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LED vs. Fluorescent
An IP UtiliNET Energy Services White Paper
Current generation lighting solutions are based on 200 year old technology that was
invented to simulate a flame and are known to be as much as 80% inefficient. Until
recently, the lighting industry has offered incremental choice while expanding the use of
dangerous Mercury in major lighting technologies. This paper helps the reader to make
an informed decision when considering Tubular LED Lamps.




          The ROI Advantage




                               Reader ROI – Learn about:

                                   A.   Fluorescent as compared to LED Tube Lamps
                                   B.   Energy and Environmental benefits of LED Tube Lamps
                                   C.   The Long Term sustainable benefits of LED Tube Lamps
                                   D.   Significant Fluorescent Price Increases – 2010/11
Are LED Lamps Expensive?

                                                     An investment of $30.00 that returns $221.00
                                                     is a 635% RETURN ON INVESTMENT or a
                                                     90% per year return.
Executive Summary

 Overview

The lighting industry and the people that it serves are undergoing disruptive change. The
technology that is leading this change is Solid State or Light Emitting Diode (LED)
technology. Beginning with the invention of the ARC lamp in 1809, there have been
three major inventions that have impacted the lighting systems that are in use today;
Platinum Filament/1820, Mercury Vapour/1901, and Tungsten Filament/1906.
Fluorescent lamps were patented in 1927 as a derivative of the 1906 invention of
Mercury Vapour lamps. From 1906 and through today, there has been an explosion of
lamp, fixture, and control systems that are based on these original inventions. Due to the
maturity of these systems, the light is effective and in most cases balanced.

There are two kinds of light - the glow that illumines, and the glare that obscures.
~James Thurber

The first silicon based LED or luminescent silicon was observed in 1907. It was not
commercialized until 1961 and was not commercially viable until 1962. Since then, as
with all technology innovations, adaptation has led to the expansion of technology.
Today, there are hundreds of emerging LED lamps, fixture options, dynamic and fixed
colour choices, and control systems that exceed much of the functional capability of 100
plus year old incandescent and mercury-vapour based technology. A new era of lighting
science is now a daily reality.

This paper focuses the reader on Fluorescent Tube Type or what are more commonly
recognized TX type lamps and presents a comparison for LED migration. This paper
also introduces the IP UtiliNET naming convention. We find this helpful when comparing
the T-Type Fluorescent, T-Type LED lamps, Fixtures, Power type, and control systems
many of which are evolving or not yet invented.

With the advent of LED lamp technologies, business leaders and consumers have a
critical opportunity and an environmental responsibility to make an informed decision
regarding the use of current and next generation LED lighting technology. This paper
discards fluff and industry bias so that an informed decision can be made.


©2012 IP UtiliNET, LLC – All Rights Reserved                                           2
Business Challenge – Fluorescent or LED?

                          Fluorescent Tube lamps, a type of Mercury Vapour lamp, are the
                          typical choice for industrial and commercial facility lighting solutions.
                          These lamps have improved incrementally with the latest innovation,
                          T5 coming to market in 1995. Fluorescent lamps contain mercury
                          atoms that must be ionized or “started” before they will produce light.
                          The starting ionization comes from an electrical arc which can be in the
                          thousands of volts and is produced by various types of starter or
                          ballast technologies.

                          Fluorescent lighting solutions have three main parts. They are the
Fluorescent Lamp          Tube, the Fixture, and the Ballast. In this paper, we are contrasting
      1927
                          traditional fluorescent technology to LED and find that our customers
                          are confused by industry language so let’s clear that up;

      The table below provides lamp information. For clarity, let’s first define “TX” technology
      in terms of the original code and intended use. The letter T designates “Tubular” and the
      following numeric character - X - indicates the diameter of a tube in eighths of an inch.
      Efficiency and Cost are separate factors to consider and are part of lamp evaluation.


             LAMP                     Thickness                     Efficiency                      Cost


               T12              1 ½ inch thick or 12/8 of an        Least Efficient         $1.25 to $2.00 per lamp
                                      inch in diameter
                                                               Lowest Lamp, Ballast, and      $1.63 Average cost
                                                                     Fixture Cost



                T8               1 inch thick or 8/8 of an         Better efficiency        $1.75 to $2.50 per lamp
                                     inch in diameter
                                                               40% as compared to T12      $3.00 Avg / 46% over T12
                                                                cost increases by 46%



                T5              5/8 inch thick or 12/8 of an       Highest efficiency      $5.50 to $10.50 per lamp
                                      inch in diameter
      Requires dedicated lamp                                  51% as compared to T12      $8.00 Avg / 80% over T12
         fixture and ballast                                   Cost increases by 80%
             proprietary




      ©2012 IP UtiliNET, LLC – All Rights Reserved                                                            3
The second factor to consider are fixtures (or troffers). A “TX” lamp gives off light in a
360 degree radius. This means that up to half of the light generated is reflected from the
fixture and is lost as heat versus used to efficiently light the space. When a lamp is
further away from a reflector, as is the case with T5, it will disperse light and reflect less
which leads to lower lighting values. This is one of the reasons that T5 lamps require
new fixtures. Fixtures are painted white due to the need to reflect light. Thus, various
                              manufacturers will offer lamps and troffers in various
                              wattages often matched to the actual lamp type.

                              If lamps and fixtures were not confusing enough, the
                              industry has added various innovations in starting and
                              current limiting technology as shown by the drawing to the
                              left and below right.

                              The original starter was improved upon by a Semi-Resonant
Starter. A semi-resonant starter uses a double wound transformer to heat the Tube
electrodes via a capacitor. The capacitor is used to heat the powered end of the
fluorescent lamps which in turn excites the trapped gas in the
glass tube. This produces light in 3-5 seconds. This
technology is most often used in 5 ft. and longer tubes on 240
V power. They are generally incompatible with “better
efficiency” T8 tubes, because T8s actually have a higher
starting voltage than T12 and will not dependably start in low
temperatures. T12’s using semi-resonant starters are being
phased out in many countries.

Electronic Ballasts, the most common in US systems use an oscillator instead of a
starter or SRS and capacitor circuit. Ballast will adjust the main voltage AC to high
frequency AC while providing smooth current flow to the lamp, effectively regulating the
voltage for longer life. The T5 lamp uses a specially tuned ballast and lamp connectors
that render the fixture useless for anything but T5 lamps. Starters, Semi-Resonant
Starters, and Ballasts produce heat, require excess energy, and require periodic
replacement while adding another level of cost and confusion to lighting technology.



©2012 IP UtiliNET, LLC – All Rights Reserved                                              4
 Current Generation LED Tube Lamps

                LED tube lamps are disruptive to any of the existing fluorescent
                technologies in the market today. The technology was first observed in
                1907 and commercialized in 1962. The technology is well proven with
                existing LED’s that were made in the 1970’s and 1980’s with some still
                in service today. Current generation LED tube lamps are an effective
                replacement for any of the T12 or T8 lamps and do not require a
                complete fixture. T5 lamp migrations within the fluorescent family will
                require a lamp, a fixture, and ballast. As those components fail, the
                business will find itself locked into that and only that technology.

                        LED lamps reduce the total cost of operations, reduce the cost
                        of maintenance, reduce plant cooling requirements and
                        provide a next generation lighting solution that is typically
                        designed to integrate with current and future renewable energy
                        technologies.

                The table on page 3 reflects a transition cost within the fluorescent
                family. A T5 in a perfect environment may have a lifetime of 20,000
                hours versus LED which are rated at 50,000 hours or 2.5 Times the life
                expectancy of T5 lamps. Since fixture and ballast replacements are
                required for T5 the net reality of a T5 decision leads to a scant 8%
                improvement difference as compared to a T8 replacement. LED
                replacement lamps snap right into T12 and T8 fixtures. When
                considering the cost of the T5 lamp and the fact that more lamps are
                needed in new fixtures, when T5 replaces either T12 or T8, does it
                make sense to spend 50% more for the lamp, plus additional lamps,
                plus the short and long term cost of new fixtures and ballast, plus the
                added cost of EPA mandated commercial disposal?

                LED replacement lamps are left standing when others fail and do not
                require a special fixture, do not require ballast technology, and
                therefore provide significant reduction in capital costs.


©2012 IP UtiliNET, LLC – All Rights Reserved                                            5
An LED solution will typically eliminate cyclical and expensive light,
                  light fixture, and cooling upgrades while providing luminosity that
                  exceeds the existing fluorescent or incandescent lamp solutions.

    Environmental Considerations

                    LEDs offer innovation that leads to environmental consciousness
                    while providing reduced power consumption and environmentally
                               beneficial sustainability. LEDs do not use harmful mercury
                               and can be recycled in any form factor without special
                               handling and disposal fees. Lamps containing Mercury
                               require licensed disposal for commercial industries (US
                               EPA) as well as manifesting (US DOD) when transporting
                               expired lamps. Even some of the legacy ballasts contain
                               PCB’s which require additional safety procedures when
                               handling and disposing. Mercury based lamps come
                               under strict air quality rules per US EPA. Mercury is
                               hazardous to humans and when airborne in buildings it
                               constitutes a risk that causes EPA to recommend
                               evacuation of people and pets and subjects the business
                               to very specific handling procedures.

Of the Phosphor used in Fluorescent and Compact Fluorescent lamps, more than half is
derived from rare earths, with multiples up to 5 used to create a “white” light. These rare
earths are mined in China. Due to new tariffs and export quotas prices of rare earths
have shot up as much as 3500% since the first month of 2010. This is resulting in lamp
price increases of 25% to 38% in 2011/12.

 You are the Judge and the Jury

LED is a current enabling technology that will render fluorescent lamps obsolete over
time. Whether your view is from an energy savings perspective, a cooling and plant
operations perspective, a maintenance perspective, or an environmental perspective,
the leadership decision leads to LED. LEDs are not fixture dependent, do not require
ballasts, operate at 10-15 degrees above nominal temperature, have extremely long life
times and do not require specialized licensing and handling.



©2012 IP UtiliNET, LLC – All Rights Reserved                                            6
Solution Description

Congratulations, you’re either on the fence or moving forward with a decision. Our All-
Property LED solutions and e-lifecycle services will take you from planning through
execution and disposal. This paper is focused on the business case for Tube lamp
migration so we will spend some time in this section providing further detail. The scope
of work is similar to relamping with the exception of removing the ballast. The work
consists of assessing and documenting current state, removing the existing lamps,
elimination and removal of the ballast from the fixture, replacing the lamps with LED
tubes, and then turning the power back on. We provide disposal on-site or transport to
the recovery facility with EPA certificates of disposal for your mercury based lighting
solution.


 IP UtiliNET naming conventions for LED Tube Lamps

                                            Using the industry recognized rules for “TX”
                                            lamps (page 3 of this document) and the known
                                            thickness of our replacement LED lamp - .875
                                            as illustrated in this picture the math provides a
T7 or 7/8 of an inch in size. It is highly likely that in the future other lamps will be
produced in sizes that equate to TX. IP UtiliNET has advanced the naming convention
by adding additional definition. Specifically:

                        T7s where s denotes Solid State Device (SSD) technology
                        T7sd where d denotes dimmable
                        T7s-A denotes AC based SSD lamp technology
                        T7s-G denotes DC based SSD lamp technology

The G stands for Galvanic Power which is the original name for DC. Operating like a
battery, the power does not fluctuate like AC. LEDs are natively powered by DC and
most of the heat is produced by the electronics that are used to convert AC to DC power.
DC powered LED lamps are expected to add up 35% to 50% more lifetime and remove
additional heat from the lamps. The industry is moving in this direction with wholly new
standards for control systems and emerging technologies.




©2012 IP UtiliNET, LLC – All Rights Reserved                                               7
Today, IP UtiliNET is leading with LED relamping and working with manufacturers and
industry associations to develop the next generation DC based control and distribution
systems.

 Some points of light – LED vs. Fluorescent

Fluorescent lamps radiate their light output in equal amounts surrounding the body of the
lamp. This equates to wasted energy when placed in a fixture. While the lamp may
produce sufficient light, the optical efficiency is diluted to 85-90% or a loss of 15% of
generated light plus loss due to heat output from the fixture. LEDs by contrast provide
reduced reflected light and more linear efficiency when converting power to light.

T5 lamps are designed to operate within fairly narrow temperature ranges. At either end
of these ranges, the T5 output will degrade and the bulb will fail. LEDs are the only light
type that increase in efficiency when the temperature drops.

Fluorescent lamps without a phosphorescent coating to convert UV to visible light emit
ultraviolet light. A phosphorescent coating can be added, to produce a UVA, UVB, or
visible light spectrum. All fluorescent tubes that are used for domestic and commercial
lighting are mercury (Hg) UV emission bulbs at heart. LEDs produce no significant
amount of UV radiation.

The latest generations of premium LEDs have been tested to LM-79 specifications and
have proven that they will lose no more than 15% of the lumen output over a 50,000
hour rated lifetime. LEDs also handle on/off cycles better than other lamps such as T5.
An LED is instant on at maximum output while the T5 may take several minutes to get
up to its full operating level.


 You are the Designer, Judge, and the Jury

LED technology makes much more sense when considering acquisition, operations,
maintenance, and replacement cost. As with any emerging technology there are
choices. LED is exciting technology that offers wholly new basic replacement capabilities
as well as an emerging range of fixtures, control systems, power choices, and endless
combinations of colors. To be sure, we are living in exciting times and for those
committed to making the journey, we are committed to serving you well.




©2012 IP UtiliNET, LLC – All Rights Reserved                                                8
Solution Benefits

                         A Migration to LED will provide the best Return on Investment as
                         compared to any type of Fluorescent.

                         LED Tube lamps will:

                               Reduce power consumption in ranges typically close to 78%

                               Provide a cost reduced migration plan from T12 and T8
                                without the need for a new fixture.

                               Dramatically reduce the operating temperature and reduce the
                                effect of lighting on the cooling plant. This reduces power
                                consumption, cost of operations, and cost of maintenance

                               Move to instant on bulbs, most of which are dimmable

                               Eliminate the power consuming, heat producing ballasts from
                                the fixtures as these are no longer needed.

                               Migrate from an expected lifetime (T5) of 20,000 hours to a
                                rated lifetime (LED) of 50, 000 hours.

                               Eliminate the ballast replacement technology and related
                                labour costs forever
 Fluorescent or LED?
                               Eliminate as much as 2.5X the labour cost when LED
More Choice with LED:           relamping is eventually required

    Color Tuning?              Eliminate the current environmental risk and avoid “Mercury”
                                lamp based EPA and DOD scrutiny and threat of fines
  AC or DC Power?
                               Choose dimmable when required
Policy Based Controls?
                               Choose colours when specified
      Analytics?
                               More useful and tested in harsh environments, unlike T5
                                lamps

                               As standards continue to evolve choose to implement DC
                                based fixtures with control systems that lead to “all property”,
                                individual room, and individual fixture controls

                               Introduce many types of sensors that are just not possible with
                                fluorescent



         ©2012 IP UtiliNET, LLC – All Rights Reserved                                        9
Technical Specifications

For the purpose of this paper, we used Cardinal lighting solutions for T8 and T12
replacements. These lamps can use the same fixtures when replacing with LED.

Cardinal™ Linear Lights

Cardinal Linear lights are high quality replacements of
standard fluorescent tubes (T8 and T12) and provide
electrical savings of 35% to 50%. Installation is easy,
these linear lights use the same terminal connections as
fluorescent tubes, and a universal power supply inside
the light eliminates the need for ballast. Super High
Output surface mount device LEDs are employed to
provide 50,000+ hours of lifetime at high-efficacy of
>100lms/watt. Exceptional thermal management is
achieved with an aluminium core LED PCB which is
thermally bonded to the ribbed aluminium heat sink with
a ‘D’ channel extrusion. The outer shell is a robust
design with a shatterproof polycarbonate lens available in
clear, ribbed or frosted. Solid brass, nickel-plated
terminal pins are installed in tough polycarbonate end-
caps that are fastened with screws to the aluminium
core.




     Measured Lamp Electrical Values              Measured Lamp Photometric Values


 Voltage: 120.0 V                               Radiant Flux: 4749 mW
 Current: 0.174 A                               Luminous Flux: 1778 Lumens
 Watts: 18.03 W                                 Lamp Efficacy: 98.6 Lumens per Watt
 Power Factor: 0.903                            CCT: 4154 K
 Temperature: 25.0 °C                           CRI (Ra): 81.2
                                                Chromaticity (x): 0.3763
                                                Chromaticity (y): 0.3829
                                                Chromaticity (u'): 0.2200
                                                Chromaticity (v'): 0.5037
                                                Duv: 0.0037




©2012 IP UtiliNET, LLC – All Rights Reserved                                        10
Target Market

                IP UtiliNET Energy Services provides LED relamping and custom
                lighting services to individual site and campus customers who seek to
                reduce acquisition, operations, and maintenance costs. In an era of
                budgetary consciousness, our team is focused on solutions that reduce
                budgetary consumption.

                We are focused on solutions at the campus and individual building
                level. With a widening range of Federal, State & Local, and Enterprise
                customers we continue to excel through focused services to our
                customer base.

                Our customers use our factual data and professional evaluations to
                make LED migration decisions. Our assessments and
                recommendations are property inclusive. In all cases, we carefully
                evaluate our customers’ existing facility, external, and parking lot
                lighting needs. We then issue a detailed financial summary with
                supporting work detail for comparative purposes. With a GO decision,
                we conduct the work and remove the excess for environmentally
                beneficial disposal.


                            Simple, Sustainable, Smart




©2012 IP UtiliNET, LLC – All Rights Reserved                                           11
Summary

                  LED technology is the next generation of lighting technology and
                  delivers significant energy and environmental benefit to customers.
                  We are helping to address the question of how to move forward, while
                  our customers make decisions on when.

                  In creating this paper, we wanted to clarify some of the decision points
                  regarding fluorescent versus LED tube lamps. This is especially
                  important for the customer who is considering proprietary and
                  dedicated T5 replacement. We recommend that our customers also
                  closely examine the current and expected price increases that are
                  resulting from Rare Earth price increases.

                  The economic and environmental choice is clearly LED. Many of the
                  lighting manufacturers and service providers are fighting this
                  technology as it will affect their business and industry. They will yield
                  over time, especially as the informed buyer is armed with facts that
                  lead to a decision to move forward. Soon, and driven by decision
                  makers armed with factual data, the services industry will realize that
                  LED solutions offer wholly new opportunities to create more ergonomic
                  and efficient workplaces.

    We would appreciate the opportunity to serve you well

                       IP UtiliNET Energy Services
                       PO Box 1802
                       Buford, GA 30519
                       USA

           Email:      info@iputilinet.com

           Website: http://www.iputilinet.com

           Tel:        877-901-6947

           Fax:        678-954-6915



©2012 IP UtiliNET, LLC – All Rights Reserved                                           12

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LED vs Fluorescent Lamps

  • 1. LED vs. Fluorescent An IP UtiliNET Energy Services White Paper Current generation lighting solutions are based on 200 year old technology that was invented to simulate a flame and are known to be as much as 80% inefficient. Until recently, the lighting industry has offered incremental choice while expanding the use of dangerous Mercury in major lighting technologies. This paper helps the reader to make an informed decision when considering Tubular LED Lamps. The ROI Advantage Reader ROI – Learn about: A. Fluorescent as compared to LED Tube Lamps B. Energy and Environmental benefits of LED Tube Lamps C. The Long Term sustainable benefits of LED Tube Lamps D. Significant Fluorescent Price Increases – 2010/11
  • 2. Are LED Lamps Expensive? An investment of $30.00 that returns $221.00 is a 635% RETURN ON INVESTMENT or a 90% per year return. Executive Summary  Overview The lighting industry and the people that it serves are undergoing disruptive change. The technology that is leading this change is Solid State or Light Emitting Diode (LED) technology. Beginning with the invention of the ARC lamp in 1809, there have been three major inventions that have impacted the lighting systems that are in use today; Platinum Filament/1820, Mercury Vapour/1901, and Tungsten Filament/1906. Fluorescent lamps were patented in 1927 as a derivative of the 1906 invention of Mercury Vapour lamps. From 1906 and through today, there has been an explosion of lamp, fixture, and control systems that are based on these original inventions. Due to the maturity of these systems, the light is effective and in most cases balanced. There are two kinds of light - the glow that illumines, and the glare that obscures. ~James Thurber The first silicon based LED or luminescent silicon was observed in 1907. It was not commercialized until 1961 and was not commercially viable until 1962. Since then, as with all technology innovations, adaptation has led to the expansion of technology. Today, there are hundreds of emerging LED lamps, fixture options, dynamic and fixed colour choices, and control systems that exceed much of the functional capability of 100 plus year old incandescent and mercury-vapour based technology. A new era of lighting science is now a daily reality. This paper focuses the reader on Fluorescent Tube Type or what are more commonly recognized TX type lamps and presents a comparison for LED migration. This paper also introduces the IP UtiliNET naming convention. We find this helpful when comparing the T-Type Fluorescent, T-Type LED lamps, Fixtures, Power type, and control systems many of which are evolving or not yet invented. With the advent of LED lamp technologies, business leaders and consumers have a critical opportunity and an environmental responsibility to make an informed decision regarding the use of current and next generation LED lighting technology. This paper discards fluff and industry bias so that an informed decision can be made. ©2012 IP UtiliNET, LLC – All Rights Reserved 2
  • 3. Business Challenge – Fluorescent or LED? Fluorescent Tube lamps, a type of Mercury Vapour lamp, are the typical choice for industrial and commercial facility lighting solutions. These lamps have improved incrementally with the latest innovation, T5 coming to market in 1995. Fluorescent lamps contain mercury atoms that must be ionized or “started” before they will produce light. The starting ionization comes from an electrical arc which can be in the thousands of volts and is produced by various types of starter or ballast technologies. Fluorescent lighting solutions have three main parts. They are the Fluorescent Lamp Tube, the Fixture, and the Ballast. In this paper, we are contrasting 1927 traditional fluorescent technology to LED and find that our customers are confused by industry language so let’s clear that up; The table below provides lamp information. For clarity, let’s first define “TX” technology in terms of the original code and intended use. The letter T designates “Tubular” and the following numeric character - X - indicates the diameter of a tube in eighths of an inch. Efficiency and Cost are separate factors to consider and are part of lamp evaluation. LAMP Thickness Efficiency Cost T12 1 ½ inch thick or 12/8 of an Least Efficient $1.25 to $2.00 per lamp inch in diameter Lowest Lamp, Ballast, and $1.63 Average cost Fixture Cost T8 1 inch thick or 8/8 of an Better efficiency $1.75 to $2.50 per lamp inch in diameter 40% as compared to T12 $3.00 Avg / 46% over T12 cost increases by 46% T5 5/8 inch thick or 12/8 of an Highest efficiency $5.50 to $10.50 per lamp inch in diameter Requires dedicated lamp 51% as compared to T12 $8.00 Avg / 80% over T12 fixture and ballast Cost increases by 80% proprietary ©2012 IP UtiliNET, LLC – All Rights Reserved 3
  • 4. The second factor to consider are fixtures (or troffers). A “TX” lamp gives off light in a 360 degree radius. This means that up to half of the light generated is reflected from the fixture and is lost as heat versus used to efficiently light the space. When a lamp is further away from a reflector, as is the case with T5, it will disperse light and reflect less which leads to lower lighting values. This is one of the reasons that T5 lamps require new fixtures. Fixtures are painted white due to the need to reflect light. Thus, various manufacturers will offer lamps and troffers in various wattages often matched to the actual lamp type. If lamps and fixtures were not confusing enough, the industry has added various innovations in starting and current limiting technology as shown by the drawing to the left and below right. The original starter was improved upon by a Semi-Resonant Starter. A semi-resonant starter uses a double wound transformer to heat the Tube electrodes via a capacitor. The capacitor is used to heat the powered end of the fluorescent lamps which in turn excites the trapped gas in the glass tube. This produces light in 3-5 seconds. This technology is most often used in 5 ft. and longer tubes on 240 V power. They are generally incompatible with “better efficiency” T8 tubes, because T8s actually have a higher starting voltage than T12 and will not dependably start in low temperatures. T12’s using semi-resonant starters are being phased out in many countries. Electronic Ballasts, the most common in US systems use an oscillator instead of a starter or SRS and capacitor circuit. Ballast will adjust the main voltage AC to high frequency AC while providing smooth current flow to the lamp, effectively regulating the voltage for longer life. The T5 lamp uses a specially tuned ballast and lamp connectors that render the fixture useless for anything but T5 lamps. Starters, Semi-Resonant Starters, and Ballasts produce heat, require excess energy, and require periodic replacement while adding another level of cost and confusion to lighting technology. ©2012 IP UtiliNET, LLC – All Rights Reserved 4
  • 5.  Current Generation LED Tube Lamps LED tube lamps are disruptive to any of the existing fluorescent technologies in the market today. The technology was first observed in 1907 and commercialized in 1962. The technology is well proven with existing LED’s that were made in the 1970’s and 1980’s with some still in service today. Current generation LED tube lamps are an effective replacement for any of the T12 or T8 lamps and do not require a complete fixture. T5 lamp migrations within the fluorescent family will require a lamp, a fixture, and ballast. As those components fail, the business will find itself locked into that and only that technology. LED lamps reduce the total cost of operations, reduce the cost of maintenance, reduce plant cooling requirements and provide a next generation lighting solution that is typically designed to integrate with current and future renewable energy technologies. The table on page 3 reflects a transition cost within the fluorescent family. A T5 in a perfect environment may have a lifetime of 20,000 hours versus LED which are rated at 50,000 hours or 2.5 Times the life expectancy of T5 lamps. Since fixture and ballast replacements are required for T5 the net reality of a T5 decision leads to a scant 8% improvement difference as compared to a T8 replacement. LED replacement lamps snap right into T12 and T8 fixtures. When considering the cost of the T5 lamp and the fact that more lamps are needed in new fixtures, when T5 replaces either T12 or T8, does it make sense to spend 50% more for the lamp, plus additional lamps, plus the short and long term cost of new fixtures and ballast, plus the added cost of EPA mandated commercial disposal? LED replacement lamps are left standing when others fail and do not require a special fixture, do not require ballast technology, and therefore provide significant reduction in capital costs. ©2012 IP UtiliNET, LLC – All Rights Reserved 5
  • 6. An LED solution will typically eliminate cyclical and expensive light, light fixture, and cooling upgrades while providing luminosity that exceeds the existing fluorescent or incandescent lamp solutions.  Environmental Considerations LEDs offer innovation that leads to environmental consciousness while providing reduced power consumption and environmentally beneficial sustainability. LEDs do not use harmful mercury and can be recycled in any form factor without special handling and disposal fees. Lamps containing Mercury require licensed disposal for commercial industries (US EPA) as well as manifesting (US DOD) when transporting expired lamps. Even some of the legacy ballasts contain PCB’s which require additional safety procedures when handling and disposing. Mercury based lamps come under strict air quality rules per US EPA. Mercury is hazardous to humans and when airborne in buildings it constitutes a risk that causes EPA to recommend evacuation of people and pets and subjects the business to very specific handling procedures. Of the Phosphor used in Fluorescent and Compact Fluorescent lamps, more than half is derived from rare earths, with multiples up to 5 used to create a “white” light. These rare earths are mined in China. Due to new tariffs and export quotas prices of rare earths have shot up as much as 3500% since the first month of 2010. This is resulting in lamp price increases of 25% to 38% in 2011/12.  You are the Judge and the Jury LED is a current enabling technology that will render fluorescent lamps obsolete over time. Whether your view is from an energy savings perspective, a cooling and plant operations perspective, a maintenance perspective, or an environmental perspective, the leadership decision leads to LED. LEDs are not fixture dependent, do not require ballasts, operate at 10-15 degrees above nominal temperature, have extremely long life times and do not require specialized licensing and handling. ©2012 IP UtiliNET, LLC – All Rights Reserved 6
  • 7. Solution Description Congratulations, you’re either on the fence or moving forward with a decision. Our All- Property LED solutions and e-lifecycle services will take you from planning through execution and disposal. This paper is focused on the business case for Tube lamp migration so we will spend some time in this section providing further detail. The scope of work is similar to relamping with the exception of removing the ballast. The work consists of assessing and documenting current state, removing the existing lamps, elimination and removal of the ballast from the fixture, replacing the lamps with LED tubes, and then turning the power back on. We provide disposal on-site or transport to the recovery facility with EPA certificates of disposal for your mercury based lighting solution.  IP UtiliNET naming conventions for LED Tube Lamps Using the industry recognized rules for “TX” lamps (page 3 of this document) and the known thickness of our replacement LED lamp - .875 as illustrated in this picture the math provides a T7 or 7/8 of an inch in size. It is highly likely that in the future other lamps will be produced in sizes that equate to TX. IP UtiliNET has advanced the naming convention by adding additional definition. Specifically: T7s where s denotes Solid State Device (SSD) technology T7sd where d denotes dimmable T7s-A denotes AC based SSD lamp technology T7s-G denotes DC based SSD lamp technology The G stands for Galvanic Power which is the original name for DC. Operating like a battery, the power does not fluctuate like AC. LEDs are natively powered by DC and most of the heat is produced by the electronics that are used to convert AC to DC power. DC powered LED lamps are expected to add up 35% to 50% more lifetime and remove additional heat from the lamps. The industry is moving in this direction with wholly new standards for control systems and emerging technologies. ©2012 IP UtiliNET, LLC – All Rights Reserved 7
  • 8. Today, IP UtiliNET is leading with LED relamping and working with manufacturers and industry associations to develop the next generation DC based control and distribution systems.  Some points of light – LED vs. Fluorescent Fluorescent lamps radiate their light output in equal amounts surrounding the body of the lamp. This equates to wasted energy when placed in a fixture. While the lamp may produce sufficient light, the optical efficiency is diluted to 85-90% or a loss of 15% of generated light plus loss due to heat output from the fixture. LEDs by contrast provide reduced reflected light and more linear efficiency when converting power to light. T5 lamps are designed to operate within fairly narrow temperature ranges. At either end of these ranges, the T5 output will degrade and the bulb will fail. LEDs are the only light type that increase in efficiency when the temperature drops. Fluorescent lamps without a phosphorescent coating to convert UV to visible light emit ultraviolet light. A phosphorescent coating can be added, to produce a UVA, UVB, or visible light spectrum. All fluorescent tubes that are used for domestic and commercial lighting are mercury (Hg) UV emission bulbs at heart. LEDs produce no significant amount of UV radiation. The latest generations of premium LEDs have been tested to LM-79 specifications and have proven that they will lose no more than 15% of the lumen output over a 50,000 hour rated lifetime. LEDs also handle on/off cycles better than other lamps such as T5. An LED is instant on at maximum output while the T5 may take several minutes to get up to its full operating level.  You are the Designer, Judge, and the Jury LED technology makes much more sense when considering acquisition, operations, maintenance, and replacement cost. As with any emerging technology there are choices. LED is exciting technology that offers wholly new basic replacement capabilities as well as an emerging range of fixtures, control systems, power choices, and endless combinations of colors. To be sure, we are living in exciting times and for those committed to making the journey, we are committed to serving you well. ©2012 IP UtiliNET, LLC – All Rights Reserved 8
  • 9. Solution Benefits A Migration to LED will provide the best Return on Investment as compared to any type of Fluorescent. LED Tube lamps will:  Reduce power consumption in ranges typically close to 78%  Provide a cost reduced migration plan from T12 and T8 without the need for a new fixture.  Dramatically reduce the operating temperature and reduce the effect of lighting on the cooling plant. This reduces power consumption, cost of operations, and cost of maintenance  Move to instant on bulbs, most of which are dimmable  Eliminate the power consuming, heat producing ballasts from the fixtures as these are no longer needed.  Migrate from an expected lifetime (T5) of 20,000 hours to a rated lifetime (LED) of 50, 000 hours.  Eliminate the ballast replacement technology and related labour costs forever Fluorescent or LED?  Eliminate as much as 2.5X the labour cost when LED More Choice with LED: relamping is eventually required Color Tuning?  Eliminate the current environmental risk and avoid “Mercury” lamp based EPA and DOD scrutiny and threat of fines AC or DC Power?  Choose dimmable when required Policy Based Controls?  Choose colours when specified Analytics?  More useful and tested in harsh environments, unlike T5 lamps  As standards continue to evolve choose to implement DC based fixtures with control systems that lead to “all property”, individual room, and individual fixture controls  Introduce many types of sensors that are just not possible with fluorescent ©2012 IP UtiliNET, LLC – All Rights Reserved 9
  • 10. Technical Specifications For the purpose of this paper, we used Cardinal lighting solutions for T8 and T12 replacements. These lamps can use the same fixtures when replacing with LED. Cardinal™ Linear Lights Cardinal Linear lights are high quality replacements of standard fluorescent tubes (T8 and T12) and provide electrical savings of 35% to 50%. Installation is easy, these linear lights use the same terminal connections as fluorescent tubes, and a universal power supply inside the light eliminates the need for ballast. Super High Output surface mount device LEDs are employed to provide 50,000+ hours of lifetime at high-efficacy of >100lms/watt. Exceptional thermal management is achieved with an aluminium core LED PCB which is thermally bonded to the ribbed aluminium heat sink with a ‘D’ channel extrusion. The outer shell is a robust design with a shatterproof polycarbonate lens available in clear, ribbed or frosted. Solid brass, nickel-plated terminal pins are installed in tough polycarbonate end- caps that are fastened with screws to the aluminium core. Measured Lamp Electrical Values Measured Lamp Photometric Values Voltage: 120.0 V Radiant Flux: 4749 mW Current: 0.174 A Luminous Flux: 1778 Lumens Watts: 18.03 W Lamp Efficacy: 98.6 Lumens per Watt Power Factor: 0.903 CCT: 4154 K Temperature: 25.0 °C CRI (Ra): 81.2 Chromaticity (x): 0.3763 Chromaticity (y): 0.3829 Chromaticity (u'): 0.2200 Chromaticity (v'): 0.5037 Duv: 0.0037 ©2012 IP UtiliNET, LLC – All Rights Reserved 10
  • 11. Target Market IP UtiliNET Energy Services provides LED relamping and custom lighting services to individual site and campus customers who seek to reduce acquisition, operations, and maintenance costs. In an era of budgetary consciousness, our team is focused on solutions that reduce budgetary consumption. We are focused on solutions at the campus and individual building level. With a widening range of Federal, State & Local, and Enterprise customers we continue to excel through focused services to our customer base. Our customers use our factual data and professional evaluations to make LED migration decisions. Our assessments and recommendations are property inclusive. In all cases, we carefully evaluate our customers’ existing facility, external, and parking lot lighting needs. We then issue a detailed financial summary with supporting work detail for comparative purposes. With a GO decision, we conduct the work and remove the excess for environmentally beneficial disposal. Simple, Sustainable, Smart ©2012 IP UtiliNET, LLC – All Rights Reserved 11
  • 12. Summary LED technology is the next generation of lighting technology and delivers significant energy and environmental benefit to customers. We are helping to address the question of how to move forward, while our customers make decisions on when. In creating this paper, we wanted to clarify some of the decision points regarding fluorescent versus LED tube lamps. This is especially important for the customer who is considering proprietary and dedicated T5 replacement. We recommend that our customers also closely examine the current and expected price increases that are resulting from Rare Earth price increases. The economic and environmental choice is clearly LED. Many of the lighting manufacturers and service providers are fighting this technology as it will affect their business and industry. They will yield over time, especially as the informed buyer is armed with facts that lead to a decision to move forward. Soon, and driven by decision makers armed with factual data, the services industry will realize that LED solutions offer wholly new opportunities to create more ergonomic and efficient workplaces.  We would appreciate the opportunity to serve you well IP UtiliNET Energy Services PO Box 1802 Buford, GA 30519 USA Email: info@iputilinet.com Website: http://www.iputilinet.com Tel: 877-901-6947 Fax: 678-954-6915 ©2012 IP UtiliNET, LLC – All Rights Reserved 12