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Pirjo Mattila, Juha-Matti Pihlava, Jarkko
Hellström, Merja Eurola, Sari Mäkinen,
Taina Jalava, Anne Pihlanto
Legumes, oil crops and pseudocereals are good
sources of nutrients and phytochemicals
• Quinoa, lupin, faba bean, flaxseed, buckwheat, oil hemp
seed ja rapeseed press cake
• All samples were commercial and most of them were
domestic
• All samples were purchased as whole seeds/beans or as
whole seed flour
• Some samples were peeled and also peels were studied
(quinoa, hemp, buckwheat)
Samples
23-Jan-19
Novel protein sources for food security (ScenoProt)
2
Analyses
• Nutrients:
 Protein, amino acids, fiber, sugars, minerals
• Phytochemicals and antinutrients
 Phenolics, condenced tannins, phytic acid, protease
inhibitor activity and typical phytochemicals for each
plants
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Protein
Fiber
23-Jan-19
Novel protein sources for food security (ScenoProt)
3
Protein in dried
meat
ca 70-75 g/100 g
Protein vs fiber (g/100 g)
Sugars (g/100 g)
23-Jan-19
Novel protein sources for food security (ScenoProt)
4
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Raffinose
Saccharose
Glucose
Fructose
• The proteins contain 20 different amino acids
– 11 can be constructed in the body from
carbon and nitrogen-containing compounds
or form the essential amino acids.
– The rest (essential amino acids) can not be
constructed in the body and they must be
obtained form the food
• Essential amino acids include histidine
(growing children), isoleucine, leucine, lysine,
methionine, phenylalanine, threonine,
tryptophan, valine, (cysteine and tyrosine)
Amino acids
23-Jan-19
Novel protein sources for food security (ScenoProt)
5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
AA tot
EAA tot
Essential and total amino acids (g/100 g)
23-Jan-19
Novel protein sources for food security (ScenoProt)
6
Essential and total amino acids (g/16g N)
23-Jan-19
Novel protein sources for food security (ScenoProt)
7
Flaxseed Oil hemp Rapeseed Buchwheat
bran
Quinoa Fava
bean
Lupin
(Sonet)
Lupin
(Haags)
Comparat
ive value*
Total
EAA
36,9 32,7 40,9 38,6 37,0 39,0 35,2 35,5 >36
Met+Cys 3.82 3.59 3.98 4.52 4.43 2.07 2.16 2.21 3.5-5.7
Phe+Tyr 7.57 6.98 7.68 7.51 7.08 7.92 7.63 7.60 6.0-9.3
PER 1.98 1.83 2.51 2.08 1.96 2.55 2.24 2.26 2.7
*(casein)
*FAO/WHO/UNU, 1985; FAO/ WHO, 1991
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Flaxseed, whole Oil hemp seed,
whole
Rapeseed press
cake
Buckwheat bran Quinoa, whole
organic
Fava bean,
whole
Lupin, Sonet,
whole
Lupin, Haags
blaue, whole
AA tot g/16 gN EAA tot g/16 gN
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
Sulfur
Phosphorus
Magnesium
Potassium
Calcium
Minerals (g/100 g)
23-Jan-19
Novel protein sources for food security (ScenoProt)
8
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Cadmium
Zink
Manganese
Iron
Copper
Trace elements (mg/100 g)
23-Jan-19
Novel protein sources for food security (ScenoProt)
9
Total phenolics
23-Jan-19
Novel protein sources for food security (ScenoProt)
10
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
Folin-Ciocalteu (GAE
mg/100 g)
Fast Blue BB (GAE
mg/100 g)
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
Condenced tannins (mg/100 g)
23-Jan-19
Novel protein sources for food security (ScenoProt)
11
Phytic acid g/100 g DW
23-Jan-19
Novel protein sources for food security (ScenoProt)
12
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
Protease inhibitor activity against trypsin (A) and α-
chymotrypsin (B).
23-Jan-19
Novel protein sources for food security (ScenoProt)
13
Protease inhibitor activity was
measured by using labelled peptide
substrate together with inhibitor (A or B)
Substrate cleavage was recorded as a
function of time and curve slope was
calculated.
80 μg (blue bar) or 160 μg (pink bar) of
protein from plant seed protein isolate
was used for the assay.
Lower slope value indicated higher
protease inhibitory activity.
• Plenty of proteins and EAA, faba bean is rich in lysine
• They lack of sulfur-containing amino acids, lupin lacks also valine
• Plenty of fiber (especially lupin)
• Good sources of many minerals
• B-group vitamins, phenolics, tocopherols, carotenoids,
plant sterols
• Faba bean is rich in condenced tannins, no condenced
tannins were found in lupin
• Peeling of faba bean reduces the concentration of
tannins and fiber
• Faba bean contains antinutrients such as visine and convisine (0.77 ± 0.11
and 0.42 ± 0.02 g/100 g DW)
• Faba bean contains toxic lectins (must be heated), lupin needs not heating
• Lupin had not protease inhibitor activity, faba bean inhibited trypsin strongly
• Both plants may have many health effects
Legumes: faba bean, lupin
23-Jan-19
Novel protein sources for food security (ScenoProt)
14
Picture: Luke
• Good amino acid profile
• Peel of the seed contains more protein and minerals than the inner part
• Fiber contents of buckwheat are similar in the inner part and peel while
pearling of quinoa reduces the content of fiber ca. 40%
• Both are rich in total phenolics, they contain flavonoids (quinoa very much),
condensed tannins, phenolic acids
• Especially quinoa is good source of riboflavin, thiamine, folates, vitamin B6
and Vitamin E
• Buckwheat caused strongest protease inhibition activity among the tested
samples while quinoa had only slight activity
• Quinoa contains toxic and stomach-irritating saponins that need to be
removed by washing or pearling
• Buckwheat may have hypoglycemic properties in diabetics, lower
cholesterol, prevent cancer and anti-inflammatory effects
• Quinoa may prevent cardiovascular diseases, for example
Pseudocereals: buckwheat, quinoa
23-Jan-19
Novel protein sources for food security (ScenoProt)
15
• Rich in good quality oil
• Press cakes are good sources of protein, fiber and minerals
• Flaxseed and oil hemp have quite good amino acid profile,
rapeseed excellent
• Oil hemp peel contains less protein and minerals than the whole
seed
• Vitamin E (gamma-tokopherol), B-group vitamins
• Phenolics (rapeseed press cake is the richest), oil hemp and rapeseed press cake
contain condenced tannins ---- flaxseed not
• Phytic acid
• Rapeseed press cake had no protease inhibition activity while flaxseed and hemp oil
seed inhibited trypsin strongly
• Flaxseed contains cyanogenic glycosides, cadmiun
• Flaxseed is rich source of lignan (secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) content 138 ±
32 mg/100 g DW). May inhibit hormonal cancers and works as a weak estrogen in
menopausal women
• Oil hemp seed contains lignanamides 77 ± 22 mg/100 g DW, also cannabinoids,
flavonoids, stilbenoids, terpenoids, lignans, alkaloids
• Rape seed press cake contains glucosinolates 2.08 ± 0.74 umol/g DW), sinapine and
sinapinic acid
• May prevent cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, osteoporosis etc.
Oil seeds: flaxseed, oil hemp, rapeseed press cake
23-Jan-19
Novel protein sources for food security (ScenoProt)
16
Picture:Luke
Thank you!
23-Jan-19
Novel protein sources for food security (ScenoProt)
17
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Mattila, P., Pihlava, J-M., Hellström, J.
Nurmi, M., Eurola, M., Mäkinen, S., Jalava,
T., Pihlanto, A. 2018. Contents of
phytochemicals and antinutritional factors
in commercial protein-rich plant products.
Food quality and safety 2 4: 213–219.
Mattila, P., Mäkinen, S., Eurola, M.. Jalava,
T., Pihlava, J-M., Hellström, J., Pihlanto, A.
2018. Nutritional Value of Commercial
Protein-Rich Plant Products. Plant Foods
for Human Nutrition 73 2: 108-115.
REVIEW ARTICLE
Pihlanto, A., Mattila, P. , Mäkinen, S.,
Pajari, A.-M. 2017. Bioactivities in
alternative protein sources and their
potential health benefits. Food & Function,
8: 3443-3458.

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Legumes, oil crops and pseudocereals are good sources of nutrients and phytochemicals

  • 1. Pirjo Mattila, Juha-Matti Pihlava, Jarkko Hellström, Merja Eurola, Sari Mäkinen, Taina Jalava, Anne Pihlanto Legumes, oil crops and pseudocereals are good sources of nutrients and phytochemicals
  • 2. • Quinoa, lupin, faba bean, flaxseed, buckwheat, oil hemp seed ja rapeseed press cake • All samples were commercial and most of them were domestic • All samples were purchased as whole seeds/beans or as whole seed flour • Some samples were peeled and also peels were studied (quinoa, hemp, buckwheat) Samples 23-Jan-19 Novel protein sources for food security (ScenoProt) 2 Analyses • Nutrients:  Protein, amino acids, fiber, sugars, minerals • Phytochemicals and antinutrients  Phenolics, condenced tannins, phytic acid, protease inhibitor activity and typical phytochemicals for each plants
  • 3. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Protein Fiber 23-Jan-19 Novel protein sources for food security (ScenoProt) 3 Protein in dried meat ca 70-75 g/100 g Protein vs fiber (g/100 g)
  • 4. Sugars (g/100 g) 23-Jan-19 Novel protein sources for food security (ScenoProt) 4 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Raffinose Saccharose Glucose Fructose
  • 5. • The proteins contain 20 different amino acids – 11 can be constructed in the body from carbon and nitrogen-containing compounds or form the essential amino acids. – The rest (essential amino acids) can not be constructed in the body and they must be obtained form the food • Essential amino acids include histidine (growing children), isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, (cysteine and tyrosine) Amino acids 23-Jan-19 Novel protein sources for food security (ScenoProt) 5
  • 6. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 AA tot EAA tot Essential and total amino acids (g/100 g) 23-Jan-19 Novel protein sources for food security (ScenoProt) 6
  • 7. Essential and total amino acids (g/16g N) 23-Jan-19 Novel protein sources for food security (ScenoProt) 7 Flaxseed Oil hemp Rapeseed Buchwheat bran Quinoa Fava bean Lupin (Sonet) Lupin (Haags) Comparat ive value* Total EAA 36,9 32,7 40,9 38,6 37,0 39,0 35,2 35,5 >36 Met+Cys 3.82 3.59 3.98 4.52 4.43 2.07 2.16 2.21 3.5-5.7 Phe+Tyr 7.57 6.98 7.68 7.51 7.08 7.92 7.63 7.60 6.0-9.3 PER 1.98 1.83 2.51 2.08 1.96 2.55 2.24 2.26 2.7 *(casein) *FAO/WHO/UNU, 1985; FAO/ WHO, 1991 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Flaxseed, whole Oil hemp seed, whole Rapeseed press cake Buckwheat bran Quinoa, whole organic Fava bean, whole Lupin, Sonet, whole Lupin, Haags blaue, whole AA tot g/16 gN EAA tot g/16 gN
  • 9. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Cadmium Zink Manganese Iron Copper Trace elements (mg/100 g) 23-Jan-19 Novel protein sources for food security (ScenoProt) 9
  • 10. Total phenolics 23-Jan-19 Novel protein sources for food security (ScenoProt) 10 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Folin-Ciocalteu (GAE mg/100 g) Fast Blue BB (GAE mg/100 g)
  • 11. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 Condenced tannins (mg/100 g) 23-Jan-19 Novel protein sources for food security (ScenoProt) 11
  • 12. Phytic acid g/100 g DW 23-Jan-19 Novel protein sources for food security (ScenoProt) 12 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5
  • 13. Protease inhibitor activity against trypsin (A) and α- chymotrypsin (B). 23-Jan-19 Novel protein sources for food security (ScenoProt) 13 Protease inhibitor activity was measured by using labelled peptide substrate together with inhibitor (A or B) Substrate cleavage was recorded as a function of time and curve slope was calculated. 80 μg (blue bar) or 160 μg (pink bar) of protein from plant seed protein isolate was used for the assay. Lower slope value indicated higher protease inhibitory activity.
  • 14. • Plenty of proteins and EAA, faba bean is rich in lysine • They lack of sulfur-containing amino acids, lupin lacks also valine • Plenty of fiber (especially lupin) • Good sources of many minerals • B-group vitamins, phenolics, tocopherols, carotenoids, plant sterols • Faba bean is rich in condenced tannins, no condenced tannins were found in lupin • Peeling of faba bean reduces the concentration of tannins and fiber • Faba bean contains antinutrients such as visine and convisine (0.77 ± 0.11 and 0.42 ± 0.02 g/100 g DW) • Faba bean contains toxic lectins (must be heated), lupin needs not heating • Lupin had not protease inhibitor activity, faba bean inhibited trypsin strongly • Both plants may have many health effects Legumes: faba bean, lupin 23-Jan-19 Novel protein sources for food security (ScenoProt) 14 Picture: Luke
  • 15. • Good amino acid profile • Peel of the seed contains more protein and minerals than the inner part • Fiber contents of buckwheat are similar in the inner part and peel while pearling of quinoa reduces the content of fiber ca. 40% • Both are rich in total phenolics, they contain flavonoids (quinoa very much), condensed tannins, phenolic acids • Especially quinoa is good source of riboflavin, thiamine, folates, vitamin B6 and Vitamin E • Buckwheat caused strongest protease inhibition activity among the tested samples while quinoa had only slight activity • Quinoa contains toxic and stomach-irritating saponins that need to be removed by washing or pearling • Buckwheat may have hypoglycemic properties in diabetics, lower cholesterol, prevent cancer and anti-inflammatory effects • Quinoa may prevent cardiovascular diseases, for example Pseudocereals: buckwheat, quinoa 23-Jan-19 Novel protein sources for food security (ScenoProt) 15
  • 16. • Rich in good quality oil • Press cakes are good sources of protein, fiber and minerals • Flaxseed and oil hemp have quite good amino acid profile, rapeseed excellent • Oil hemp peel contains less protein and minerals than the whole seed • Vitamin E (gamma-tokopherol), B-group vitamins • Phenolics (rapeseed press cake is the richest), oil hemp and rapeseed press cake contain condenced tannins ---- flaxseed not • Phytic acid • Rapeseed press cake had no protease inhibition activity while flaxseed and hemp oil seed inhibited trypsin strongly • Flaxseed contains cyanogenic glycosides, cadmiun • Flaxseed is rich source of lignan (secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) content 138 ± 32 mg/100 g DW). May inhibit hormonal cancers and works as a weak estrogen in menopausal women • Oil hemp seed contains lignanamides 77 ± 22 mg/100 g DW, also cannabinoids, flavonoids, stilbenoids, terpenoids, lignans, alkaloids • Rape seed press cake contains glucosinolates 2.08 ± 0.74 umol/g DW), sinapine and sinapinic acid • May prevent cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, osteoporosis etc. Oil seeds: flaxseed, oil hemp, rapeseed press cake 23-Jan-19 Novel protein sources for food security (ScenoProt) 16 Picture:Luke
  • 17. Thank you! 23-Jan-19 Novel protein sources for food security (ScenoProt) 17 ORIGINAL ARTICLES Mattila, P., Pihlava, J-M., Hellström, J. Nurmi, M., Eurola, M., Mäkinen, S., Jalava, T., Pihlanto, A. 2018. Contents of phytochemicals and antinutritional factors in commercial protein-rich plant products. Food quality and safety 2 4: 213–219. Mattila, P., Mäkinen, S., Eurola, M.. Jalava, T., Pihlava, J-M., Hellström, J., Pihlanto, A. 2018. Nutritional Value of Commercial Protein-Rich Plant Products. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 73 2: 108-115. REVIEW ARTICLE Pihlanto, A., Mattila, P. , Mäkinen, S., Pajari, A.-M. 2017. Bioactivities in alternative protein sources and their potential health benefits. Food & Function, 8: 3443-3458.