SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Electric Charge, Forces, and Fields
Electric Charge We already know: Electric charge is a fundamental property of matter There are two electric charges: positive or negative (arbitrarily named) The atom consists of a small positive nucleus surrounded by a negative electron cloud
Electric Charge Like charges repel; unlike charges attract. As with Mass/Energy:  Charge is conserved The net charge of an isolated system remains constant. This is another fundamental law in physics
Electric Charge SI unit of charge: the coulomb, C. All charges in nature are integer multiples of the charge on the electron:
Conductors Most atoms hold on to their electrons tightly and are insulators. In aluminum, the valence electrons are essentially free and strongly repel each other. Any external influence which moves one of them will cause a repulsion of other electrons which propagates, "domino fashion" through the conductor.  In a conducting material, the outer electrons of the atoms are loosely bound and free to move through the material.
Conductors ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Electrostatic Charging Objects can have excess charge of one polarity or another. An electroscope may be used to determine if an object is electrically charged.
Electrostatic Charging An electroscope can be given a net charge by conduction – when it is touched with a charged object, the excess charges flow freely onto the electroscope.
Electric Force The force exerted by one charged particle on another is given by:
Electric Force If there are multiple charges, the force vectors must be added to get the net force on another charge. We can say that charges produce an “electric field” (and similarly, masses produce a “gravitational field”). The field describes the force felt by a test charge if it were placed into the field
Electric Field Definition of the electric field: force on a charge if there were a charge The direction of the field is the direction the force would be on a positive charge. 
Electric Field Charges create electric fields, and these fields in turn exert electric forces on other charges. Electric field of a point charge: (Pointing away from the charge)
Electric Field For multiple charges, the total electric field is found using the superposition principle: For a configuration of charges, the total, or net, electric field at any point is the vector sum of the electric fields due to the individual charges.
Electric Field Example: electric field from three point charges Three point charges are located on a circular arc as shown in the figure below. (Take  r  = 3 cm. Let to the right be the + x  direction and up along the screen be the + y  direction.) Answer: from symmetry, E has no y-component, the x component is given by: = same field as if a single charge with +1 nC was located at the point where the negative charge is
Electric Field ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],It’s convenient to represent the electric field using electric field lines. These lines are drawn so the field is along the line at every point.
Electric Field: examples Electric field lines of a dipole: A dipole is an arrangement of charge with positive charge on one end and negative charge on the other.  From far away, the dipole is “invisible”, i.e. it looks neutral.  Close to the dipole, the electric field looks as drawn on the left.
Electric Field: examples Electric field lines of a dipole: Threads in oil with two charged spheres: threads have electric dipole and so line up with field, can “see” electric fierd lines
Electric Field: examples Electric field lines due to very large parallel plates: Superposition: fields not normal to surface cancel
Electric Field: examples ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Electric Field Often, tricks and symmetry considerations can help us find electric fields in a problem. Consider equal 8 charges arranged equally spaced around a circle: What’s E-field at P, center of the circle?  What if we take one charge away? Taking one charge away is the same as adding a negative charge to that position. Superposition principle says the E-field is the same as the field coming from one negative charge
Conductors and Electric Fields Electric charges are free to move within a conductor; therefore, there cannot be a static field within the conductor: 1) The electric field is zero inside a conductor Excess charges on a conductor will repel each other, and will wind up being as far apart as possible. 2) Any excess charge on a conductor resides entirely on the surface of the conductor There cannot be any component of the electric field parallel to the surface of a conductor; otherwise charges would move. 3) The electric field at the surface of a charged conductor is perpendicular to the surface
Conductors and Electric Fields
Conductors and Electric Fields The force from neighboring charges is less when the curvature of the surface is large: Excess charge tends to accumulate at sharp points, or locations of highest curvature, on charged conductors. As a result, the electric field is greatest at such locations.
Conductors and Electric Fields Electric field is strongest near sharp points: That is why lightning rods have sharp points, and why lightning strikes buildings with sharp points. Lightning happens when an electric field in the Earths atmosphere becomes so large that electrons are ripped off of atoms in the air

More Related Content

What's hot

Electric charges
Electric chargesElectric charges
Electric charges
Zahra
 
Electric Potential
Electric PotentialElectric Potential
Electric Potential
Paula Mills
 
1.1 electric charge
1.1 electric charge1.1 electric charge
1.1 electric charge
sitizalina96
 
Coulombs Law
Coulombs LawCoulombs Law
Coulombs Law
guestfda040
 
Ppt djy 2011 topic 5.1 electric potential difference sl
Ppt djy 2011   topic 5.1 electric potential difference slPpt djy 2011   topic 5.1 electric potential difference sl
Ppt djy 2011 topic 5.1 electric potential difference sl
David Young
 
Electrostatics
ElectrostaticsElectrostatics
Electrostatics
walt sautter
 
7.4 electromotive force and internal resistance
7.4 electromotive force and internal resistance7.4 electromotive force and internal resistance
7.4 electromotive force and internal resistance
Adlishah Risal Bili
 
Electrostatics
ElectrostaticsElectrostatics
Electrostatics
ermanoj1466
 
Electric potential difference (voltage)
Electric potential difference (voltage)Electric potential difference (voltage)
Electric potential difference (voltage)
Jean Tralala
 
Class 12th physics current electricity ppt
Class 12th physics current electricity ppt Class 12th physics current electricity ppt
Class 12th physics current electricity ppt
Arpit Meena
 
1 ELECTROSTATICS
1 ELECTROSTATICS1 ELECTROSTATICS
1 ELECTROSTATICS
Sheeba vinilan
 
Lorentz Force Magnetic Force on a moving charge in uniform Electric and Mag...
Lorentz Force  Magnetic Force on a moving charge in uniform  Electric and Mag...Lorentz Force  Magnetic Force on a moving charge in uniform  Electric and Mag...
Lorentz Force Magnetic Force on a moving charge in uniform Electric and Mag...
Priyanka Jakhar
 
COULOMBS LAW
COULOMBS LAWCOULOMBS LAW
COULOMBS LAW
Sheeba vinilan
 
Magnetic Effects Of Current Class 12 Part-3
Magnetic Effects Of Current Class 12 Part-3Magnetic Effects Of Current Class 12 Part-3
Magnetic Effects Of Current Class 12 Part-3
Self-employed
 
Ch19 electric field and electric potential final
Ch19 electric field and electric potential finalCh19 electric field and electric potential final
Ch19 electric field and electric potential final
Mpho PHAAHLA
 
KIRCHHOFF’S CURRENT LAW
KIRCHHOFF’S CURRENT LAWKIRCHHOFF’S CURRENT LAW
KIRCHHOFF’S CURRENT LAW
Siddhi Shrivas
 
faraday's law of induction
faraday's law of inductionfaraday's law of induction
faraday's law of induction
sonudj
 
Electromagnetic induction
Electromagnetic inductionElectromagnetic induction
Electromagnetic induction
AKRAM HABIB
 
Electromagnetic Induction
Electromagnetic InductionElectromagnetic Induction
Electromagnetic Induction
Greenwich Council
 
6.2 - Electric Force and field
6.2 - Electric Force and field6.2 - Electric Force and field
6.2 - Electric Force and field
simonandisa
 

What's hot (20)

Electric charges
Electric chargesElectric charges
Electric charges
 
Electric Potential
Electric PotentialElectric Potential
Electric Potential
 
1.1 electric charge
1.1 electric charge1.1 electric charge
1.1 electric charge
 
Coulombs Law
Coulombs LawCoulombs Law
Coulombs Law
 
Ppt djy 2011 topic 5.1 electric potential difference sl
Ppt djy 2011   topic 5.1 electric potential difference slPpt djy 2011   topic 5.1 electric potential difference sl
Ppt djy 2011 topic 5.1 electric potential difference sl
 
Electrostatics
ElectrostaticsElectrostatics
Electrostatics
 
7.4 electromotive force and internal resistance
7.4 electromotive force and internal resistance7.4 electromotive force and internal resistance
7.4 electromotive force and internal resistance
 
Electrostatics
ElectrostaticsElectrostatics
Electrostatics
 
Electric potential difference (voltage)
Electric potential difference (voltage)Electric potential difference (voltage)
Electric potential difference (voltage)
 
Class 12th physics current electricity ppt
Class 12th physics current electricity ppt Class 12th physics current electricity ppt
Class 12th physics current electricity ppt
 
1 ELECTROSTATICS
1 ELECTROSTATICS1 ELECTROSTATICS
1 ELECTROSTATICS
 
Lorentz Force Magnetic Force on a moving charge in uniform Electric and Mag...
Lorentz Force  Magnetic Force on a moving charge in uniform  Electric and Mag...Lorentz Force  Magnetic Force on a moving charge in uniform  Electric and Mag...
Lorentz Force Magnetic Force on a moving charge in uniform Electric and Mag...
 
COULOMBS LAW
COULOMBS LAWCOULOMBS LAW
COULOMBS LAW
 
Magnetic Effects Of Current Class 12 Part-3
Magnetic Effects Of Current Class 12 Part-3Magnetic Effects Of Current Class 12 Part-3
Magnetic Effects Of Current Class 12 Part-3
 
Ch19 electric field and electric potential final
Ch19 electric field and electric potential finalCh19 electric field and electric potential final
Ch19 electric field and electric potential final
 
KIRCHHOFF’S CURRENT LAW
KIRCHHOFF’S CURRENT LAWKIRCHHOFF’S CURRENT LAW
KIRCHHOFF’S CURRENT LAW
 
faraday's law of induction
faraday's law of inductionfaraday's law of induction
faraday's law of induction
 
Electromagnetic induction
Electromagnetic inductionElectromagnetic induction
Electromagnetic induction
 
Electromagnetic Induction
Electromagnetic InductionElectromagnetic Induction
Electromagnetic Induction
 
6.2 - Electric Force and field
6.2 - Electric Force and field6.2 - Electric Force and field
6.2 - Electric Force and field
 

Viewers also liked

Electric Charges, Forces and Fields
Electric Charges,Forces and FieldsElectric Charges,Forces and Fields
Electric Charges, Forces and Fields
avocado1111
 
Chapter16 : Electric Force and Field
Chapter16 : Electric Force and FieldChapter16 : Electric Force and Field
Chapter16 : Electric Force and Field
Said Azar
 
electric field, (dipoles)
  electric field, (dipoles)  electric field, (dipoles)
electric field, (dipoles)
Abhinay Potlabathini
 
Ap physics b_-_electric_fields_and_forces
Ap physics b_-_electric_fields_and_forcesAp physics b_-_electric_fields_and_forces
Ap physics b_-_electric_fields_and_forces
Arvenz Gavino
 
Ch 18 Electric Fields
Ch 18 Electric FieldsCh 18 Electric Fields
Ch 18 Electric Fields
Scott Thomas
 
Electric Forces and Fields
Electric Forces and FieldsElectric Forces and Fields
Electric Forces and Fields
ZBTHS
 

Viewers also liked (6)

Electric Charges, Forces and Fields
Electric Charges,Forces and FieldsElectric Charges,Forces and Fields
Electric Charges, Forces and Fields
 
Chapter16 : Electric Force and Field
Chapter16 : Electric Force and FieldChapter16 : Electric Force and Field
Chapter16 : Electric Force and Field
 
electric field, (dipoles)
  electric field, (dipoles)  electric field, (dipoles)
electric field, (dipoles)
 
Ap physics b_-_electric_fields_and_forces
Ap physics b_-_electric_fields_and_forcesAp physics b_-_electric_fields_and_forces
Ap physics b_-_electric_fields_and_forces
 
Ch 18 Electric Fields
Ch 18 Electric FieldsCh 18 Electric Fields
Ch 18 Electric Fields
 
Electric Forces and Fields
Electric Forces and FieldsElectric Forces and Fields
Electric Forces and Fields
 

Similar to Lecture19 electriccharge

ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISMELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
KANNAN
 
ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISMELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
guest25cc9d
 
Section2revision
Section2revisionSection2revision
Section2revision
Paula Mills
 
coulombs-law.ppt
coulombs-law.pptcoulombs-law.ppt
coulombs-law.ppt
TwinkleStar53
 
Diploma i boee u 1 electrostatic and capacitance
Diploma i boee u 1 electrostatic and capacitanceDiploma i boee u 1 electrostatic and capacitance
Diploma i boee u 1 electrostatic and capacitance
Rai University
 
Exp SPA - Chp 16 Static Electricity
Exp SPA - Chp 16 Static ElectricityExp SPA - Chp 16 Static Electricity
Exp SPA - Chp 16 Static Electricity
harrywwh
 
Electric field dd
Electric field ddElectric field dd
Electric field dd
John Nikko Sasa
 
Final akshay
Final akshay Final akshay
Final akshay
akshay1234kumar
 
Physics
PhysicsPhysics
Electricfields
ElectricfieldsElectricfields
Electricfields
MohemmadBashierHaj
 
PHYSICS 2 ELECTRICITY MAGNETISM OPTICS AND MODERN PHYSICS.pdf
PHYSICS 2 ELECTRICITY MAGNETISM OPTICS AND MODERN PHYSICS.pdfPHYSICS 2 ELECTRICITY MAGNETISM OPTICS AND MODERN PHYSICS.pdf
PHYSICS 2 ELECTRICITY MAGNETISM OPTICS AND MODERN PHYSICS.pdf
Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Electric field
Electric fieldElectric field
Electric field
imtiazalijoono
 
5.1
5.15.1
General Physics 2.pptx
General Physics 2.pptxGeneral Physics 2.pptx
General Physics 2.pptx
ssuserc87763
 
Electric field dd.pptsss
Electric field dd.pptsssElectric field dd.pptsss
Electric field dd.pptsss
John Nikko Sasa
 
Ch6 electricity
Ch6 electricityCh6 electricity
Stem Grade 12 - Physics 2 -Electric-Fields-and-Energy.pptx
Stem Grade 12 - Physics 2 -Electric-Fields-and-Energy.pptxStem Grade 12 - Physics 2 -Electric-Fields-and-Energy.pptx
Stem Grade 12 - Physics 2 -Electric-Fields-and-Energy.pptx
judithrowenadelacruz
 
electric charge and electric field
electric charge and electric fieldelectric charge and electric field
electric charge and electric field
candice santiago
 
Electricity magnetism & electromagnetic induction
Electricity magnetism & electromagnetic inductionElectricity magnetism & electromagnetic induction
Electricity magnetism & electromagnetic induction
Anita Malhotra
 
Electrostatics
ElectrostaticsElectrostatics
Electrostatics
Chris Bush
 

Similar to Lecture19 electriccharge (20)

ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISMELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
 
ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISMELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
 
Section2revision
Section2revisionSection2revision
Section2revision
 
coulombs-law.ppt
coulombs-law.pptcoulombs-law.ppt
coulombs-law.ppt
 
Diploma i boee u 1 electrostatic and capacitance
Diploma i boee u 1 electrostatic and capacitanceDiploma i boee u 1 electrostatic and capacitance
Diploma i boee u 1 electrostatic and capacitance
 
Exp SPA - Chp 16 Static Electricity
Exp SPA - Chp 16 Static ElectricityExp SPA - Chp 16 Static Electricity
Exp SPA - Chp 16 Static Electricity
 
Electric field dd
Electric field ddElectric field dd
Electric field dd
 
Final akshay
Final akshay Final akshay
Final akshay
 
Physics
PhysicsPhysics
Physics
 
Electricfields
ElectricfieldsElectricfields
Electricfields
 
PHYSICS 2 ELECTRICITY MAGNETISM OPTICS AND MODERN PHYSICS.pdf
PHYSICS 2 ELECTRICITY MAGNETISM OPTICS AND MODERN PHYSICS.pdfPHYSICS 2 ELECTRICITY MAGNETISM OPTICS AND MODERN PHYSICS.pdf
PHYSICS 2 ELECTRICITY MAGNETISM OPTICS AND MODERN PHYSICS.pdf
 
Electric field
Electric fieldElectric field
Electric field
 
5.1
5.15.1
5.1
 
General Physics 2.pptx
General Physics 2.pptxGeneral Physics 2.pptx
General Physics 2.pptx
 
Electric field dd.pptsss
Electric field dd.pptsssElectric field dd.pptsss
Electric field dd.pptsss
 
Ch6 electricity
Ch6 electricityCh6 electricity
Ch6 electricity
 
Stem Grade 12 - Physics 2 -Electric-Fields-and-Energy.pptx
Stem Grade 12 - Physics 2 -Electric-Fields-and-Energy.pptxStem Grade 12 - Physics 2 -Electric-Fields-and-Energy.pptx
Stem Grade 12 - Physics 2 -Electric-Fields-and-Energy.pptx
 
electric charge and electric field
electric charge and electric fieldelectric charge and electric field
electric charge and electric field
 
Electricity magnetism & electromagnetic induction
Electricity magnetism & electromagnetic inductionElectricity magnetism & electromagnetic induction
Electricity magnetism & electromagnetic induction
 
Electrostatics
ElectrostaticsElectrostatics
Electrostatics
 

More from Alex Klein

Yoga trailinfographics
Yoga trailinfographicsYoga trailinfographics
Yoga trailinfographics
Alex Klein
 
Lecture26 transistors
Lecture26 transistorsLecture26 transistors
Lecture26 transistors
Alex Klein
 
Lecture25 ac circuits
Lecture25 ac circuitsLecture25 ac circuits
Lecture25 ac circuits
Alex Klein
 
Lecture24 basiccircuits
Lecture24 basiccircuitsLecture24 basiccircuits
Lecture24 basiccircuits
Alex Klein
 
Lecture23 ohmslaw
Lecture23 ohmslawLecture23 ohmslaw
Lecture23 ohmslaw
Alex Klein
 
Lecture13 motion
Lecture13 motionLecture13 motion
Lecture13 motion
Alex Klein
 
Lecture12 physicsintro
Lecture12 physicsintroLecture12 physicsintro
Lecture12 physicsintro
Alex Klein
 
Lecture13 motion
Lecture13 motionLecture13 motion
Lecture13 motion
Alex Klein
 
Lecuture23 currentohmslaw
Lecuture23 currentohmslawLecuture23 currentohmslaw
Lecuture23 currentohmslaw
Alex Klein
 
Lecture24 basiccircuits
Lecture24 basiccircuitsLecture24 basiccircuits
Lecture24 basiccircuits
Alex Klein
 
Lecture21 potential
Lecture21 potentialLecture21 potential
Lecture21 potential
Alex Klein
 
Lecture20 electrostatics
Lecture20 electrostaticsLecture20 electrostatics
Lecture20 electrostatics
Alex Klein
 
Lecture18 mechanics summary
Lecture18 mechanics summaryLecture18 mechanics summary
Lecture18 mechanics summary
Alex Klein
 
Lecture17 energy
Lecture17 energyLecture17 energy
Lecture17 energy
Alex Klein
 
Lecture16 friction
Lecture16 frictionLecture16 friction
Lecture16 friction
Alex Klein
 
Lecture15 forces
Lecture15 forcesLecture15 forces
Lecture15 forces
Alex Klein
 
Lecture14motion2 d
Lecture14motion2 dLecture14motion2 d
Lecture14motion2 d
Alex Klein
 
Lecture22 capacitance
Lecture22 capacitanceLecture22 capacitance
Lecture22 capacitance
Alex Klein
 

More from Alex Klein (18)

Yoga trailinfographics
Yoga trailinfographicsYoga trailinfographics
Yoga trailinfographics
 
Lecture26 transistors
Lecture26 transistorsLecture26 transistors
Lecture26 transistors
 
Lecture25 ac circuits
Lecture25 ac circuitsLecture25 ac circuits
Lecture25 ac circuits
 
Lecture24 basiccircuits
Lecture24 basiccircuitsLecture24 basiccircuits
Lecture24 basiccircuits
 
Lecture23 ohmslaw
Lecture23 ohmslawLecture23 ohmslaw
Lecture23 ohmslaw
 
Lecture13 motion
Lecture13 motionLecture13 motion
Lecture13 motion
 
Lecture12 physicsintro
Lecture12 physicsintroLecture12 physicsintro
Lecture12 physicsintro
 
Lecture13 motion
Lecture13 motionLecture13 motion
Lecture13 motion
 
Lecuture23 currentohmslaw
Lecuture23 currentohmslawLecuture23 currentohmslaw
Lecuture23 currentohmslaw
 
Lecture24 basiccircuits
Lecture24 basiccircuitsLecture24 basiccircuits
Lecture24 basiccircuits
 
Lecture21 potential
Lecture21 potentialLecture21 potential
Lecture21 potential
 
Lecture20 electrostatics
Lecture20 electrostaticsLecture20 electrostatics
Lecture20 electrostatics
 
Lecture18 mechanics summary
Lecture18 mechanics summaryLecture18 mechanics summary
Lecture18 mechanics summary
 
Lecture17 energy
Lecture17 energyLecture17 energy
Lecture17 energy
 
Lecture16 friction
Lecture16 frictionLecture16 friction
Lecture16 friction
 
Lecture15 forces
Lecture15 forcesLecture15 forces
Lecture15 forces
 
Lecture14motion2 d
Lecture14motion2 dLecture14motion2 d
Lecture14motion2 d
 
Lecture22 capacitance
Lecture22 capacitanceLecture22 capacitance
Lecture22 capacitance
 

Recently uploaded

Leveraging the Graph for Clinical Trials and Standards
Leveraging the Graph for Clinical Trials and StandardsLeveraging the Graph for Clinical Trials and Standards
Leveraging the Graph for Clinical Trials and Standards
Neo4j
 
Deep Dive: AI-Powered Marketing to Get More Leads and Customers with HyperGro...
Deep Dive: AI-Powered Marketing to Get More Leads and Customers with HyperGro...Deep Dive: AI-Powered Marketing to Get More Leads and Customers with HyperGro...
Deep Dive: AI-Powered Marketing to Get More Leads and Customers with HyperGro...
saastr
 
June Patch Tuesday
June Patch TuesdayJune Patch Tuesday
June Patch Tuesday
Ivanti
 
Main news related to the CCS TSI 2023 (2023/1695)
Main news related to the CCS TSI 2023 (2023/1695)Main news related to the CCS TSI 2023 (2023/1695)
Main news related to the CCS TSI 2023 (2023/1695)
Jakub Marek
 
TrustArc Webinar - 2024 Global Privacy Survey
TrustArc Webinar - 2024 Global Privacy SurveyTrustArc Webinar - 2024 Global Privacy Survey
TrustArc Webinar - 2024 Global Privacy Survey
TrustArc
 
Digital Banking in the Cloud: How Citizens Bank Unlocked Their Mainframe
Digital Banking in the Cloud: How Citizens Bank Unlocked Their MainframeDigital Banking in the Cloud: How Citizens Bank Unlocked Their Mainframe
Digital Banking in the Cloud: How Citizens Bank Unlocked Their Mainframe
Precisely
 
GraphRAG for LifeSciences Hands-On with the Clinical Knowledge Graph
GraphRAG for LifeSciences Hands-On with the Clinical Knowledge GraphGraphRAG for LifeSciences Hands-On with the Clinical Knowledge Graph
GraphRAG for LifeSciences Hands-On with the Clinical Knowledge Graph
Neo4j
 
Programming Foundation Models with DSPy - Meetup Slides
Programming Foundation Models with DSPy - Meetup SlidesProgramming Foundation Models with DSPy - Meetup Slides
Programming Foundation Models with DSPy - Meetup Slides
Zilliz
 
GNSS spoofing via SDR (Criptored Talks 2024)
GNSS spoofing via SDR (Criptored Talks 2024)GNSS spoofing via SDR (Criptored Talks 2024)
GNSS spoofing via SDR (Criptored Talks 2024)
Javier Junquera
 
5th LF Energy Power Grid Model Meet-up Slides
5th LF Energy Power Grid Model Meet-up Slides5th LF Energy Power Grid Model Meet-up Slides
5th LF Energy Power Grid Model Meet-up Slides
DanBrown980551
 
“Temporal Event Neural Networks: A More Efficient Alternative to the Transfor...
“Temporal Event Neural Networks: A More Efficient Alternative to the Transfor...“Temporal Event Neural Networks: A More Efficient Alternative to the Transfor...
“Temporal Event Neural Networks: A More Efficient Alternative to the Transfor...
Edge AI and Vision Alliance
 
[OReilly Superstream] Occupy the Space: A grassroots guide to engineering (an...
[OReilly Superstream] Occupy the Space: A grassroots guide to engineering (an...[OReilly Superstream] Occupy the Space: A grassroots guide to engineering (an...
[OReilly Superstream] Occupy the Space: A grassroots guide to engineering (an...
Jason Yip
 
“How Axelera AI Uses Digital Compute-in-memory to Deliver Fast and Energy-eff...
“How Axelera AI Uses Digital Compute-in-memory to Deliver Fast and Energy-eff...“How Axelera AI Uses Digital Compute-in-memory to Deliver Fast and Energy-eff...
“How Axelera AI Uses Digital Compute-in-memory to Deliver Fast and Energy-eff...
Edge AI and Vision Alliance
 
Digital Marketing Trends in 2024 | Guide for Staying Ahead
Digital Marketing Trends in 2024 | Guide for Staying AheadDigital Marketing Trends in 2024 | Guide for Staying Ahead
Digital Marketing Trends in 2024 | Guide for Staying Ahead
Wask
 
Presentation of the OECD Artificial Intelligence Review of Germany
Presentation of the OECD Artificial Intelligence Review of GermanyPresentation of the OECD Artificial Intelligence Review of Germany
Presentation of the OECD Artificial Intelligence Review of Germany
innovationoecd
 
FREE A4 Cyber Security Awareness Posters-Social Engineering part 3
FREE A4 Cyber Security Awareness  Posters-Social Engineering part 3FREE A4 Cyber Security Awareness  Posters-Social Engineering part 3
FREE A4 Cyber Security Awareness Posters-Social Engineering part 3
Data Hops
 
The Microsoft 365 Migration Tutorial For Beginner.pptx
The Microsoft 365 Migration Tutorial For Beginner.pptxThe Microsoft 365 Migration Tutorial For Beginner.pptx
The Microsoft 365 Migration Tutorial For Beginner.pptx
operationspcvita
 
What is an RPA CoE? Session 1 – CoE Vision
What is an RPA CoE?  Session 1 – CoE VisionWhat is an RPA CoE?  Session 1 – CoE Vision
What is an RPA CoE? Session 1 – CoE Vision
DianaGray10
 
HCL Notes und Domino Lizenzkostenreduzierung in der Welt von DLAU
HCL Notes und Domino Lizenzkostenreduzierung in der Welt von DLAUHCL Notes und Domino Lizenzkostenreduzierung in der Welt von DLAU
HCL Notes und Domino Lizenzkostenreduzierung in der Welt von DLAU
panagenda
 
9 CEO's who hit $100m ARR Share Their Top Growth Tactics Nathan Latka, Founde...
9 CEO's who hit $100m ARR Share Their Top Growth Tactics Nathan Latka, Founde...9 CEO's who hit $100m ARR Share Their Top Growth Tactics Nathan Latka, Founde...
9 CEO's who hit $100m ARR Share Their Top Growth Tactics Nathan Latka, Founde...
saastr
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Leveraging the Graph for Clinical Trials and Standards
Leveraging the Graph for Clinical Trials and StandardsLeveraging the Graph for Clinical Trials and Standards
Leveraging the Graph for Clinical Trials and Standards
 
Deep Dive: AI-Powered Marketing to Get More Leads and Customers with HyperGro...
Deep Dive: AI-Powered Marketing to Get More Leads and Customers with HyperGro...Deep Dive: AI-Powered Marketing to Get More Leads and Customers with HyperGro...
Deep Dive: AI-Powered Marketing to Get More Leads and Customers with HyperGro...
 
June Patch Tuesday
June Patch TuesdayJune Patch Tuesday
June Patch Tuesday
 
Main news related to the CCS TSI 2023 (2023/1695)
Main news related to the CCS TSI 2023 (2023/1695)Main news related to the CCS TSI 2023 (2023/1695)
Main news related to the CCS TSI 2023 (2023/1695)
 
TrustArc Webinar - 2024 Global Privacy Survey
TrustArc Webinar - 2024 Global Privacy SurveyTrustArc Webinar - 2024 Global Privacy Survey
TrustArc Webinar - 2024 Global Privacy Survey
 
Digital Banking in the Cloud: How Citizens Bank Unlocked Their Mainframe
Digital Banking in the Cloud: How Citizens Bank Unlocked Their MainframeDigital Banking in the Cloud: How Citizens Bank Unlocked Their Mainframe
Digital Banking in the Cloud: How Citizens Bank Unlocked Their Mainframe
 
GraphRAG for LifeSciences Hands-On with the Clinical Knowledge Graph
GraphRAG for LifeSciences Hands-On with the Clinical Knowledge GraphGraphRAG for LifeSciences Hands-On with the Clinical Knowledge Graph
GraphRAG for LifeSciences Hands-On with the Clinical Knowledge Graph
 
Programming Foundation Models with DSPy - Meetup Slides
Programming Foundation Models with DSPy - Meetup SlidesProgramming Foundation Models with DSPy - Meetup Slides
Programming Foundation Models with DSPy - Meetup Slides
 
GNSS spoofing via SDR (Criptored Talks 2024)
GNSS spoofing via SDR (Criptored Talks 2024)GNSS spoofing via SDR (Criptored Talks 2024)
GNSS spoofing via SDR (Criptored Talks 2024)
 
5th LF Energy Power Grid Model Meet-up Slides
5th LF Energy Power Grid Model Meet-up Slides5th LF Energy Power Grid Model Meet-up Slides
5th LF Energy Power Grid Model Meet-up Slides
 
“Temporal Event Neural Networks: A More Efficient Alternative to the Transfor...
“Temporal Event Neural Networks: A More Efficient Alternative to the Transfor...“Temporal Event Neural Networks: A More Efficient Alternative to the Transfor...
“Temporal Event Neural Networks: A More Efficient Alternative to the Transfor...
 
[OReilly Superstream] Occupy the Space: A grassroots guide to engineering (an...
[OReilly Superstream] Occupy the Space: A grassroots guide to engineering (an...[OReilly Superstream] Occupy the Space: A grassroots guide to engineering (an...
[OReilly Superstream] Occupy the Space: A grassroots guide to engineering (an...
 
“How Axelera AI Uses Digital Compute-in-memory to Deliver Fast and Energy-eff...
“How Axelera AI Uses Digital Compute-in-memory to Deliver Fast and Energy-eff...“How Axelera AI Uses Digital Compute-in-memory to Deliver Fast and Energy-eff...
“How Axelera AI Uses Digital Compute-in-memory to Deliver Fast and Energy-eff...
 
Digital Marketing Trends in 2024 | Guide for Staying Ahead
Digital Marketing Trends in 2024 | Guide for Staying AheadDigital Marketing Trends in 2024 | Guide for Staying Ahead
Digital Marketing Trends in 2024 | Guide for Staying Ahead
 
Presentation of the OECD Artificial Intelligence Review of Germany
Presentation of the OECD Artificial Intelligence Review of GermanyPresentation of the OECD Artificial Intelligence Review of Germany
Presentation of the OECD Artificial Intelligence Review of Germany
 
FREE A4 Cyber Security Awareness Posters-Social Engineering part 3
FREE A4 Cyber Security Awareness  Posters-Social Engineering part 3FREE A4 Cyber Security Awareness  Posters-Social Engineering part 3
FREE A4 Cyber Security Awareness Posters-Social Engineering part 3
 
The Microsoft 365 Migration Tutorial For Beginner.pptx
The Microsoft 365 Migration Tutorial For Beginner.pptxThe Microsoft 365 Migration Tutorial For Beginner.pptx
The Microsoft 365 Migration Tutorial For Beginner.pptx
 
What is an RPA CoE? Session 1 – CoE Vision
What is an RPA CoE?  Session 1 – CoE VisionWhat is an RPA CoE?  Session 1 – CoE Vision
What is an RPA CoE? Session 1 – CoE Vision
 
HCL Notes und Domino Lizenzkostenreduzierung in der Welt von DLAU
HCL Notes und Domino Lizenzkostenreduzierung in der Welt von DLAUHCL Notes und Domino Lizenzkostenreduzierung in der Welt von DLAU
HCL Notes und Domino Lizenzkostenreduzierung in der Welt von DLAU
 
9 CEO's who hit $100m ARR Share Their Top Growth Tactics Nathan Latka, Founde...
9 CEO's who hit $100m ARR Share Their Top Growth Tactics Nathan Latka, Founde...9 CEO's who hit $100m ARR Share Their Top Growth Tactics Nathan Latka, Founde...
9 CEO's who hit $100m ARR Share Their Top Growth Tactics Nathan Latka, Founde...
 

Lecture19 electriccharge

  • 2. Electric Charge We already know: Electric charge is a fundamental property of matter There are two electric charges: positive or negative (arbitrarily named) The atom consists of a small positive nucleus surrounded by a negative electron cloud
  • 3. Electric Charge Like charges repel; unlike charges attract. As with Mass/Energy: Charge is conserved The net charge of an isolated system remains constant. This is another fundamental law in physics
  • 4. Electric Charge SI unit of charge: the coulomb, C. All charges in nature are integer multiples of the charge on the electron:
  • 5. Conductors Most atoms hold on to their electrons tightly and are insulators. In aluminum, the valence electrons are essentially free and strongly repel each other. Any external influence which moves one of them will cause a repulsion of other electrons which propagates, "domino fashion" through the conductor. In a conducting material, the outer electrons of the atoms are loosely bound and free to move through the material.
  • 6.
  • 7. Electrostatic Charging Objects can have excess charge of one polarity or another. An electroscope may be used to determine if an object is electrically charged.
  • 8. Electrostatic Charging An electroscope can be given a net charge by conduction – when it is touched with a charged object, the excess charges flow freely onto the electroscope.
  • 9. Electric Force The force exerted by one charged particle on another is given by:
  • 10. Electric Force If there are multiple charges, the force vectors must be added to get the net force on another charge. We can say that charges produce an “electric field” (and similarly, masses produce a “gravitational field”). The field describes the force felt by a test charge if it were placed into the field
  • 11. Electric Field Definition of the electric field: force on a charge if there were a charge The direction of the field is the direction the force would be on a positive charge. 
  • 12. Electric Field Charges create electric fields, and these fields in turn exert electric forces on other charges. Electric field of a point charge: (Pointing away from the charge)
  • 13. Electric Field For multiple charges, the total electric field is found using the superposition principle: For a configuration of charges, the total, or net, electric field at any point is the vector sum of the electric fields due to the individual charges.
  • 14. Electric Field Example: electric field from three point charges Three point charges are located on a circular arc as shown in the figure below. (Take  r  = 3 cm. Let to the right be the + x direction and up along the screen be the + y  direction.) Answer: from symmetry, E has no y-component, the x component is given by: = same field as if a single charge with +1 nC was located at the point where the negative charge is
  • 15.
  • 16. Electric Field: examples Electric field lines of a dipole: A dipole is an arrangement of charge with positive charge on one end and negative charge on the other. From far away, the dipole is “invisible”, i.e. it looks neutral. Close to the dipole, the electric field looks as drawn on the left.
  • 17. Electric Field: examples Electric field lines of a dipole: Threads in oil with two charged spheres: threads have electric dipole and so line up with field, can “see” electric fierd lines
  • 18. Electric Field: examples Electric field lines due to very large parallel plates: Superposition: fields not normal to surface cancel
  • 19.
  • 20. Electric Field Often, tricks and symmetry considerations can help us find electric fields in a problem. Consider equal 8 charges arranged equally spaced around a circle: What’s E-field at P, center of the circle? What if we take one charge away? Taking one charge away is the same as adding a negative charge to that position. Superposition principle says the E-field is the same as the field coming from one negative charge
  • 21. Conductors and Electric Fields Electric charges are free to move within a conductor; therefore, there cannot be a static field within the conductor: 1) The electric field is zero inside a conductor Excess charges on a conductor will repel each other, and will wind up being as far apart as possible. 2) Any excess charge on a conductor resides entirely on the surface of the conductor There cannot be any component of the electric field parallel to the surface of a conductor; otherwise charges would move. 3) The electric field at the surface of a charged conductor is perpendicular to the surface
  • 23. Conductors and Electric Fields The force from neighboring charges is less when the curvature of the surface is large: Excess charge tends to accumulate at sharp points, or locations of highest curvature, on charged conductors. As a result, the electric field is greatest at such locations.
  • 24. Conductors and Electric Fields Electric field is strongest near sharp points: That is why lightning rods have sharp points, and why lightning strikes buildings with sharp points. Lightning happens when an electric field in the Earths atmosphere becomes so large that electrons are ripped off of atoms in the air