. 
IT HAS ALREADY BEEN INDICATED 
THAT IT LACKS AIR CONDITIONING 
AND THUS IN THE WARM 
SEASONS, PRODUCES 
GREENHOUSE EFFECT. 
NO NATURAL VENTILATION 
FOR CORE AREA
SEAGRAM BUILDING, 
•THE BUILDING STANDS 515 FEET (157 M) TALL WITH 38 
STORIES, 
•COMPLETED IN 1958. 
•IT STANDS AS ONE OF THE FINEST EXAMPLES OF 
THE FUNCTIONALIST AESTHETIC AND A MASTERPIECE OF 
CORPORATE MODERNISM. 
•IT WAS DESIGNED AS THE HEADQUARTERS FOR THE 
CANADIAN DISTILLERS JOSEPH E. SEAGRAM'S & SONS. 
MATERIALS 
•CURTAIN WALL OF GLASS AND BRONZE IN THE FRONT DUE TO 
THE FIRE LAW IN FORCE IN 1954, AT THE TIME OF CONCRETE 
CONSTRUCTION WAS USED AS A STRUCTURAL MATERIAL, BOTH 
OUTSIDE AND INSIDE. 
•IT IS A RECTANGULAR BUILDING 
SUPPORTED ON PILES 
BLINDS 
IT WAS EVIDENT THAT A BUILDING OF SUCH 
HEIGHT WOULD HAVE A HUGE AREA OF BLINDS, 
WHOSE USERS TEND TO UPLOAD OR 
DOWNLOAD THEM AS THEY LIKED. 
•ELEVATION OF THE 
BUILDING ACHIEVES 
ITS EXPRESSIVE 
PERFECTION,AND IS 
VERTICALLY 
EMPHASIZED.. 
SOURCES- www.wikipedia/seagram.org 
www.archdaily.com 
MAIN BUILDING 
PLAZA 
THE OFFICE SPACES ABOVE THE LOBBY, 
FURNISHED BY PHILIP JOHNSON, HAVE 
FLEXIBLE FLOOR PLANS LIT WITH 
LUMINOUS CEILING PANELS. 
THESE FLOORS ALSO GET MAXIMUM 
NATURAL LIGHTING WITH THE EXTERIOR 
BEING GLASS PANES OF GRAY TOPAZ THAT 
PROVIDE FLOOR-TO-CEILING WINDOWS 
FOR THE OFFICE SPACES.
1951: LAKE SHORE DRIVE APARTMENTS, CHICAGO 
• 860–880 LAKE SHORE DRIVE IS A TWIN PAIR OF GLASS-AND-STEEL APARTMENT TOWERS ON N. LAKE SHORE 
DRIVE ALONG LAKE MICHIGAN IN THE STREETERVILLE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF CHICAGO, ILLINOIS. 
• CONSTRUCTION BEGAN IN 1949 AND THE PROJECT WAS COMPLETED IN 1951. 
• THE 26 FLOOR, 254 FT (82 M) TALL TOWERS WERE DUBBED AS THE "GLASS HOUSE" APARTMENTS. 
• THE TOWERS WERE NOT ENTIRELY ADMIRED AT THE TIME THEY WERE BUILT, YET THEY WENT ON TO BE THE 
PROTOTYPE FOR STEEL AND GLASS SKYSCRAPERS WORLDWIDE. 
APARTMENTS EMBODY A MODERNISTIC TONE 
WITH THEIR VERTICALITY, GRIDS OF STEEL AND 
GLASS CURTAIN WALLS (A HALLMARK OF MIES’ 
SKYSCRAPERS), AND COMPLETE LACK 
OF ORNAMENTATION INDICATING MIES’ MOTTO 
OF “LESS IS MORE”. 
NO NATURAL LIGHT 
AND VENTILATION HAS BEEN 
PROVIDED TO CORE AREAS 
THE MULLIONS ON BUILDING 
REFLECT THE INNER 
STRUCTURE AND GIVE 
TRUTH TO THE AESTHETIC OF 
THE BUILDING. 
SOURCES –www.wikipedia.lakeshore/com 
www.mies.buildings/lakeshore.org 
LARGE LIVING AREAS
ASSOCIATED STYLES 
ARCHITECTURAL STYLES FOLLOWED ALONG THE LINES OF LESS IS MORE 
INTERNATIONAL STYLE 
THE MOST COMMON CHARACTERISTICS OF 
INTERNATIONAL STYLE BUILDINGS ARE SAID TO BE – 
o RECTILINEAR FORMS 
o LIGHT, TAUT PLANE SURFACES THAT HAVE BEEN 
COMPLETELY STRIPPED OF APPLIED ORNAMENTATION AND 
DECORATION. 
o OPEN INTERIOR SPACES. 
o A VISUALLY WEIGHTLESS QUALITY ENGENDERED BY THE USE 
OF CANTILEVER CONSTRUCTION. 
o GLASS AND STEEL, IN COMBINATION WITH USUALLY LESS 
VISIBLE REINFORCED CONCRETE, ARE THE CHARACTERISTIC 
MATERIALS OF THE CONSTRUCTION. 
THE TRANSPARENCY OF BUILDINGS, CONSTRUCTION (CALLED THE 
HONEST EXPRESSION OF STRUCTURE), AND ACCEPTANCE OF 
INDUSTRIALIZED MASS-PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES CONTRIBUTED 
TO THE INTERNATIONAL STYLE'S DESIGN PHILOSOPHY. 
TOWER C OF PLACE DE VILLE 
OTTAWA , CANADA 
Seagram Building 
New York City 
Major Contributors to the International Style 
o WALTER GROPIUS 
o LOUIS KAHN 
o LE CORBUSIER 
o LUDWIG MIES VAN DER 
ROHE 
o I.M. PEI 
o LLOYD WRIGHT 
VILLA SAVOYE-- LE CORBUSIER 
Bauhaus -Walter 
Gropius 
PERISTEIN HALL 
ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF 
TECHNOLOGY 
LUDWIG MIES VAN DER ROHE

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LESS IS MORE(MIES VAN DER ROHE)

  • 1. T H E O R Y O F A R C H I T E C T U R E LESS IS MORE AASHNA ARORA ARUNIMA GANGULI NIKITA BANSAL TANVI GUPTA I I I-A
  • 2. GENERAL MEANING LESS COMPLICATED IS BETTER UNDERSTOOD AND MORE APPRECIATED THAN WHAT IS MORE COMPLICATED. SIMPLICITY IS PREFERABLE TO COMPLEXITY. ARCHITECTURAL MEANING BUILDING SHOULD BE STRIPPED OF ANY EXTRAS AND CONSTRUCTED ON ESSENTIALS OF CLARITY, UTILITY AND EFFECT. •TO BASE THE ARCHITECTURAL EXPRESSION ON ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF A STRUCTURE. •LIKE FOR VAN DER ROHE THE ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS WERE THE CLADDING AND STEEL FRAME WHICH HE CALLED THE SKIN AND BONES OF A STRUCTURE. •ELIMINATE VISUAL CLUTTER. •THIS WAS DONE BY SUPPRESSING THE SECONDARY ELEMENTS LIKE …..OF A BUILDINGS AND THERBY HEIGHTEN THE VISUAL IMPACT OF A SPACE OR VIEW. FAMOUS ARCHITECT MIES VAN DER ROHE USED THIS PHRASE TO DESCRIBE HOW HE THOUGHT BUILDINGS SHOULD BE CONSTRUCTED. INSPIRATIONS- THE PRUSSIAN ARCHITECT KARL FRIEDRICH SCHINKEL, USE OF POST AND LINTEL CONSTRUCTION,DUTCH DE STIJL PHILOSPHY OF SIMPLICITY IN ARCHITECTURE AND RUSSIAN CONSTRUCTIVISM TO BENEFIT SOCITY. AIMS-ESTABILISHMENT OF A NEW ARCHITECTURAL STYLE FOR MODERN TIMES AND ARCHITECTURE WITH A MINIMAL FRAMEWORK OF STRUCTURAL ORDER BALANCED AGAINST THE IMPLIED FREEDOM OF FREE FLOWING OPEN SPACES SOURCES •SIMPLE VOLUMES • BALANCE BETWEEN EMPTY AND FILLED SPACE. SHIMADA HOUSE DESIGNED BY A.L.X TOKYO GARDEN AND SEA WEEK-END HOUSE DESIGNED BY TAKAO SHIOTSUKA DANCING LIVING HOUSE DESIGNED BY A.L.X ARCHITECT DINING AREA WITH MINIMUM DESIGN ELEMENTS A LOFT IN NEW YORK DESIGNED BY ARCHITECT CLAUDIO SILVESTRIN. ABSTRACT OR MINIMALIST. LIGHT, GEOMETRICAL FORMS AND NATURAL MATERIAL ARE KEY POINTS IN HIS STYLE . http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludwig_Mies_van_der_Rohe http://new-design-times.com/article/articleC47.php?ID=47
  • 3. BARCELONA PAVILION:1928-29 PURE AND OPEN SKIN AND BONES" ARCHITECTURE ELEMENTS OF DESIGN BY MIES VANDER ROHE CLARITY AND SIMPLICITY U SHAPED ENCLOSURE SERVE AS WATER BASIN AND CONNECTS INSIDE AND OUTSIDE. ONE OF THE ENCLOSURE HAS WORLD FAMOUS STATUE http://architecture.about.com/od/architectsaz/p/vanderrohe.htm FUNCTION INDUSTRIAL STEEL AND PLATE GLASS FREE-FLOWING OPEN SPACE http://www.jasonmkelly.com/2013/09/30/mies-van-der-rohe-barcelona-pavilion/ •DESIGNED FOR INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION IN 1929. •WAS DESTROYED IN 1930 AND REBUILT IN 1986. •“VOICE TO THE SPIRIT OF A NEW ERA.” •MEANT TO REPRESENT A NEW, MODERN, AND INTERNATIONAL GERMANY. •CLARITY, SIMPLICITY AND HONESTY.” •CONCEPT-FREE PALN AND FLOATING ROOF A SEQUENCE OF MARBLE AND GLASS WALLS,SUPPLEMENTED BY CHROMED COLUMNS, SUPPORT A FLAT ROOF, WHICH SEEMS TO FLOAT ABOVE THE SPACE. SIMPLICITY OF CONSTRUCTION, CLARITY OF TECTONIC MEANS, AND PURITY OF MATERIALS HAVE ABOUT THEM T HE GLOW OF PRISTINE BEAUTY ONLY A GLASS SKIN AND GLASS WALLS CAN REVEAL THE SIMPLE STRUCTURAL FORM OF THE SKELETAL FAME AND ENSURE ITS ARCHITECTONIC POSSIBILITIES REFLECTIVE COLUMNS APPEAR TO BE STRUGGLING TO HOLD THE "FLOATING" ROOF PLANE DOWN, NOT TO BE BEARING ITS WEIGHT WALL SURFACES DISPLACED AGAINST EACH OTHER, RUNNING PAST EACH OTHERS CONTINOUS TURNABOUTS FOR VISITORS SIMPLE RECTANGULAR FLOOR PLAN WITH TRAVERTINE PLINTH SOURCES http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barcelona_Pavilion#Concept
  • 4. 1950:FARNSWORTH HOUSE, PLANO, ILLINOIS A WEEKEND RETREAT OUTSIDE CHICAGO FOR AN INDEPENDENT PROFESSIONAL WOMAN - DR. EDITH FARNSWORTH. BUILT BETWEEN 1946 AND 1951. AREA- 1,500-square-foot (140 m2) A CENTRAL WOOD CORE CONTAINS SANITARY FACILITIES AND CREATES A SEPARATION BETWEEN THE KITCHEN,TWO BEDROOMS AND THE LIVING ROOM. THE PLATFORM IS NOT THE FOCAL POINT; IT IS THE EMPTINESS AND BEAMS WORK LIKE SCREEN TO SURROUND SPACE OF HOUSE. STEEL, LAMINATED GLASS PLATES AND ROMAN TRAVERTIINE ON FLOOR AND DECK THE DOMESTIC PLUMBING ELEMENTS AND ALSO THE RAINWATER RUN-OFF SPILL INTO A CENTRAL CIRCLUAR CHEST THE SEPARATION OF THE HOUSE FROM THE LAND ON WHICH IT SITS BY PILLARS HAS BEEN ASSOCIATED WITH AN IDEA OF PURITY, VERY TRADITIONAL JAPANESE ARCHITECTURE GLAZING OF THE WALLS OF THE HOUSE ALLOWS ONE TO PERCEIVE THE LANDSCAPE IN WHICH IT IS INSERTED, BUIILDING AS PART OF NATURE . IT HAS ALREADY BEEN INDICATED THAT IT LACKS AIR CONDITIONING AND THUS IN THE WARM SEASONS, PRODUCES GREENHOUSE EFFECT. NO NATURAL VENTILATION FOR CORE AREA
  • 5. SEAGRAM BUILDING, •THE BUILDING STANDS 515 FEET (157 M) TALL WITH 38 STORIES, •COMPLETED IN 1958. •IT STANDS AS ONE OF THE FINEST EXAMPLES OF THE FUNCTIONALIST AESTHETIC AND A MASTERPIECE OF CORPORATE MODERNISM. •IT WAS DESIGNED AS THE HEADQUARTERS FOR THE CANADIAN DISTILLERS JOSEPH E. SEAGRAM'S & SONS. MATERIALS •CURTAIN WALL OF GLASS AND BRONZE IN THE FRONT DUE TO THE FIRE LAW IN FORCE IN 1954, AT THE TIME OF CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION WAS USED AS A STRUCTURAL MATERIAL, BOTH OUTSIDE AND INSIDE. •IT IS A RECTANGULAR BUILDING SUPPORTED ON PILES BLINDS IT WAS EVIDENT THAT A BUILDING OF SUCH HEIGHT WOULD HAVE A HUGE AREA OF BLINDS, WHOSE USERS TEND TO UPLOAD OR DOWNLOAD THEM AS THEY LIKED. •ELEVATION OF THE BUILDING ACHIEVES ITS EXPRESSIVE PERFECTION,AND IS VERTICALLY EMPHASIZED.. SOURCES- www.wikipedia/seagram.org www.archdaily.com MAIN BUILDING PLAZA THE OFFICE SPACES ABOVE THE LOBBY, FURNISHED BY PHILIP JOHNSON, HAVE FLEXIBLE FLOOR PLANS LIT WITH LUMINOUS CEILING PANELS. THESE FLOORS ALSO GET MAXIMUM NATURAL LIGHTING WITH THE EXTERIOR BEING GLASS PANES OF GRAY TOPAZ THAT PROVIDE FLOOR-TO-CEILING WINDOWS FOR THE OFFICE SPACES.
  • 6. 1951: LAKE SHORE DRIVE APARTMENTS, CHICAGO • 860–880 LAKE SHORE DRIVE IS A TWIN PAIR OF GLASS-AND-STEEL APARTMENT TOWERS ON N. LAKE SHORE DRIVE ALONG LAKE MICHIGAN IN THE STREETERVILLE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF CHICAGO, ILLINOIS. • CONSTRUCTION BEGAN IN 1949 AND THE PROJECT WAS COMPLETED IN 1951. • THE 26 FLOOR, 254 FT (82 M) TALL TOWERS WERE DUBBED AS THE "GLASS HOUSE" APARTMENTS. • THE TOWERS WERE NOT ENTIRELY ADMIRED AT THE TIME THEY WERE BUILT, YET THEY WENT ON TO BE THE PROTOTYPE FOR STEEL AND GLASS SKYSCRAPERS WORLDWIDE. APARTMENTS EMBODY A MODERNISTIC TONE WITH THEIR VERTICALITY, GRIDS OF STEEL AND GLASS CURTAIN WALLS (A HALLMARK OF MIES’ SKYSCRAPERS), AND COMPLETE LACK OF ORNAMENTATION INDICATING MIES’ MOTTO OF “LESS IS MORE”. NO NATURAL LIGHT AND VENTILATION HAS BEEN PROVIDED TO CORE AREAS THE MULLIONS ON BUILDING REFLECT THE INNER STRUCTURE AND GIVE TRUTH TO THE AESTHETIC OF THE BUILDING. SOURCES –www.wikipedia.lakeshore/com www.mies.buildings/lakeshore.org LARGE LIVING AREAS
  • 7. ASSOCIATED STYLES ARCHITECTURAL STYLES FOLLOWED ALONG THE LINES OF LESS IS MORE INTERNATIONAL STYLE THE MOST COMMON CHARACTERISTICS OF INTERNATIONAL STYLE BUILDINGS ARE SAID TO BE – o RECTILINEAR FORMS o LIGHT, TAUT PLANE SURFACES THAT HAVE BEEN COMPLETELY STRIPPED OF APPLIED ORNAMENTATION AND DECORATION. o OPEN INTERIOR SPACES. o A VISUALLY WEIGHTLESS QUALITY ENGENDERED BY THE USE OF CANTILEVER CONSTRUCTION. o GLASS AND STEEL, IN COMBINATION WITH USUALLY LESS VISIBLE REINFORCED CONCRETE, ARE THE CHARACTERISTIC MATERIALS OF THE CONSTRUCTION. THE TRANSPARENCY OF BUILDINGS, CONSTRUCTION (CALLED THE HONEST EXPRESSION OF STRUCTURE), AND ACCEPTANCE OF INDUSTRIALIZED MASS-PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES CONTRIBUTED TO THE INTERNATIONAL STYLE'S DESIGN PHILOSOPHY. TOWER C OF PLACE DE VILLE OTTAWA , CANADA Seagram Building New York City Major Contributors to the International Style o WALTER GROPIUS o LOUIS KAHN o LE CORBUSIER o LUDWIG MIES VAN DER ROHE o I.M. PEI o LLOYD WRIGHT VILLA SAVOYE-- LE CORBUSIER Bauhaus -Walter Gropius PERISTEIN HALL ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY LUDWIG MIES VAN DER ROHE